Questions tagged [endocrinology]

The area of physiology dealing with the production and effects of hormones.

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24 views

Is it possible for a woman born without any eggs to have normal levels of estrogen?

If a woman has no eggs, she cannot menstruate and cannot get pregnant; but can her ovaries produce normal levels of estrogen?
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Human children with sex abnormalities due to food packaging and river pollutants?

Some news sites are highly vocal about transgender news articles, and also sometimes report hormonal issues due to pollution, like sex-changes in fish and low sperm counts in men. Is there any ...
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Prolactin and Dopamine throughout orgasm?

Dopamine is also known as a prolactin-inhibiting hormone, which keeps prolactin levels in the body in check. However, during orgasm, dopamine is released to make the experience pleasurable. I know ...
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24 views

What happens to eyelids when we feel sleepy?

Why is that whenever we feel sleepy, our eyelids start to feel heavier. It is not like we can any time close our eyes and will immediately fall asleep. But, when we feel sleepy our eyelids ...
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56 views

How are testosterone levels distributed among men and women?

Wikipedia tells me that men have 7 to 8 time higher levels of testosterone than women, on average. Since the hormone is linked with performance in certain athletic events, my hypothesis, which I ...
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Could certain drugs enable one to consistently eat above TDEE or BMR without fat gains?

I heard anabolic steroids and stuff like DNP and ephedrine and etc. can somewhat enable one to eat more and get away with it without much or any fat gain, despite eating more than the body would ...
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What is the net effect of pancreatic somatostatin and how is it regulated?

I've read the following facts about pancreatic somatostatin released from delta cells of the islets of Langerhans: Blood glucose, fatty acids, and plasma amino acids stimulate somatostatin ...
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1answer
182 views

What's the difference between releasing hormones and tropic hormones?

I've been reading my textbook and two terms have appeared that, after a bit of looking, I still can't seem to be able to distinguish. Here's what the textbook says (McGraw Hill Bio 12, 2011): After ...
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1answer
114 views

Is there any way bicondylar/bigonial, bizygomatic or bitemporal breadth can change in adults?

Without cosmetic surgery or etc., are there any cases/example wherein a human adult has had a change in significance regarding these regions of the face? I have seen many anecdotes where people have ...
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2k views

What's the difference between the neuroendocrine system vs endocrine system?

This is what I have understood so far: Neuroendocrine system involved neuroendocrine cells (also known as neurosecretory cells) that receive nerve impulses by a sensory neuron to release ...
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40 views

Hormones - biotic or abiotic

Are hormones biotic or abiotic? I have tried reading different articles, and I've found that it is both, but can that be true?
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361 views

Why is erythropoietin produced in the kidney?

Erythropoietin is a hormone produced in the kidney to stimulate the generation of more red blood cell. It is triggered by low oxygen via HIF transcription factors. Makes sense. Oops, oxygen is low, ...
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664 views

What is the difference between a cytokine, a hormone and a protein hormone?

I'm trying to figure out the difference between hormone, cytokine and protein hormone. It's clear to me that all three are biological messengers, but there seems to some ambiguity and overlap between ...
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25 views

Delay of sleeping on cortisol cycle

I was told that cortisol has to be measured at 9am or 4pm, because those where its peak level. But I wonder if changes on sleep patters affect the cortisol cycle. I mean, if I usually go to sleep ...
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86 views

Why are the hormones dopamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and serotonin so ubiquitous across the animal kingdom?

As far as I know there is no reason for the makeup of a given hormone to be universal as it merely serves as a carrier from one part of the brain to another. So why are the above hormones seen across ...
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1answer
367 views

Is vitamin D a vitamin or a hormone?

Some people like to say that vitamin D is a hormone. A simple set of differences between hormones and vitamins is described here. Vitamin D is not (for the most part) absorbed through food but ...
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Why the same complex compounds occur and play different roles in different organisms?

For instance, in humans estrogens function as sexual hormones, but they also occur in many plants, where obviously their role is totally different. Some compounds, such as psilocybin have psycho-...
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175 views

Can men also become only bald on their legs?

Often hair loss that primarily affects the top and front of the scalp will happen to men (and female) during aging. Male pattern hair loss is believed to be due to a combination of genetics and the ...
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116 views

Does estrogen increase muscular growth in females?

Regarding humans it is said that most psychological effects caused in men by testosterone are caused in women by estrogens. There are many studies on that, particularly regarding temporary shifts of ...
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Hormonal terms Somatotrophin or somatotropin?

Are Somatotropin and Somatotrophin hormones the same? It's confusing because when you type in Somatotrophin in google, it says, "a growth hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.", but there'...
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198 views

How is the urea cycle regulated with respect to protein deficit?

Proteins cannot be stored in the body. Excess proteins from the diet are deaminated in the urea cycle that takes place in the liver. The liver is the first contact since these amino acids are ...
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441 views

What allows the hypothalamus to detect a lack of thyroid hormones?

On the website www.yourhormones.com it is written: "If there is insufficient thyroid hormone available for the brain, this will be detected by the hypothalamus and thyrotropin-releasing hormone ...
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57 views

Are releasing-hormones and release-inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus ever present in the blood?

Our teacher said that these two hormones are normally never present in the blood stream, and to be carfeul of it if it comes as a question. I'm not conviced to be honest, is this true?
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Do ovaries produce estrogen before menarche?

