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Interactions and relationships among organisms and their environment. This includes biotic and abiotic (non-living/environmental) factors that impact organisms.

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Are there any non-photosynthesising species in the black sea that consume Hydrogen sulfide?

The black sea is an enclosed environment. It mostly consists of bottom detritus and sea grass. But the middle layer is entirely different because of the anaerobic conditions. The turn over rate is ...
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1answer
16 views

Genes related to senses and their variation across animals

Animals often have very different numbers of active genes related to any sense. For instance, most fish or even aquatic mammals have very few olfactory receptor genes, whereas this is higher in ...
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1answer
37 views

Carbon sink and carbon storage

Articles commonly state examples of carbon sinks are plants, soils, and oceans (e.g., link). My understanding is that carbon sinks must directly take up carbon from the atmosphere. Therefore, other ...
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1answer
46 views

Examples of humans intentionally introducing non-native species where everything went well?

It's easy to find examples of humans introducing non-native species to solve some problem (e.g. for food, to control the population of a pest), but later regretting it as the introduced species upsets ...
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0answers
23 views

What accounts for the apparent lack of biodiversity in “bamboo forests”?

While hiking on the Hawaiian island of Maui, I passed from a forest with normal variety in trees and other flora, to a "bamboo forest" area in which the only plants that I could see were bamboo. This ...
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1answer
57 views

Does an old growth forest ecosystem produce more oxygen than it consumes?

I would like to consider an old growth forest ecosystem such as a large part of the Amazonian forest. It is common to refer to such beautiful forests as a source of oxygen for the world. For example, ...
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0answers
46 views

Devonian Fish Diversity--What Would it Have Looked Like?

For 70 million years, the oceans, lakes and rivers of the world teemed with seven groups of fish: Placodermi Acanthodii Agnatha Chondrichthyes Sarcopterygii Actinopterygii Now two of those ...
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0answers
24 views

Why don't acacia trees prefer increasing tannin levels in their leaves rather than leaving them high?

According to this article, the Acacia tree has a chemical defence system which leads to the release of ethylene in the surroundings when a herbivore grazes on it. This leads to an increase in tannin ...
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0answers
25 views

What do groundhogs and other subsurface-tunnel dwelling creatures do in heavy rains to avoid harm?

I notice groundhogs and many other tunneling creatures in my yard, the same yard which became pretty flooded during heavy rainfall. I don't see wildlife out during rain storms, but not long after, ...
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1answer
19 views

White resin or powder on conifer needles

I often notice that certain conifers often have a whitish powder on what seems to be their youngest needles, giving them a blue green tint. Does anyone know what this is? Is it something excreted by ...
2
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2answers
42 views

Book about ordination in ecology

This is a question I posted on Cross Validated few weeks ago but no response has been given so far. I am looking for a book that would cover a lot of different ordinations techniques (indirect ...
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0answers
33 views

How to quantify the strength of social bonding between the individuals of a colony? How to compare the strength of social bonding across the species?

Consider two different species of honey bees. If I have to compare the strength of social bonding between the two species i.e. in which species, social bonding between the individuals is stronger than ...
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1answer
29 views

Addax in the Land of Israel

The Addax (Addax nasomaculatus) is critically endangered species of a desert anetelope with impressive long horns. Today there are small populations in the Sahara desert and the Arabian desert (Saudi ...
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1answer
86 views

When is Semelparous reproduction most likely to be favoured?

Under which of the following conditions is Semelparous reproduction (where organisms produces all its offspring in a single reproductive event) is most likely to be favoured? (A) Adult survival rate ...
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1answer
38 views

How is the Energy Systems Language used in ecology?

Is the Energy Systems Language useful in systems ecology? It is developed by Howard T. Odum, "the father of system ecology", to make analogies between ecological systems and electronic circuits. But ...
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3answers
77 views

Is it possible for a prey to become its main predator's predator?

