Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [dna]

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

1
vote
1answer
89 views

Is Icke right about junk DNA?

This is an extract from David Icke's book "Remember where you are and where you come from": Mainstream science ridiculously labels between 90 and 97 percent of DNA " junk DNA". They do this because ...
1
vote
2answers
218 views

Why does asbestos cause cancer?

We are probably all familiar with the dangers of asbestos in your rooftop or in various pieces of old equipment as it has been shown that the microscopic asbestos particles reach our lungs and can ...
7
votes
1answer
178 views

Do organisms have a mechanism to control how fast mutations occur?

Sometimes the environment and other species can change rapidly (climate changes, changes in terrains from erosion, new river paths, etc), and it seems like a regular slow mutation rate would be bad, ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

What does (-;-) after a gene mean?

I'm using Promethease to examine genome data originally downloaded from 23andMe. Some genes I notice do not show allele information (eg. (G;G), (C;G)) and instead seem to be blank (-;-) like in the ...
1
vote
0answers
21 views

Multi-protein drug treatments

Apologies if this an obvious question - I am very new to this. I am, as of now, under the impression that multiple SNP variations interact to create multiple mutated proteins, which ultimately results ...
1
vote
1answer
79 views

Interpreting qPCR curves: how to find Ct value in my case?

I am reading my qPCR results and having no idea why Ct value is returned like this: This is the qPCR curve of my samples, and the software returned Ct values of most of the curves as seen: 33.99-38.4 ...
2
votes
0answers
170 views

Why does cell waste energy in meiosis, between meiosis 1&2

As far as I have learnt about meiosis I have read that anaphase 1 is followed by telophase 2 where chromosomes change back to reticulum.but in the very next stage i.e prophase 2 they again start ...
3
votes
1answer
387 views

Stability of the chromosomes of thermophilic bacteria

We know thermophiles — generally archaebacteria — can survive high temperature, but their genomic DNA also contains hydrogen-bonded nitrogen bases. Why don't they collapse like ordinary hydrogen bonds?...
1
vote
0answers
93 views

Effect of UV radiation on retinoid (vitamin A) receptors in the skin

The retinoid receptors in the skin (face) can be disabled by UVA sun radiation as these study states : https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/03/990331063314.htm In this article it says the same :...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

Non-cavitating ultrasound for denaturation of short strands of DNA (~20 bp)?

I know that there is existing research on ultrasound-induced transient cavitation bubbles that mechanically denature DNA by generating violent shock waves locally in solution. I would like to know ...
4
votes
1answer
564 views

Effect of mutation on phenotype

Is there a type of mutation that changes the phenotype of an organism, but not the protein sequence?
3
votes
1answer
675 views

What is the distinction between deoxyribonucleases and restriction enzymes?

Both deoxyribonucleases (DNases) and restriction enzymes are endonucleases (some DNases can be exonucleases). They both break the bonds between nucleotides. Therefore, what is the difference between ...
0
votes
1answer
515 views

Pros and cons of amino acid structure vs DNA sequences for evolutionary comparison [closed]

This is an analysis question for a lab on the amino acid differences in beta globin amongst different primates, and using such differences to construct a cladogram and infer evolutionary relationships ...
3
votes
1answer
244 views

What does the end of DNA look like?

EcoR I ........ 5'-GAATCC-3' BamH I ....... 5'-GGATCC-3' Hind III........ 5'-AAGCTT-3' The enzyme BamHI recognizes a palindromic sequence and leaves one strand longer than the other. A ...
0
votes
1answer
400 views

what is allelic sequence variation?

When DNA polymorphism occurs mutations can take place. If these mutations occur in the germ cell and do not destroy its capability to reproduce, it is said that the mutation might move on to the next ...
7
votes
3answers
251 views

How is a portion of DNA selected and unwound from nucleosome?

If I understand this correctly during interphase most of the DNA strand is tightly wound around histones in the form of nucleosomes, to conserve space in the nucleus. Yet RNA polymerase in order to ...
0
votes
1answer
686 views

All somatic cells contain the same genome, then how does it knows that it should develop into a specific organ?

