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Questions tagged [endocrinology]

The area of physiology dealing with the production and effects of hormones.

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3
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1answer
51 views

How does the body make sure that Vasoactive Intestinal Protein reaches only the target tissue?

Vasoactive Intestinal Protein (VIP) is a 28 amino acid neuropeptide that has several effects in several systems. These include the cardiovascular system, respiratory systerm, urinary system, immune ...
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0answers
27 views

Can testosterone affect your voice as an adult?

I have read that during puberty testosterone can thicken the vocal cord therefore your voice will get deeper, i also have read that once you reach adulthood you are stuck with the voice you have,can ...
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1answer
40 views

Why males are more prone to cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks than females?

I often see more people of males undergoing treatment for heart disease. It is often said that female reproductive hormone (oestrogen) has some cardio-protective action by preventing constriction of ...
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2answers
49 views

Are neurotransmitters part of the endocrine system?

I was speaking with a substitute teacher of mine, and we were discussing whether neurotransmitters are part of the endocrine system or not. My class just spent an entire semester on the topic of the ...
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0answers
8 views

Is atrial natriuretic peptide relased when we drink water?

I know that osmolarity is controlled by the hypothalamus and recover by ADH which reabsorb water. It also can be released when ECV is very low. ECV/salt is controlled by aldosterone/atrial ...
4
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1answer
48 views

Are all endocrine glands associated with common human feelings?

I was looking at endocrine glands and found it interesting that a few of them have some very understandable feelings/mentalities associated with them. In particular: Gonads: arousal/romance ...
5
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1answer
56 views

Can stress and arousal be independent?

I'm trying to figure out if it's possible to have a stress response without being initially, or simultaneously aroused. I'm defining stress to be physiological stress (ie. release of cortisol) and ...
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0answers
7 views

Science behind IGF-1 levels increase in milk from rBGH or rBGT treated cows

It is obvious that the use of rBGH or rBGT increases the IGF-1 levels in milk, but from all the research I have done on the internet I did not find why, well yeh cause they inject that hormone but how ...
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0answers
27 views

Is it possible for a woman born without any eggs to have normal levels of estrogen?

If a woman has no eggs, she cannot menstruate and cannot get pregnant; but can her ovaries produce normal levels of estrogen?
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0answers
25 views

Human children with sex abnormalities due to food packaging and river pollutants?

Some news sites are highly vocal about transgender news articles, and also sometimes report hormonal issues due to pollution, like sex-changes in fish and low sperm counts in men. Is there any ...
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0answers
19 views

Prolactin and Dopamine throughout orgasm?

Dopamine is also known as a prolactin-inhibiting hormone, which keeps prolactin levels in the body in check. However, during orgasm, dopamine is released to make the experience pleasurable. I know ...
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0answers
25 views

What happens to eyelids when we feel sleepy?

Why is that whenever we feel sleepy, our eyelids start to feel heavier. It is not like we can any time close our eyes and will immediately fall asleep. But, when we feel sleepy our eyelids ...
1
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1answer
64 views

How are testosterone levels distributed among men and women?

Wikipedia tells me that men have 7 to 8 time higher levels of testosterone than women, on average. Since the hormone is linked with performance in certain athletic events, my hypothesis, which I ...
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0answers
43 views

Could certain drugs enable one to consistently eat above TDEE or BMR without fat gains?

I heard anabolic steroids and stuff like DNP and ephedrine and etc. can somewhat enable one to eat more and get away with it without much or any fat gain, despite eating more than the body would ...
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0answers
23 views

What is the net effect of pancreatic somatostatin and how is it regulated?

I've read the following facts about pancreatic somatostatin released from delta cells of the islets of Langerhans: Blood glucose, fatty acids, and plasma amino acids stimulate somatostatin ...
2
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1answer
308 views

What's the difference between releasing hormones and tropic hormones?