It is traditionally taught that estrogen is produced by the granulosa cells of the follicle. But before menarche, where does the estrogen come from? Is it from the thin layer of granulosa cells lining ...
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difference between neurotransmitters and hormones

I have been reading a lot about neurotransmitters and hormones but what's the difference between them both or are they the same? It's been confusing for a while now. Also, why do some ...
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178 views

Are all of our hormones synthesized in the same gland that they are secreted from?

For example, growth hormone is secreted from the anterior pituitary; is it also synthesized there?
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What is the concentration/molecules per cell of iodothyronine deiodinase in a cell?

I'm trying to parameterize an in silico model and need the approximate concentration (M), or molecules per cell, of iodothyronine deiodinase type II (D2) enzyme in a human cell, ideally a glial cell. ...
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How are neuromodulator receptors distributed?

Irrespective of where, when and how neuromodulators are released, eventually they are detected by some receptors in the membrane of a target neuron (typically G protein–coupled receptors) ...
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Does donating blood lower testosterone levels? [closed]

I'm a guy and I decided to donate blood because of persuasion. My testicles feel weak afterwards specifically. I mean they feel like they're compensating -- assuming that makes sense. Is this because ...
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403 views

What causes weight loss and fatigue in Addison's disease?

Why would a lack of cortisol cause fatigue? In terms of normal functioning of the gland.
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708 views

What is the difference between neurotransmitters acting as neurotransmitters and hormones?

My main confusion is what differentiates the action of a transmitter substance as a neurotransmitter and as a hormone. For example, when norepinephrine is being talked about as transmitter substance ...
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45 views

What causes puberty to begin? [closed]

I understand that puberty begins when hormones are released from the pituitary gland as instructed by the hypothalamus, but why does the hypothalamus instruct this to occur? How is this process timed ...
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1answer
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can dissolving be endothermic process [closed]

can dissolving be endothermic process. I have a container with glucose(solid state) and added water and found the container getting colder. was wondering there is no reaction(just a physical process) ...
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1k views

Is there a biological urge to have children in women?

Searching information about this subject often leads to personal stories from women making the choice to live childfree and women stating they either always wanted to have children or experienced a ...
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120 views

Role of auxin and cytokinins in vascular cambium or callus formation

Usually, auxins promote cell growth and cytokinins promote cell division. But, I got an information from my teacher that, in case of vascular cambium or callus formation, auxins promote cell division ...
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118 views

Testosterone level in body with activites

Does ejaculation lower level of testosterone in body, Conflicting reports on internet, a firm answer would help a lot?
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210 views

Does testosterone weaken the immune system?

I was reading this articles here that states that the higher the blood level of testosterone is, the weaker the immune system gets. I read another article about testosterone here that focuses on the ...
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134 views

Exocrine system + endocrine system =?

What is the title name for endocrine system + exocrine system? In another language that I speak they are called "secretion system" but in English the term secretion system is different and it is ...
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47 views

Gland defined based on morphology or hormone secretion?

Is a gland defined by a visible morphology, or is anything that secretes a hormone a gland? The answer does matter for the definition of histamine. Based on the answer I can conclude whether it's an ...
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1answer
139 views

How are commercial steroid hormones produced? [closed]

Does someone know how oestrogens and androgens used for treatment are made? Is it with a GMO bacteria? Is it chemistry? Thanks
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155 views

What is this small tissue structure found in kidney?

It's covered with white adipose tissue and it is smooth with reddish brown colour. HE dyed with dimensions 3 cm long and 1 cm wide. I'm guessing that this is a rare thing because I already checked ...
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405 views

What will happen if there is high concentration of both calcitonin and PTH in blood?

What will happen if there were a high concentration of both calcitonin and PTH (parathyroid hormone) in the blood? In that case, will calcium resorption from bone occur, or absorption from intestine, ...
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What is the current consensus on the Loveheim Cube of Emotion [closed]

I recently encountered the Lovheim Cube of Emotion. I was wondering what level of supporting research there is to go with it and whether or not there is a concensus at this stage. If I'm perfectly ...
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893 views

Link between pornography abstinence and hormone levels

I have a question regarding abstinence from pornography, and also possibly celibacy, and how these two lifestyle choices affect hormone levels. Trends such as No Fap have been emerging recently. An ...
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1answer
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Why is secretin sensitive to acid?

My textbook says, secretin secretion is triggered by the presence of acidic chyme in intestine. But why is secretin sensitive to acidic environment? I checked the wikipedia page of secretin and found ...
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Why do palpitations happen when someone is nearing something rewarding? [closed]

When you are nearing something rewarding (IE: winning a prize, or winning a game), why do you experience tachycardia? For example, if someone entered a raffle with the number 9284938, and the ...
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177 views

Attraction and hormones levels

Why do we ignore all imperfections in people we fall in love with for a couple of months, but after a certain period we start noticing imperfections? Can hormones - or any chemical - be used to ...
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523 views

What is the function of oxyphilic cells in the parathyroid?

Apart from the chief cells, which produce and secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), the parathyroid gland has another type of cells, which are large and fewer in number, have small, dark nuclei and an ...
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What happens to apetite hormones like ghrelin and leptin when a person in coma?

Don't coma individuals feel hungry? If so, how does the brain senses this condition (as coma is caused by neural death or damage) and switches off gene expression of ghrelin and leptin. Is there any ...
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Are hormone secretion variations the same for a pair of monozygotic twins?

I have recently read a paper about how stress affects morning salivary cortisol levels in an individual. I am conducting a study on monozygotic twins and was wondering if cortisol levels would ...