Questions tagged [ecology]

Interactions and relationships among organisms and their environment. This includes biotic and abiotic (non-living/environmental) factors that impact organisms.

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1answer
4k views

Antibacterial soap impacts on septic system?

What impacts do antibacterial soaps have on septic systems? I know that septic systems rely heavily on bacteria (especially regarding the breakdown of wastes by bacteria), so it seems as though ...
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How does species diversity vs Earth total biomass relate?

Are there any laws/theoretical foundations about how diversity of species relate with total biomass on Earth? While there is a lot of esoteric sort of talk "humanity dis-balances the live on the ...
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Where does the “para” in parasitism come from

He there. So in biology there is the concept of parabiosis, that describes a relationship where one part experiences a positive side effect and the other one has no disadvantages because of that. The ...
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What to do with this Araucaria sprout

I live in Santiago, Chile, and I see this Araucaria frequently: For what I have read, it seems to be a female A. angustifolia individual (leaves are 2-3 cm long and a few mm wide, with a very sharp ...
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2answers
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Can the apparent drop in insect population be explained by local insects evolving to avoid traps?

In this widely reported Plos One article, it is stated that, after roughly 3 decades of placing Malaise traps in a set of predetermined locations (counting and replacing them regularly), a sharp ...
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Is there a Zipf law in epidemiology?

Are there cases where Zipf Law appears in epidemiology? I ranked provinces of China by their coronavirus confirmed cases (2020-01-30 14:29): 4586, 428, 311, 278, 277, 200, 165, 162, 145, 142, 129,...
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What do oxpeckers eat from thick-skinned hippopotamuses and rhinoceroses?

Noted for their thick skin are both rhinoceroses (1.5 to 5 cm) and hippopotamuses (6 cm). They are further noted for their symbiotic relationship with bird called an oxpecker: Both the English and ...
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How can I propagate a community of anaerobic bacteria sampled from mud in a bog?

I'm doing research on anaerobic bacteria. In the fall I took mud samples from a bog and have been working with them but I didn't take enough. Now winter has rolled around (Im in Canada) and all the ...
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Is feeding wild pigeons really “weakening the entire species”?

While reading about what foods are healthy for pigeons, I came across the following paragraph: (Source) Human interaction and improper feeding of domestic and wild pigeons is believed to be one of ...
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2answers
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Lotka-Voltera predator prey model isocline?

In lotka voltera predator prey model, why do we get a straight isocline with variable prey/predator population for single value of corresponding predator/prey? I understand that we get the prey ...
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Do Dispersal Kernel Probabilities Change Over Time?

I am new to the world of integrodifference equations and dispersal kernels. What I am doing is calculating a spatial-dynamic optimization process and was hoping to use IDE’s in order to model my ...
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Parameters in Contois functional response and their units

Contois devolved his functional response from Monod's one but the problem is that he came to his final results with two new parameters without defining them presciently. what the two parameters $u_{m}...
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How to model species interactions on population size dynamic?

Here are two classical discrete time models of population size dynamic. The exponential growth model $$N_{t+1} = r\cdot N_t \qquad\qquad(1)$$ and the logistic growth model $$N_{t+1} = r\cdot N_t \...
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Why was the precipitation-streamflow correlation greater in the intact catchment at Hubbard BrookI

I gave an assignment and ran a class on this data last year. https://lifediscoveryed.org/r290/hubbard_brook_streamflow_response_to_deforestation Its a classic small watershed experiment where ...
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1answer
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Confusion about Lotka_Volterra model for two competing species

Lotka-Volterra model for two competing species in Boyce's Elementary Differential Equations and Boundary Value problems' is given by: \begin{align*} \frac{dx_{1}(t)}{dt}&=r_{1}x_{1}-a_{11}x_{1}...
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1answer
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Original Lotka–Volterra model

I am looking for the articles in which Lotka and Volterra published their original predator prey model. I couldn’t find the model presented in many textbooks in Lotka’s book Elements of Physical ...
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1answer
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Is the plant-human relationship a form of parasitism or commensalism?