I've been reading my textbook and two terms have appeared that, after a bit of looking, I still can't seem to be able to distinguish. Here's what the textbook says (McGraw Hill Bio 12, 2011): After ...
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1answer
121 views

Is there any way bicondylar/bigonial, bizygomatic or bitemporal breadth can change in adults?

Without cosmetic surgery or etc., are there any cases/example wherein a human adult has had a change in significance regarding these regions of the face? I have seen many anecdotes where people have ...
1
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1answer
2k views

What's the difference between the neuroendocrine system vs endocrine system?

This is what I have understood so far: Neuroendocrine system involved neuroendocrine cells (also known as neurosecretory cells) that receive nerve impulses by a sensory neuron to release ...
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1answer
51 views

Hormones - biotic or abiotic

Are hormones biotic or abiotic? I have tried reading different articles, and I've found that it is both, but can that be true?
2
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0answers
375 views

Why is erythropoietin produced in the kidney?

Erythropoietin is a hormone produced in the kidney to stimulate the generation of more red blood cell. It is triggered by low oxygen via HIF transcription factors. Makes sense. Oops, oxygen is low, ...
2
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1answer
1k views

What is the difference between a cytokine, a hormone and a protein hormone?

I'm trying to figure out the difference between hormone, cytokine and protein hormone. It's clear to me that all three are biological messengers, but there seems to some ambiguity and overlap between ...
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0answers
27 views

Delay of sleeping on cortisol cycle

I was told that cortisol has to be measured at 9am or 4pm, because those where its peak level. But I wonder if changes on sleep patters affect the cortisol cycle. I mean, if I usually go to sleep ...
4
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1answer
88 views

Why are the hormones dopamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and serotonin so ubiquitous across the animal kingdom?

As far as I know there is no reason for the makeup of a given hormone to be universal as it merely serves as a carrier from one part of the brain to another. So why are the above hormones seen across ...
2
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1answer
403 views

Is vitamin D a vitamin or a hormone?

Some people like to say that vitamin D is a hormone. A simple set of differences between hormones and vitamins is described here. Vitamin D is not (for the most part) absorbed through food but ...
3
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1answer
209 views

Can men also become only bald on their legs?

Often hair loss that primarily affects the top and front of the scalp will happen to men (and female) during aging. Male pattern hair loss is believed to be due to a combination of genetics and the ...
0
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1answer
144 views

Does estrogen increase muscular growth in females?

Regarding humans it is said that most psychological effects caused in men by testosterone are caused in women by estrogens. There are many studies on that, particularly regarding temporary shifts of ...
4
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1answer
207 views

Hormonal terms Somatotrophin or somatotropin?

Are Somatotropin and Somatotrophin hormones the same? It's confusing because when you type in Somatotrophin in google, it says, "a growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.", but there'...
2
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1answer
243 views

How is the urea cycle regulated with respect to protein deficit?

Proteins cannot be stored in the body. Excess proteins from the diet are deaminated in the urea cycle that takes place in the liver. The liver is the first contact since these amino acids are ...
0
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1answer
449 views

What allows the hypothalamus to detect a lack of thyroid hormones?

On the website www.yourhormones.com it is written: "If there is insufficient thyroid hormone available for the brain, this will be detected by the hypothalamus and thyrotropin-releasing hormone ...
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1answer
60 views

Are releasing-hormones and release-inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus ever present in the blood?

Our teacher said that these two hormones are normally never present in the blood stream, and to be carfeul of it if it comes as a question. I'm not conviced to be honest, is this true?
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0answers
147 views

Do ovaries produce estrogen before menarche?

It is traditionally taught that estrogen is produced by the granulosa cells of the follicle. But before menarche, where does the estrogen come from? Is it from the thin layer of granulosa cells lining ...
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2answers
11k views

difference between neurotransmitters and hormones

I have been reading a lot about neurotransmitters and hormones but what's the difference between them both or are they the same? It's been confusing for a while now. Also, why do some ...
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2answers
189 views

Are all of our hormones synthesized in the same gland that they are secreted from?

