Questions tagged [ecology]

Interactions and relationships among organisms and their environment. This includes biotic and abiotic (non-living/environmental) factors that impact organisms.

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Is there an equation/method for finding minimum plant species needed to support maximum pollinator species using a data set?

I'm looking to create a seed package based on a dataset of plant-pollinator associations. I currently have a list of documented interactions between specific plant species and pollinator species. I'm ...
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What is the defining characteristics of a Gap Species?

For the following competitive exam question: A road is constructed through a tropical rain forest, following which a population of a species of butterflies declines. Which of the following is NOT a ...
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What is the primary cause of death for small animals in urban and suburban areas?

Small birds (sparrows, robins, jays, finches) and mammals (squirrels, rats, opossums, raccoons) are a common sight in many urban and suburban communities with green space. However, I observe carcasses ...
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Is there any description about how microbes spread from a small place to a very large place?

Is there any materials (such as books, papers or others) about how microbes (such as the bacteria or virus) or a special kind of microbe spread from a small place to a very large area (such as the ...
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Phytomass and photosynthesis

I have been introduced to the term "phytomass" and I was wondering if phytomass can be both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic?
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What allows diverse ecology to thrive despite forces reducing species diversity?

Ecology and business are a useful model for understanding one another. One species fills a niche until it is outcompeted by another just as one business fills a niche until it is outcompeted by ...
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On stochastic Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model

I am currently working (as a mathematician) on some estimations involving an stochastic predator-prey type model in which some of the coefficients have been perturbed by a Brownian Motion yielding to ...
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Database of monthly climate data 2018 - 2019 [migrated]

Specifically I'm looking for climate data (average temperature, precipitation) for the summer months of 2018 in Belgium and of 2019 in Japan. Ideally of high spatial resolution, because my areas of ...
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Should the fly rules of starlings flock belong to proximate reason or Ultimate reason?

Since for Proximate (or mechanistic), causation it should explain how actions occur in terms of the genetic, neurological, hormonal, and skeletal–muscular mechanisms involved. But fly rules does not ...
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Range for which the Verhulst-Pearl model is a good approximate

The Verhulst-Pearl model describes the growth of a population using the differential equation, $$\frac{dN}{dt}=rN \left(\frac{K-N}{K} \right)$$ where N is the population (no. of organisms), r, the ...
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Analysing bird diversity data across 2 sites and 2 time periods - Ordinal data. Shannon's and Jaccard?

I am looking for the best way to analyse the data below to measure and compare the bird diversity between 3 sites and across 2 time periods - basically are they different from each other and have they ...
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Is the colour of a chrysalis predetermined?

Usually, chrysalis of butterflies camouflages with the surface it is attached to, for protection, as I understand it. There are exceptions, though; For example, the golden chrysalis of Euploea core is ...
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Are there any studies on the solar latitude limits of different plant species, beyond which they wouldn't thrive even with suitable weather?

Not sure whether this belongs here or in the Gardening & Landscaping StackExchange, but here goes... According to maps provided in the paper Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate ...
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Can unsegmented organisms be tagmatized?

this was something that I thought about if I can not find anything about this. I'm assuming it can be tagmatized like a spider; they have 2 tagmatations and im thinking its something like this?
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What happens to male turkeys?

My family and I have almost never seen a wild male turkey though we have seen countless female turkeys. Is the male to female sex ratio of turkeys at birth extremely low? If not, what happens to the ...
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Antibacterial soap impacts on septic system?

What impacts do antibacterial soaps have on septic systems? I know that septic systems rely heavily on bacteria (especially regarding the breakdown of wastes by bacteria), so it seems as though ...
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How does species diversity vs Earth total biomass relate?

Are there any laws/theoretical foundations about how diversity of species relate with total biomass on Earth? While there is a lot of esoteric sort of talk "humanity dis-balances the live on the ...
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Where does the “para” in parasitism come from

He there. So in biology there is the concept of parabiosis, that describes a relationship where one part experiences a positive side effect and the other one has no disadvantages because of that. The ...
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What to do with this Araucaria sprout

I live in Santiago, Chile, and I see this Araucaria frequently: For what I have read, it seems to be a female A. angustifolia individual (leaves are 2-3 cm long and a few mm wide, with a very sharp ...
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Can the apparent drop in insect population be explained by local insects evolving to avoid traps?

In this widely reported Plos One article, it is stated that, after roughly 3 decades of placing Malaise traps in a set of predetermined locations (counting and replacing them regularly), a sharp ...
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Is there a Zipf law in epidemiology?

Are there cases where Zipf Law appears in epidemiology? I ranked provinces of China by their coronavirus confirmed cases (2020-01-30 14:29): 4586, 428, 311, 278, 277, 200, 165, 162, 145, 142, 129,...
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What do oxpeckers eat from thick-skinned hippopotamuses and rhinoceroses?

Noted for their thick skin are both rhinoceroses (1.5 to 5 cm) and hippopotamuses (6 cm). They are further noted for their symbiotic relationship with bird called an oxpecker: Both the English and ...
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How can I propagate a community of anaerobic bacteria sampled from mud in a bog?

I'm doing research on anaerobic bacteria. In the fall I took mud samples from a bog and have been working with them but I didn't take enough. Now winter has rolled around (Im in Canada) and all the ...
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Is feeding wild pigeons really “weakening the entire species”?

While reading about what foods are healthy for pigeons, I came across the following paragraph: (Source) Human interaction and improper feeding of domestic and wild pigeons is believed to be one of ...
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Lotka-Voltera predator prey model isocline?