We all know that mankind gets a lot of useful products for satisfying its needs from plants. They can be in the form of timber, fruits, oils, resins whatever. The plants don't seem to be benefitted ...
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2answers
79 views

What is the relationship between r/K strategy and filial infanticides?

In other words, is the frequency of killing one's own offspring among species dependent on their location on the r/K strategy spectrum?
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What is a partial regulator?

Source: MY textbook-NCERT 12th Biology-Ch: Organisms and Population (Pg 7 of pdf/Pg 223 of the book) Is this graph for Partial regulators correct? Isn't it that animals tend to be regulators first ...
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1answer
126 views

How is C4 pathway more water efficient than C3 pathway in photosynthesis?

In the C3 pathway: 1 H2O molecule is required for the fixation of 1 CO2 molecule. In the C4 pathway: The only H2O molecule used is in the calvin cycle, so 1 H2O molecule required for fixation of 1 ...
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Is there any (practical) way to control a rodent population without predators?

It seems that New York has tried a number of ways to reduce their rat population, recently with fall traps. Unless they can kill all of the rats at once, it seems that this will just free up resources ...
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32 views

Do conservation oriented genetic database exist?

Are there any projects for the creation of the international genetic database of all endangered species, so we, at least, have a chance to clone them in the future if our current conservational ...
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Species Distribution Modeling: Mammal river species

When working with mammal river species, what parameters would you use to study them (I have max and min temperature, average rain, slope and obstacles in the river) Something like type of riparian ...
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1answer
57 views

Effects of mushrooms on their hosts [closed]

I learned that mushrooms are normally classified as either decomposers or symbiotes. I would like to know the differences between the two types and whether they are detrimental or beneficial to their ...
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Can anything useful be done with stable isotope data for a single species

This is my first biology question. So I have some stable isotope data on a single species. This data looks similar to the demo data in the siar package for r which looks like this: ...
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1answer
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Best method to collect stream macroinvertebrates to assess diversity index

I am looking for a procedure to collect stream invertebrates to asses diversity index. I have used "kick and pick" techniques and have read about using a leaf ball to attract invertebrates, but have ...
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1answer
77 views

In the context of heterotrophic theory of abiogenesis, what is an organism that eats other organisms called?

In the heterotrophic theory for the origin of life, we imagine a primordial soup that is rich in organic compounds and the first organisms emerge eating those compounds. Since these organic compounds ...
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1answer
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Do the organisms within a lichen communicate with each other?

So you've got your fungus and your algae (or cyanobacteria) (and the multitude of other variations and additions to this two-species symbiosis that lichens present). Do the species that comprise the ...
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1answer
123 views

Are there autotrophic fungi?

Are there any completely autotrophic species of fungus? If so, what species are they? What ecosystem do they live in? Some answers from Quora state that a fungus can never be autotrophic, but why is ...
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1answer
60 views

Can two populations of the same species pollinate during different times?

My question comes from the Barron's SAT Subject Test Practice Test #1 question 2 It states: Two populations of rhododendron, R. ferrugineum, grow in the same region of Connecticut. Although ...
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141 views

How much does biomagnification affect human beings?

It is known that the effect of biological magnification increases with higher trophic levels. Since, we are at the top of the food chain, how much are we affected by it? Is there any proof of humans ...
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Trophic levels and energy loss

Just a general question about trophic levels. Traditionally, it's thought as much as one order of magnitude of energy is lost as one moves from trophic level to trophic level. I am confused here since ...
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1answer
120 views

Is cannibalism part of mainstream food-chain?

There are some species who sometimes eat their own kinds. Is this cannibalism considered their regular food? Do the link in food-chain for those animals make a loop on themselves? Can this statement: ...
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1answer
580 views

What are the predators of Glaucus atlanticus?