For example, growth hormone is secreted from the anterior pituitary; is it also synthesized there?
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0answers
16 views

What is the concentration/molecules per cell of iodothyronine deiodinase in a cell?

I'm trying to parameterize an in silico model and need the approximate concentration (M), or molecules per cell, of iodothyronine deiodinase type II (D2) enzyme in a human cell, ideally a glial cell. ...
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0answers
45 views

How are neuromodulator receptors distributed?

Irrespective of where, when and how neuromodulators are released, eventually they are detected by some receptors in the membrane of a target neuron (typically G protein–coupled receptors) ...
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1answer
4k views

Does donating blood lower testosterone levels? [closed]

I'm a guy and I decided to donate blood because of persuasion. My testicles feel weak afterwards specifically. I mean they feel like they're compensating -- assuming that makes sense. Is this because ...
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0answers
431 views

What causes weight loss and fatigue in Addison's disease?

Why would a lack of cortisol cause fatigue? In terms of normal functioning of the gland.
3
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2answers
739 views

What is the difference between neurotransmitters acting as neurotransmitters and hormones?

My main confusion is what differentiates the action of a transmitter substance as a neurotransmitter and as a hormone. For example, when norepinephrine is being talked about as transmitter substance ...
2
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0answers
45 views

What causes puberty to begin? [closed]

I understand that puberty begins when hormones are released from the pituitary gland as instructed by the hypothalamus, but why does the hypothalamus instruct this to occur? How is this process timed ...
0
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1answer
24 views

can dissolving be endothermic process [closed]

can dissolving be endothermic process. I have a container with glucose(solid state) and added water and found the container getting colder. was wondering there is no reaction(just a physical process) ...
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1answer
1k views

Is there a biological urge to have children in women?

Searching information about this subject often leads to personal stories from women making the choice to live childfree and women stating they either always wanted to have children or experienced a ...
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0answers
121 views

Role of auxin and cytokinins in vascular cambium or callus formation

Usually, auxins promote cell growth and cytokinins promote cell division. But, I got an information from my teacher that, in case of vascular cambium or callus formation, auxins promote cell division ...
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1answer
120 views

Testosterone level in body with activites

Does ejaculation lower level of testosterone in body, Conflicting reports on internet, a firm answer would help a lot?
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0answers
220 views

Does testosterone weaken the immune system?

I was reading this articles here that states that the higher the blood level of testosterone is, the weaker the immune system gets. I read another article about testosterone here that focuses on the ...
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0answers
137 views

Exocrine system + endocrine system =?

What is the title name for endocrine system + exocrine system? In another language that I speak they are called "secretion system" but in English the term secretion system is different and it is ...
0
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0answers
50 views

Gland defined based on morphology or hormone secretion?

Is a gland defined by a visible morphology, or is anything that secretes a hormone a gland? The answer does matter for the definition of histamine. Based on the answer I can conclude whether it's an ...
0
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1answer
144 views

How are commercial steroid hormones produced? [closed]

Does someone know how oestrogens and androgens used for treatment are made? Is it with a GMO bacteria? Is it chemistry? Thanks
7
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1answer
158 views

What is this small tissue structure found in kidney?

It's covered with white adipose tissue and it is smooth with reddish brown colour. HE dyed with dimensions 3 cm long and 1 cm wide. I'm guessing that this is a rare thing because I already checked ...
3
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1answer
416 views

What will happen if there is high concentration of both calcitonin and PTH in blood?

What will happen if there were a high concentration of both calcitonin and PTH (parathyroid hormone) in the blood? In that case, will calcium resorption from bone occur, or absorption from intestine, ...
2
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0answers
98 views

What is the current consensus on the Loveheim Cube of Emotion [closed]

I recently encountered the Lovheim Cube of Emotion. I was wondering what level of supporting research there is to go with it and whether or not there is a concensus at this stage. If I'm perfectly ...