All somatic cells contain the same genome, then how it knows that it should develop into a specific organ. In https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aeAL6xThfL8, Joe Hanson says that each cell has the same ...
0
votes
1answer
532 views

How much DNA do humans have?

A normal human body has approximately 3 billion base pairs. Given that humans have 10 trillion cells, how is that the number of base pairs of DNA is less than the number of cells? It can happen only ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Zygosity and Strands

I am not a biology expert but I have done some homework on understanding alleles, chromosomes, dna in the human genome. Still baffled by a question though: As I understand it at a particular locus ...
1
vote
1answer
1k views

What is the relationship between DNA molecules and the chromosomes? [closed]

Regarding the human genome, if the DNA molecule is two continuous strands, with each gene occupying a segment in it, and there are 46 chromosomes each with some genes, where is the physical boundary ...
6
votes
1answer
371 views

What do white blood cells do with FOREIGN white blood cells?

White blood cells or leukocytes are known to fight invaders, infections or basically anything foreign. They also contain DNA (while red blood cells don't). But what about foreign "white blood cells" ...
1
vote
0answers
43 views

Radiation dangerous or not? [duplicate]

I've always been told that most electronic devices such as WiFi/phones/laptops and such emit a non-ionizing radiation which is completely fine as it does not damage human DNA. I've been googling and i ...
1
vote
1answer
55 views

How much of my ancestry comes from each grandparent?

Three of my grandparents were Eastern European, back at least several generations. I recently discovered that I am less than 25% Eastern European, the rest being Western European and other. How likely ...
-1
votes
1answer
59 views

Diagnosing pathogenic illnesses with DNA analysis?

I am wondering if there are techniques for diagnosing pathogenic illnesses with DNA analysis. For example, imagine a person has a staph infection on their skin. A scraping could be taken and then ...
1
vote
1answer
38 views

HAR1 speedy mutation

From wiki: Human accelerated region 1 (HAR1) is a segment of the human genome found on the long arm of chromosome 20. It is a Human accelerated region. [..] These 49 regions represent parts of the ...
4
votes
0answers
122 views

Are there any alternatives to the Epicentre product Plasmid Safe?

I need to remove any traces of linear DNA (both single and double stranded) from a ligation reaction while keeping circular DNA intact. Up to now, I have used Epicentre's Plasmid Safe to do the job. I ...
37
votes
3answers
5k views

What does it mean to “write an image and GIF into the DNA of bacteria”?

BBC News recently published an article saying that: An image and short film has been encoded in DNA, using the units of inheritance as a medium for storing information ... The team sequenced the ...
6
votes
3answers
208 views

DNA as a digital storage medium; sequences algorithmically avoided for safety reasons (or should be)?

Safety for the environment is probably implicit here as well, but the focus should be on the people who may come in contact with large amounts of synthetic DNA used to encode information as a data ...
0
votes
0answers
51 views

What is the Biological Mechanism by Which a Red Heifer's Skin is Colored Red?

Obviously from this picture Picture of a Red Angus Heifer it is possible for there to be a red cow. So what is the biological mechanism that makes such a cow red? And why are regular cows only ...
2
votes
1answer
180 views

Why isn't there 1' to 2' direction or something else except 5' to 3' in dna replication? [duplicate]

I hope i would get logical answers. I request to post it as soon as possible.
2
votes
0answers
69 views

how DNA controls properties of cell? [closed]

My textbook says: DNA is the heredity material which controls the properties and potential activities of a cell. I couldn't understand how it controls properties of cell?
2
votes
0answers
73 views

What happens during fixation of Nucleic acids on nylon membrane

In Southern blotting technique, fixation of DNA to nylon membrane is a step prior to hybridisation with probe. It is done by baking at 80ºC and according to this cross linking between DNA and nylon ...
1
vote
3answers
80 views

Watermarks visible during DNA fingerprinting?

