Questions tagged [dna]

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the carrier of genetic information, including for all known living organisms. The only known exceptions are RNA viruses.

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PCR in different cell line

I developed a PCR cycle to amplify a 5.5 kb genomic DNA region in HEK cell line. When I tried to use the same protocol in A375 cell line I had no results but only smear. Can you help me? Thanks in ...
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Is DNA actually like source code repository?

So after reading articles like "People Use Just 8.2% of Their DNA" etc., and thinking a bit... I got this idea: What if DNA is actually like a software source code repository? You know, it has "...
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probability of hairpin vs self-dimer formation?

I have a linear ssDNA oligo that is designed such that the ends are complementary, and conducive to hairpin formation (see attached figure). My question is, which has a higher likelihood of formation, ...
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How is it possible for phosphate to form two ester bonds in DNA replication?

I understand that in phosphodiester bond formation, two hydroxl groups on the phosphate molecule bind to the 3' and 5' OH groups on two independent pentose sugars. This is a condensation reaction, so ...
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Possible combinations in the Meiosis' Telophase 1

As you might already know Meiosis is the process in eukaryotic, sexually-reproducing animals that reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell before reproduction $^{[1]}$ One of the reasons why ...
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How does the nucleophilic attack in DNA replication occur?

Hi there, I am confused about how the nucleophilic attack occurs in DNA replication.I watched this video from a biology professor (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y4hKibS2fAo) I watched this video ...
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How atom works and it's different from DNA? [closed]

I am studying atoms recently because I am writing a short story and the characters would talk about it for a bit. And I wish it's scientifically accurate. So I read a lot of articles about the atom ...
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How does bonding between non-complementary bases occur?

My teacher told me that when DNA polymerase makes an error (roughly every 10 million nucleotides?) that if, for example, it matches an A with a G that the error remains and is the main cause of point ...
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Calculating Possible Combinations of Bases in a DNA Strand of a Given Length

In my Biology class we were asked this question: This DNA strand consists of eight pairs of nitrogenous bases. How many different sequences of eight bases can you make? Explain how you found your ...
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Do we posses technology to rebuild sequenced DNA? [closed]

Is there existing technology that would allow to rebuild DNA molecule from a digital file storing sequenced DNA? If not, does there at least exist theory explaining how such device could be built?
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How do biologists discover information from fossils? [closed]

I have a query about the study of fossils (palaeontology). Let me know about the study of fossils. How do biologist discover "DNA" information from dead and old fossils such as a dinosaur? (answer ...
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Why don't mitochondria have plasmids?

According to the endosymbiotic theory, mitochondria are descended from specialised bacteria (probably purple nonsulfur bacteria) that somehow survived endocytosis by another species of prokaryote or ...
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DNA replication - how many times and when does it occur?

I’m currently learning about DNA replication in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. And my lecturer has mentioned that replication is a once in a lifetime activity. And I’m not sure what this is ...
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Can CRISPR also remove DNA viruses?

If I'm not mistaken only RNA viruses insert themselves into the host genome. As an example of DNA viruses, herpes viruses for example do not insert themselves in the host genome. Can CRISPR cut DNA ...
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How do DNA viruses keep themselves in the nucleus without inserting themselves into genome?

If I'm not mistaken only RNA viruses insert themselves into the host genome. As an example of DNA viruses, herpes viruses for example do not insert themselves in the host genome. Then how do DNA ...
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How are mitochondrial diseases like MERRF inherited?

I am doing a project on the disorder MERRF in Mitochondrial DNA. I have to make a pedigree and explain how it is transferred on from generation to generation. I know that it is inherited maternally, ...
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Are viruses ever manufactured directly from viral DNA embedded in the genome?

Some viruses can cause their genetic material to be pemanently stored in the human genome -- even getting passed on to offspring. Endogenous Retroviruses, for example are thought to make up between 5~...
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How many phosphates are in the 5' end of a DNA strand?

I know that the pyrophosphate of a NTP is hydrolysed so that it can create enough energy for the synthesis of DNA. But if we want to get specific we can know for sure that the 3' end of the DNA strand ...
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Can a hydra get cancer?

Because hydras have immune systems, telomerase activity, and Piwi-piRNA like cancer cells I wonder if they can get cancer?
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Must I HPLC-purify my PCR Primers for amplicon sequencing with PacBio SMRT?

I would like to order some primers for amplicon sequencing. I am using universal tag primers (unusually long 30-mers recommended by PacBio for SMRT, both F&R) + barcodes (16-mers). The resulting ...
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Projects in DNA Computing [closed]

I am physicist and have recently heard about DNA computing. I want to work in this area. I want your ideas on a "feasible but new project" (maximum time I can put on the project: 6 Months ), I can ...
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If an ethnic group holds nearly 100% of a particular haplogroup, does it means that people who have this haplogroup are their descendants?

Let me give you a hypothetical example. If the Egyptians were 100% E3b1, and the Levantines 50%, and the Anatolians 25%. Does this indicate that the Levantines and Anatolians are descended from ...
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Typical DNA replication times

Just out of curiosity (I am completely strange to biology), as I have been unable to find this info on the internet: How long does the whole DNA replication process take? (say, the replication of a ...
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Are there any DNA base sequences that are shared by every living being that we know of? And if yes, are some of those sequences “silent”?

In "every living being" I am not including viruses as another question already answered that. I have read that some part of the DNA sequences of humans and other animals/plants are "silent" as in not ...
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How can I extract DNA from horse hair?

