Questions tagged [dna]

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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By selecting sex cells after meiosis, would it be possible to create two offspring with inverse parental DNA of one another?

Would it theoretically be possible to select two sex cells after a male meiosis (filtering out the two where crossover had taken place) and combine each with two sex from a female meiosis (imagining ...
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Forward or Reverse Strand: Is there a difference when encoding genetic devices?

Background: In synthetic biology, and also in nature, there are lots of examples of genes in both the forward and reverse orientation. It seems in synthetic biology/bioengineering, most genetic ...
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Why is DNA replication not 100% accurate

I've been reading about DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and how this process improves DNA fidelity. However, I was wondering, what is stopping MMR from correcting all mistakes in the daughter DNA with 100% ...
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Geometric Interpretations of the DNA Double Helix

In mathematics, a helix is a shape which has constant curvature and constant torque (see Wikipedia here. What are the biological implications of the DNA double helix having constant curvature and ...
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What if target DNA doesn’t have restriction sites

All the examples on DNA cloning I have encountered have assumed that the target gene and vector both have compatible restriction sites at just the right locations (probably for ease of explanation). ...
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How much of the Neanderthal genome is living on in humans?

I've understand that outside of African, most ethnic groups carry some (4% or less) Neanderthal DNA. So en masse, across all living humans, what percentage of the original Neanderthal genome is still ...
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Assembling small DNA parts using Golden Gate

Background I've always been told that DNA assembly can be tricky when using very small DNA parts due to low efficiency. I've also seen this when using 3A biobrick assembly to assemble promoters and ...
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Traceability of a mature tree to its original seed via DNA

Is it possible to trace a specific seed to a fully mature tree? For example, Can a seed be traced to the full-grown plant based on DNA? Would it be possible for me to catalog a seed DNA and then ...
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Can a blood type O be born from AB and A parents?

I have a basic understanding of genetics, and I'm really puzzled by this. My grandma's blood type is A (I don't know if it's heterozygous or homozygous) and my grandpa is AB. Yet my mother is type O. ...
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Nomenclature of substrates for DNA synthesis

I have read in my school textbooks that both deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate and deoxynucleotide triphosphate are used in DNA Replication as substrates. However, it is unclear to me whether the terms ...
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Are there any species whose descendants can meet their ancestors from 100 generations back?

I.e. Humans can sometimes meet even their great-great-grandparents, but are there any species that can be alive at the same time as their great-great-……-great-grandparents? I imagine it would be those ...
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What can you learn about someone's mother and father by examining their DNA?

Disclaimer: I ask this question from the position of having paid absolutely no attention throughout school/highschool science classes. I am incredibly ignorant, but I don't know how to find the answer ...
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DNA mutations in humans are generally bad, but why to they make viruses stronger?

When I read about DNA mutations in humans, the mutations are generally bad. When I read about mutations in viruses such as the recent emerging strains of COVID-19, however, it seems to be good for the ...
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“Immortal Genes” common to all organisms?

Author Sean B. Carroll mentions that there are about 500 genes common to all organisms. They have to do with the essential DNA machinery and so forth. What are these genes? Where can I read more about ...
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How do gene locations change during crossing over events?

Suppose you have two variants from the same species, which have slightly different chromosomes I's to each other. Genes may be in slightly different positions on the chromosome, and the lengths of the ...
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1answer
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Are there any DNA viruses with junk DNA in them?

I know mimiviruses and pandoraviruses have orphan DNA - DNA that is not found in other species - but this is DNA that codes for proteins. I am not able to find out if they contain junk DNA. By junk I ...
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Are there ribozymes that cut double strands

the header already says: Are there any ribozymes known that cut double strands? A kind of ribozyme equivalent to the Ribonuclease III. With cut, I mean that the backbone of both strands, forming the ...
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Dealing with heterochromatin during DNA replication

Heterochromatin are present along the chromosome (uncoiled state). With the highly-condensed structure relative to euchromatin, RNA polymerase cannot get into the DNA base pairs in heterochromatin and ...
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Parameters that determines the thermal stability of DNA

Why a DNA with a high GC content more stable than one with a less GC content? Is it because of the three hydrogen bonds in GC base pair which is one more than a AT base pair or is it because of the ...
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If aging is caused by “DNA Damage” why is the process of aging generally similar between people?

When I hear the phrase "DNA Damage" I imagine completely random changes in the DNA of a person's cells. If this is the case, then it seems like every person would age differently depending ...
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Why do microarrays require a priori knowledge of the genome?

Reading this paper they said this: Contemporary microarrays emerged in the wake of genome sequencing projects for one obvious reason: arrays require a priori knowledge of the query genome Why do you ...
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When the sister chromatids are joined in the centromere, why is it stated that the number of chromosomes is 46 and not 72?

Before the DNA is replicated in a human somatic cell, the cell has 46 chromosomes. Also, after the sister chromatids are separated during Anaphase, the chromosome number in the cell doubles to 72, so ...
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Why does DNA synthesis require nucleoside triphosphates? [closed]

Writing the DNA sequence is done with nuclosides that have three phosphates attached to them, and two of these phosphate are thrown away back into "phosphate pool" of cell. What are main ...
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Get “DNA” of one parent based on its children [closed]

I'm no biology expert so bear with me, but I've been given a task to estimate alleles of an animal based on the animal's children and the children's other parents. I've looked up Mendel's laws but I'm ...
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What's the difference (functionally speaking) between yeast centromeric plasmids and artificial chromosomes?