In lotka voltera predator prey model, why do we get a straight isocline with variable prey/predator population for single value of corresponding predator/prey? I understand that we get the prey ...
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Do Dispersal Kernel Probabilities Change Over Time?

I am new to the world of integrodifference equations and dispersal kernels. What I am doing is calculating a spatial-dynamic optimization process and was hoping to use IDE’s in order to model my ...
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How to model species interactions on population size dynamic?

Here are two classical discrete time models of population size dynamic. The exponential growth model $$N_{t+1} = r\cdot N_t \qquad\qquad(1)$$ and the logistic growth model $$N_{t+1} = r\cdot N_t \...
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Why was the precipitation-streamflow correlation greater in the intact catchment at Hubbard BrookI

I gave an assignment and ran a class on this data last year. https://lifediscoveryed.org/r290/hubbard_brook_streamflow_response_to_deforestation Its a classic small watershed experiment where ...
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Confusion about Lotka_Volterra model for two competing species

Lotka-Volterra model for two competing species in Boyce's Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value problems' is given by: \begin{align*} \frac{dx_{1}(t)}{dt}&=r_{1}x_{1}-a_{11}x_{1}...
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Original Lotka–Volterra model

I am looking for the articles in which Lotka and Volterra published their original predator prey model. I couldn’t find the model presented in many textbooks in Lotka’s book Elements of Physical ...
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Is the plant-human relationship a form of parasitism or commensalism?

We all know that mankind gets a lot of useful products for satisfying its needs from plants. They can be in the form of timber, fruits, oils, resins whatever. The plants don't seem to be benefitted ...
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What is the relationship between r/K strategy and filial infanticides?

In other words, is the frequency of killing one's own offspring among species dependent on their location on the r/K strategy spectrum?
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What is a partial regulator?

Source: MY textbook-NCERT 12th Biology-Ch: Organisms and Population (Pg 7 of pdf/Pg 223 of the book) Is this graph for Partial regulators correct? Isn't it that animals tend to be regulators first ...
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How is C4 pathway more water efficient than C3 pathway in photosynthesis?

In the C3 pathway: 1 H2O molecule is required for the fixation of 1 CO2 molecule. In the C4 pathway: The only H2O molecule used is in the calvin cycle, so 1 H2O molecule required for fixation of 1 ...
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Is there any (practical) way to control a rodent population without predators?

It seems that New York has tried a number of ways to reduce their rat population, recently with fall traps. Unless they can kill all of the rats at once, it seems that this will just free up resources ...
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Do conservation oriented genetic database exist?

Are there any projects for the creation of the international genetic database of all endangered species, so we, at least, have a chance to clone them in the future if our current conservational ...
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Species Distribution Modeling: Mammal river species

When working with mammal river species, what parameters would you use to study them (I have max and min temperature, average rain, slope and obstacles in the river) Something like type of riparian ...
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Effects of mushrooms on their hosts [closed]

I learned that mushrooms are normally classified as either decomposers or symbiotes. I would like to know the differences between the two types and whether they are detrimental or beneficial to their ...
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Can anything useful be done with stable isotope data for a single species

This is my first biology question. So I have some stable isotope data on a single species. This data looks similar to the demo data in the siar package for r which looks like this: ...
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Best method to collect stream macroinvertebrates to assess diversity index

I am looking for a procedure to collect stream invertebrates to asses diversity index. I have used "kick and pick" techniques and have read about using a leaf ball to attract invertebrates, but have ...
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In the context of heterotrophic theory of abiogenesis, what is an organism that eats other organisms called?

In the heterotrophic theory for the origin of life, we imagine a primordial soup that is rich in organic compounds and the first organisms emerge eating those compounds. Since these organic compounds ...
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Do the organisms within a lichen communicate with each other?

So you've got your fungus and your algae (or cyanobacteria) (and the multitude of other variations and additions to this two-species symbiosis that lichens present). Do the species that comprise the ...
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Are there autotrophic fungi?

Are there any completely autotrophic species of fungus? If so, what species are they? What ecosystem do they live in? Some answers from Quora state that a fungus can never be autotrophic, but why is ...
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Can two populations of the same species pollinate during different times?

My question comes from the Barron's SAT Subject Test Practice Test #1 question 2 It states: Two populations of rhododendron, R. ferrugineum, grow in the same region of Connecticut. Although ...
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How much does biomagnification affect human beings?

It is known that the effect of biological magnification increases with higher trophic levels. Since, we are at the top of the food chain, how much are we affected by it? Is there any proof of humans ...
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Trophic levels and energy loss

Just a general question about trophic levels. Traditionally, it's thought as much as one order of magnitude of energy is lost as one moves from trophic level to trophic level. I am confused here since ...
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Is cannibalism part of mainstream food-chain?

There are some species who sometimes eat their own kinds. Is this cannibalism considered their regular food? Do the link in food-chain for those animals make a loop on themselves? Can this statement: ...
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What are the predators of Glaucus atlanticus?

I'm researching the Glaucus atlanticus, also known as the blue glaucus, among various other names, but after reading quite a few articles and searching on the Internet as many different ways as I can ...
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System diagrams showing biofeedback processes or interactions (- and + symbols) in ecosystems

Overview: I apologise profusely for asking a silly question, but I am feeling confused and I am seeking more clarity on this subject. Could anyone, please help me understand why the interaction ...
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What exactly is this small puffer fish doing and how did it manage to accomplish such a feat?

I recently saw a video on youtube where it shows a puffer fish making intricate designs in the sand: OZZY MAN VIDEO The puffer fish made this design on the sand: What exactly is the puffer ...

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