This is actually for a worldbuilding project, but I thought I'd just ask it here as it is solely about biology. Anyway, would it be possible for a herbivore, let's call him X, that is predated by a ...
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0answers
55 views

Can a creature fly and also walk? [closed]

These creatures, fly and walk, and have perfect eyesight and follow me everywhere I go. They have many legs, they are about 1 inch and their color is almost translucent, but a very light shade of ...
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0answers
14 views

Does trapper/hunter harvest reflect abundance or community composition?

I'm working on a study where a single professional trapper removes furbearers and corvids (who the trapper is changes annually). I would suspect that the composition of the harvest would be strongly ...
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1answer
102 views

Why are there no endoparasitic mammals or reptiles or birds? [closed]

I am curious why there aren’t any endoparasitic mammals, reptiles or birds Endoparasite being a parasite that live In the host whereas ectoparasite lives On the host I hope this clears up confusion
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1answer
48 views

How are epiphytes symbiotic?

I understand epiphytes are not parasitic. But how exactly are they helping the tree on which they grow?
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2answers
76 views

Biological contamination from ground

I took samples of tapwater in order to examine concentrations of escherichia coli and enterococcus, in a rural area. I was told, by the analytical lab, to take samples in four sterilized vessels ...
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1answer
68 views

Why would a bumblebee regularly hover over a arborvitae hedge?

I have observed bumblebees hover over an a abrborvitae (Thuja occidentalis) hedge. A bumblebee will hover in a in one spot over the hedge for about 5-7 seconds, zip to another spot, hover for about 5-...
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0answers
26 views

Is there any standard of notation for ecological diagrams?

General Question Is there any convention of how to express different types of relations (e.g., eats, turns into, is beneficial to) and agents (e.g., species, nutrient) in an ecological diagram? I ...
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1answer
69 views

Is this answer about the limiting factor correct?

The graph shows the result of adding both phosphorus and nitrogen to different algae populations. I have a hard time figuring out why the correct answer is C, I thought that groups 4 and 5 would have ...
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0answers
71 views

Is there any example, where cooperative behaviour of predators induce fear in prey population?

I am basically from math background and doing Ph.D in mathematical biology. So I am not so efficient in biology. But my problem based on cooperative behaviour of animals during hunting which is ...
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0answers
22 views

Is the inhalation of ammonia a possible health problem for bats in an artificial small volume winter roost?

About 70 bats (Nyctalus noctula) spend their winter in an artificial small volume (0,050 cubic meters) winter roost located in the attic of a building. There is a single small exit to the outside ...
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1answer
104 views

Is there a distinction between the fisherian runaway theory and Fisher's sexy son theory?

In many websites/books they are referred to as part of the same process whereby: "runaway" describing that the process continues even after traits become maladaptive the "sexy son theory" explains ...
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0answers
19 views

How do plastic containers and other thrash end up in the ocean [closed]

There are many photos of the ocean, which in some parts is littered with all sorts of waste, often plastic bags, containers etc. But I just wonder - how do such large amounts land in the ocean/sea? ...
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0answers
23 views

Why are there so many species of large predator on the African savanna?

On the tropical grasslands of Africa, there are loads of large carnivores. Lions, cheetahs, leopards, hyenas and wild dogs are all found, sometimes, in the same place. I was wondering, why is it that ...
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2answers
665 views

Can predator-prey relationship be an example of negative feedback?

Predators eat their prey, prey population decreases. This results in the predator population to decrease, so less prey are consumed which causes the prey population to increase. Therefore, if the ...
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1answer
111 views

Did the construction of the Panama Canal lead to a huge change in the local marine ecology?

Before the Panama Canal opened in 1914, its two ends were only 77 km apart over land, but the closest sea route was 32,000 km long (around the entirety of South America) and passed through much colder ...
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1answer
41 views

How plausible would it be for animals to normalize the birth of monozygotic twins in their reproductive cycles? [closed]

I'm currently trying to develop the world of a sci-fi story I'm working on, and a concept I've thought of adopting with the environment and characters is a common breeding system where identical twins ...
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1answer
116 views

Can 2 people give rise to billions? Adam and Eve 2.0 [closed]

With with the advancement of GMOs the idea of giving rise to humans from 2 people is possible making questions like this invalid? How many people are required to maintain genetic diversity? With ...
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2answers
97 views

Is there any example of living beings destroying their environment?