Historically, yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) have been used for genome sequencing projects in the late 1990's. Nowadays, most researchers seem to use centromeric plasmids for expressing ...
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What is the structure of heterochromatin?

A short article about euchromatin and heterochromatin mentions that the structure of heterochromatin usually depicted in images "has never been visualized in vivo, and its existence is ...
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How complete is the information in DNA?

Everyone talks about how DNA is the "molecule of life" and "the set of instructions for building you." How complete are the instructions, really, though? To make the question concrete, say I were to ...
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Are archaeological DNA samples (bone fragment) stabilized and isolated the same ways as living saliva samples?

I've been studying how saliva DNA samples are suspended in a stabilization fluid then isolated using magnetic beads. Are old archaeological DNA samples of deteriorating bones put through this same ...
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Exact average molecular weight of a dsDNA basepair

I am trying to calculate the exact weight of a given dsDNA. On the Internet and the literature, different values for the av. molecular weight of one basepair are given : 660 g/mol (probably wrong), ...
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Does the string “…CATCAT…” appear in the DNA of Felis catus?

In Hofstadter's Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (GEB), the following claim appears: ...in the species Felis catus, deep probing has revealed that it is indeed possible to read the ...
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Can DNA fingerprinting tell you if someone has been genetically engineered?

I am writing a fictional novel about an extensively genetically engineered man, unbeknownst to him, who gets into trouble on a regular basis. The man is physically large and strong, very fast (tiger-...
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Did Mendel believe that proteins are hereditary substances?

Scientists first thought that proteins, which are found in chromosomes along with DNA, would turn out to be the sought-after genetic material. Proteins were known to have diverse amino acid sequences, ...
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What makes DNA helical?

Why isn't DNA like RNA; why isn't RNA like DNA, that is, helical? Why are RNA chains straight?
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Is synthesizing DNA in-house feasible?

I've been reading up about DNA writing, and it seems there are machines available around the five-figure US dollar mark for DNA synthesis, and I'm considering picking one up for my lab. We normally ...
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What data would Meselson and Stahl have expected if DNA replication was dispersive rather than semiconservative? [closed]

What data would Meselson and Stahl have expected if DNA replication was conservative rather than semiconservative? Answer: In the first generation, there would be two bands, one of light density and ...
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What is the mechanism through which fractals arise in plants and animals?

Many biological organisms -- such as trees, broccoli, and the blood vessels in animals -- can be approximately described using fractals. What is the reason behind such fractals? Specifically, do we ...
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Is there a term for the opposite of intergenic?

I am looking for a term that describes DNA regions that overlap genes, i.e., non-intergenic DNA regions. For example, say I am writing a paper about DNA-binding sites (i.e., DNA sequences that ...
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DNA extraction from parasitic worm

I have a part of a parasitic worm frozen at -20°C. Do you think that DNA extraction using DNeasy kit without any pre-treatment is sufficient for DNA extraction? Or would you recommend bead beating / ...
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How to convert enrichment/depletion to frequency for comparing deep sequencing to sequence profile?

I have two datasets, from different sources, that I need to compare. The first set is deep sequencing results of a directed evolution experiment, where I have the naive library and selected library ...
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255 views

dsDNA translation

Since DNA is double stranded and each strand is complementary to the other, the codons on each strand will come out to be different after transcription(depending on the reading frame). Does this mean "...
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62 views

Purpose of EF1 alpha promoter

Context: I have seen promoters used to have gene therapy viruses target specific cells, so I am referring to that apparent function of theirs. As an example I have seen GFAP promoters used for ...
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What are the advantages of long read sequencing for cancer oncogenomic research?

Currently I am using whole genome nanopore sequencing, Illumina short read and 10x linked read to study oncogenesis mechanisms of certain types of rare cancer. I am wondering about the advantages of ...
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Poly-G tails in NovaSeq Paired-end sequencing from museum samples

I'm currently working with DNA samples originating from museum specimens, this means they have been stored in formaldehyde for the last 50-100 years. The DNA I'm analysing has been sequenced by ...
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Why are there 10 base pair steps, not 16?

In a biochemistry course I'm taking, the lecturer emphasised that there are 10 possible base pair steps; I've included a screenshot of a slide stating this. This confuses me, because I cannot work out ...
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Can Taq polymerase be stored with PCR primers?

I don't think it's possible for TAQ to be stored with the primers, but I'm not sure. This storage wouldn't be long-term (a few days, or a week at most). Thoughts?
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How do we regulate the production of proteins when designing plasmids?

I think it should be no surprise that I, as many others, am interested in the new COVID-19 vaccines being developed. In my region of the world there are two mayor candidates. One is mRNA based and one ...
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Origins of transcription factors and RNA Polymerase

I was learning about transcription factors and RNA polymerase from Khan Academy to supplement Dr. Robert Sapolsky's lectures on Human Behavioral Biology. As I understand: RNA Polymerase transcribes ...
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1answer
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How to identify the subspecies/breed of a bee

I have been a beekeeper for a number of years and originally obtained my first colonies from a guy in my neighbourhood. However, when I sell bees to someone else, they typically ask what species of ...
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Does DNA react in all of the ways most other acids do?

As I understand it from my basic chemistry, there are some fundamental reactions that exist between any acid and other substances for example acid-base reactions that form a salt, and the existence of ...
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How long does foreign DNA stay intact in human blood?

How aggressively is foreign DNA in blood targeted and degraded by the human body? I am asking because we have a metagenomics project where we want to detect parasite DNA in the human blood. The ...

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