For my project I have to find an inexpensive, quick and simple-to-use method to extract DNA from horse hair. The sample does not have to be purified because the sample will be used for LAMP and not ...
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How many nucleotides in the DNA molecule? [closed]

Suppose I cut a human DNA molecule that was 6800Å long into 5 equal sized pieces using molecular scissors, how can I find out number of nucleotides in each of the cut pieces? Please give a bit ...
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How do mutations with very little fitness benefit get fixed?

I have one little issue with evolutionary theory that I have not been able to understand. Suppose genetic mutations happen from generation to generation. Nevertheless, from one generation to the next ...
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Is it possible to fuse DNA from two sperms into one sperm?

Is it possible to fuse the DNA of two genetically different sperms into one singular sperm? In theory, half of the number of chromosomes in a normal sperm would come from one sperm and the other half ...
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DNA of identical twins

I read an article which says that identical twins have 100% similarity between their DNA, but they have different fingerprints. Does that mean the DNA is different in the fingers? What body features ...
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Improving DNA quality and yield from stool samples

I prepared genomic DNA from pig stools but the concentration was very low — about 3~4 ng/µl, when I measured it using nanodrop. The A260/A280 and ...
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Double stranded RNA Single stranded DNA

I have seen in textbooks referring to ds RNA and ssDNA. How a RNA can be double stranded and likewise how a DNA can single stranded and if they do exist why are there names not interchanged?
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Does the DNA stick to surfaces we touch?

In case of robbery, the police visit the robbery scene and collect some samples like foot print or any item suspected to have been touched by the robber. The sample is then taken to laboratory for DNA ...
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Is it possible in modern biology to make any person's identical twin (or genetical clone) using his DNA?

I was told by a Biotech professor (who came in our college for a guest lecture) that Bio Technology has now become so advanced that if we want to make an identical twin (or Genetical DNA Twin) of a ...
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Observed to Expected CpG

Observed to Expected CpG is calculated as below : Obs/Exp CpG = Number of CpG * N / (Number of C * Number of G) where N = length of sequence. I also don't ...
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Do epigenetics determine the proteins a cell produces and therefore it's function?

I'm having trouble understanding what epigenetics is in a simple sense. How I imagine it is that if we had 2 twins with identical DNA and we let them live we will see that they'll develop differently....
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How do scientists know what part of DNA does what?

There are many genetically engineered foods and animals and I was wondering, how do scientists know which part of a DNA to cut in order to produce the desired result. For example I want to make a ...
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How do scientists transfer the specific DNA in Optogenetics?

I'm a bit new to genetic modification and I was wondering in Optogenetics (a field in neuroscience) how the scientists transfered the desired DNA strand from the light-sensitive ion channel opening ...
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Can a dividing cell that skipped DNA replication become cancerous?

Let's assume that a cell fails to replicate its DNA during the S Phase of the cell cycle. Let's also assume that the appropriate CDKs are inactive (perhaps due to mutation or lack of cyclin proteins ...
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Design rules for DNA linkers

I want to use double stranded DNA linkers to physically bind two "things" together, by grafting ssDNA on each one of them and using DNA hybridization as the locking mechanism. I do not expect the ...
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How does the new discovery that mitochondrial dna is inherited from both parents change population genetics and other dates?

This new study seem to have pretty much proven that mtDNA is inherited from both parents. I assume that this would lead to most age estimates of ancient human ...
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Will DNA nanostructures be useful for medical applications?

There is a lot of work being done on developing small nanomechanical structures and even small nanomechanical actuators built with DNA. I have heard researchers motivate this research with claims ...
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How does DNA code for the actual *shape* of individual body parts/areas (NOT segments or Hox genes)?

Just to save the trouble - I am not asking for general information on how DNA codes for proteins and definitely not how Hox genes work. I have a very good understanding of the evolutionary process and ...
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Offspring of parents with different number of chromosomes

Many papers report that dog-whelks (Nucella lapillus) show a distinct chromosomal polymorphism between populations of 2n = 24 up to 2n = 36. Could somebody please tell me how many chromosomes the F1 ...
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Is it possible to deduce facts about a person's parents just by studying his/her genome?

As an example, suppose Anne had abusive parents. Is it theoretically possible to deduce this from her genome even if she didn't inherit this quality (of being an abusive parent)?
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How much of my ancestry will match with my brother?

Recently, my brother (full sibling) got his ancestry checked from MyHeritageDNA. They have a similar service like 23 and me and I've found out that both companies are offering the basic service almost ...
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How to convert enrichment/depletion to frequency for comparing deep sequencing to sequence profile?

I have two datasets, from different sources, that I need to compare. The first set is deep sequencing results of a directed evolution experiment, where I have the naive library and selected library ...
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Why are there inverted repeats in response elements?

The following picture shows an inverted repeat sequence in a response element. Response element sequences for glucocorticoids, estrogen, and thyroid hormone show that they all contain inverse repeats. ...
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360 views

Hydrophobic interactions in the helix-turn-helix

This slide states that the second helix works to stablize the configuration of the two helixes via hydrophobic interactions. What exactly is this hydrophobic interaction? In other words, what ...
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Name of dsRNA (or dsDNA) where all strands are identical

What is the name of dsRNA (or DNA) where all component strands are identical (i.e. where the complex consists of multiple copies of the same ssRNA)? Example: 2 identical ssRNAs forming a dsRNA ...
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GC content of a protein-coding region

I have computer science background and I am trying to understand the equation below. The average value of the G + C content of a protein-coding region is given by : (G+C)= $\sum_{\alpha} (I_\alpha *...

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