I had an argument with someone about mankind being the only being destroying its own environment. I don't think this is true, yet, I cannot provide any example of significant importance. Are there ...
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1answer
70 views

What would happen if there were no more spiders?

In an office conversation about arachnophobia, one colleague declared "they're hoorrible and they should all be killed". He doesn't like spiders. I've heard of the scenario where bees die out quite a ...
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1answer
66 views

Is there a statistical analysis test I can perform that will give me a estimate of total population from my own smaller data sets?

Doing my dissertation on the long term trends in moth populations. I am looking at the trends of specific species. Is there a method to obtain an estimate of total population from smaller samples?
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3answers
3k views

Inexperienced divers damage coral, but parrot fish eating coral doesn't do damage?

I've been learning about life on coral reefs. Recently I've become aware of the damage to coral reefs caused by tourism and inexperienced divers: 1) Corals have a thin membrane which keeps them ...
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0answers
29 views

Is photosynthesis faster in aquatic plants rather than terrestrial plants? [closed]

For example : In which of these two plants photosynthesis is faster and why? water hyacinth or sedge?
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1answer
77 views

Is there any research on wolf and bobcat interactions?

I'm studying interactions between North American predators, specifically wolves, coyotes and bobcats. There's evidence from data I've collected from game cameras that suggests a significant ...
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0answers
7 views

How to refer to different forms of PO4 in scientific texts [duplicate]

I am working in the fields of biogeochemistry and ecology. When I write about phosphate, I tend to simply use PO4 in the texts, yet I know depending on pH it can be H2PO4 and HPO4 as well. When ...
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0answers
145 views

What percentage of the total biomass is in the form of single celled organisms?

I would like to know what are the current estimates of the percentage of biomass that is in the form of single celled organisms. Whitman 1998 concludes that prokaryotes constitute 60% to 100% of ...
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0answers
43 views

How often do snails create an epiphragm in the wild?

How often do snails create an epiphragm? Everyday? Once a week? Once a year before hibernation? I wonder also how costly it is for a snail to create the epiphragm? There must be a trade-off. The ...
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1answer
49 views

Are there laws in ecology? [closed]

Are there clearly defined ecological laws, as in the science of physics? If not, why is this the case?
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1answer
109 views

Is resource partitioning a type of character displacement?

Question Imagine two related species. They prey on the same species but avoid competition by feeding at different times of the day. Is this a type of character displacement? Thought On one hand I ...
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1answer
427 views

What does 'per capita births and deaths' mean?

My book says, If in a pond there are 20 lotus plants last year and through reproduction 8 new plants are added, taking the current population to 28, we calculate the birth rate as 8/20 = 0.4 ...
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3answers
3k views

Value of r (intrinsic rate of natural increase)

What is the current value of 'r' (instrinsic rate of natural increase) in India? How do we calculate it? My book says that In 1981, the r value for human population in India was 0.0205. But this ...
3
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2answers
115 views

Have there ever been as many mammals as there are now?

I apologize for the weird question, but based on a Google search it looks like this topic hasn't been discussed before. I'm hoping that enough information about population biology is stored in the ...
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0answers
27 views

What is the minimum area of an isolated habitat with healthy ecosystem?

Deforestation, habitat loss and fragmentation have been increasing in recent years due to overpopulation and the demand for resources. Many animals have been forced to share and compete for space &...
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1answer
169 views

Do death rate and birth rate become equal at replacement fertility rate?

A population transitions from stage 3 to stage 4 when the fertility rate reaches the population replacement level of 2.1. My question is that if the population replacement level reached, shouldn't ...
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0answers
148 views

What is a “standing crop”

What is a "standing crop" in agriculture? Is this different from a "standing crop" in ecology?