Let's say we have a human man that was somewhat genetically modified from the very beginning (conception?) by a team of scientists, and is also a product of careful selective breeding. They did this ...
2
votes
1answer
90 views

Do spermatozoa have mitochondria

This is something that I have heard/read so many different contradictory claims about over the years. In high school I was taught that sperm cells have a lot of mitochondria because they need a lot ...
1
vote
3answers
287 views

If a DNA letter is one of A,T,C and G, and there are 3 billion base pairs, why don't we say that there are 6 billion letters in the genome?

A DNA letter is either one of A,T,C or G. Human genome is supposed to have 3 billion base pairs coming from each parent. But these are pairs - a combination of A-T or C-G. So, doesn't that make the ...
2
votes
0answers
63 views

How many generations apart can a DNA test for blood relations be valid?

Suppose an American suspects he is a descendant of George Washington and he has a strand of hair of George Washington. Can a DNA test be done to prove that he is indeed a true descendant of the great ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

DNA base pair heading

Does it make ANY difference to which strand of DNA double helix base pair heads? I mean, could base pair AT and base pair TA makes any difference when interpreted by biochemical mechanisms which use ...
1
vote
2answers
155 views

Can DNA fingerprinting tell you if someone has been genetically engineered?

I am writing a fictional novel about an extensively genetically engineered man, unbeknownst to him, who gets into trouble on a regular basis. The man is physically large and strong, very fast (tiger-...
7
votes
2answers
616 views

How can someone share 50% of their DNA with their parents yet all humans share 99.9%?

I have heard that humans share 99.9% of their DNA with other humans. I have also heard that a child shares 50% of their DNA with their parents. How do I resolve this apparent contradiction? It has ...
1
vote
1answer
47 views

Does male or female DNA contain more information? [duplicate]

I wonder if the male or the female DNA contains more or less information than the other?
0
votes
0answers
266 views

Is there any evidence for the validity of RNA/DNA supplements?

Is there any evidence for the validity of RNA/DNA supplements? I've recently been seeing advertisements for RNA and DNA health supplements in the form of a pill, which claim to perform some rather ...
6
votes
1answer
110 views

How complete is the information in DNA?

Everyone talks about how DNA is the "molecule of life" and "the set of instructions for building you." How complete are the instructions, really, though? To make the question concrete, say I were to ...
2
votes
0answers
48 views

How many genes are needed for a living organism? [duplicate]

I am interested in this question as I'm doing research into early life on earth which is believed to have been single-celled. Therefore, by extension, it seems only logical that the first life would ...
0
votes
1answer
37 views

Size of deoxyribonucleotide

What is the diameter of each type of deoxyribonucleotide (if the types are significantly different in diameter, if they are fairly similar one value would suffice)? I.e., if a hole was to be created ...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Maximum parsimony tree - Am I right, or is the correction model right?

Alright. Monday we have a test, and now I was making a practise test. We have to make a maximum parsimony tree. We must do that monday again, so I want to know if I am thinking wrong, or if the ...
2
votes
2answers
543 views

Why is lower case used in front of a capitalized acronym (e.g. rDNA)?

Examples: rDNA, mRNA, tRNA. Why do we use small case for "r" in "rDNA", etc? Any particular reason?
0
votes
1answer
226 views

Function and Characterization of poly(T) and (AT)

I came across three terms; "poly(T)45", "poly(A)45" and "(AT)15". Can anyone explain what they are? I know the number refers to strand length, possibly poly-T is a strand of thymine monomers and that ...
0
votes
1answer
65 views

Have we succeeded in building a living organism from inanimate material?

Following the Miller-Urey experiment where we were able to produce organic compounds with basic primitive atmospheric gases, high potential and water in a closed system. Have we been able to create a ...
0
votes
1answer
85 views

Why high quality DNA should be between 10 and 20 kb?

On this website, they are saying that, when using a gel electrophoresis to assess DNA quality, : High quality genomic DNA should give a major band of 10-20 kb on the gel. Why is that so? I ...
3
votes
1answer
583 views

Why does crossing over take place at all?

I already know that crossing over causes genetic variation. My question is that since DNA is a stable molecule, why would it undergo process like crossing over during which it becomes so unstable and ...