I'm researching the Glaucus atlanticus, also known as the blue glaucus, among various other names, but after reading quite a few articles and searching on the Internet as many different ways as I can ...
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System diagrams showing biofeedback processes or interactions (- and + symbols) in ecosystems

Overview: I apologise profusely for asking a silly question, but I am feeling confused and I am seeking more clarity on this subject. Could anyone, please help me understand why the interaction ...
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2answers
3k views

What exactly is this small puffer fish doing and how did it manage to accomplish such a feat?

I recently saw a video on youtube where it shows a puffer fish making intricate designs in the sand: OZZY MAN VIDEO The puffer fish made this design on the sand: What exactly is the puffer ...
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2answers
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Is spiders building webs on plants an example of mutualism or commensalism?

In one section of the GED study book I'm looking through to prepare myself for exams, they define parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism, and give examples. One of the examples they give for ...
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What does it mean for Caenorhabditis species to be “pseudoparasitic”?

In this Wormbook chapter, Kiontke says that some Caenorhabditis species live "pseudoparasitically" on warm-blooded animals. What does it mean? What is a pseudoparasite? I understand a parasite to be ...
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Does the preservation fluid (ethanol or formaldehyde) leach heavy metals from mollusc tissue?

In a thread on researchgate, the concern was raised that long term exposure to unbuffered preservation fluids such as ethanol or formaldehyde may leach heavy metals from biological samples due to a ...
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Inequality factor for similarity sensitive diversity

In a research article, Lou Jost has introduced the concept of inequality factor. The paper is "The relation between evenness and diversity", published in 2010. Inequality factor allows an intuitive ...
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1answer
143 views

How do I determine this logistic growth model formula?

The Question Two yeast cells were placed into a special container to which food was continually added, to keep it at a constant concentration. All other factors were set for optimal yeast ...
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1answer
64 views

Measure of diversity, accounting for known species

I'm interested in measuring the diversity of each sample out of many independent samples. I know a priori all possible species that could appear in a sample, and expect the counts of species to be ...
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1answer
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Are there parasitoids of mosquitoes ? (other than nematodes)

Outside of nematodes, are there any examples of organisms that are parasitoids of mosquitoes ? I could not find any example in literature so far. I'm notably interested to know if the most known ...
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1answer
139 views

Why does water stress lead to alkalinity of xylem sap in plants?

I was reading this book: Plant Physiology and Development, Sixth Edition by Lincoln Taiz, Eduardo Zeiger, Ian M. Møller, and Angus Murphy when this doubt came to my mind. Abscisic acid, the stress ...
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What's the lowest temperature a tardigrade can remain active at?

There's a lot of information floating around the net about how tough they are & what they can survive, like "We now know that some tardigrades can tolerate being frozen to -272.8 °C". But any ...
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What's the lowest atmospheric pressure a tardigrade can remain active in?

I'm not asking what atmospheric pressures they can survive (we now they can survive the vacuum of space) I'm wondering at what point a deficit of atmospheric pressure would cause them to enter one of ...
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What is the thickness of the biosphere?

In other words, what is the vertical distance between the deepest and highest point on Earth where life is found? Life has been discovered at the bottom of the Mariana Trench, 13 km below sea level. ...
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1answer
229 views

What's the relationship between snail movement and rain?

I have a question about the relationship between snail and rain. A few days ago I found snail shells in a moist area and I brought them in for crafts work (I thought they were empty because snail ...
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Why is this spider wound in such a dense web?

I saw this thing yesterday on my window curtain, and I've been wondering what this is. It looks like a dense network of spider web, and the spider inside it is visible. I thought the spider was dead, ...
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1answer
28 views

Is there a record of species kept in zoos worldwide and number of individuals? If yes, can one have access to it?

Looking for the number and species of wild cats kept in zoos to assess the potential pool of individuals available for reintroduction programmes.

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