Questions tagged [endocrinology]

The area of physiology dealing with the production and effects of hormones.

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Why do beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptors result in two completely different effects (though both use Gs pathway)?

$\beta_2$ adrenergic Receptors are $G_s$-coupled 7-TM proteins. Considering that $G_s$ , by activation increases $[\text{cAMP}]_\text{cytosol}$ which inhibits MLCK of smooth muscles (and causes ...
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What happens to apetite hormones like ghrelin and leptin when a person in coma?

Don't coma individuals feel hungry? If so, how does the brain senses this condition (as coma is caused by neural death or damage) and switches off gene expression of ghrelin and leptin. Is there any ...
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Aging and Hormone Levels

Hormone levels in humans decrease with age. The effects are especially detrimental for women after menopause. Biologists state that turtles do not exhibit most of the phenomena related to aging. For ...
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What is the biological basis of “energy” that extraverted humans draw from social engagements and introverts expend?

This question is related to this question about introverts becoming exhausted after extended social events on cognitive sciences stack exchange. As I read more on the topic of human extraversion-...
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How do duplicate brain regions (ex: left/right amygdaloid body) operate together?

I frequently hear talk about parts of the brain like "Amygdala" or "Hypothalamus", so I looked them up in an app called "essential anatomy". What I see is that there's mirror symmetry, and most of ...
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What is the mechanism by which Melatonin increases dream vividness and intensity in humans?

I'm looking at the wikipedia article on Melatonin and noticed that it mentions vivid dreaming caused by melatonin. I have the "Melatonin and the Biological clock" pamphlet referenced in the article, ...
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157 views

Do ovaries produce estrogen before menarche?

It is traditionally taught that estrogen is produced by the granulosa cells of the follicle. But before menarche, where does the estrogen come from? Is it from the thin layer of granulosa cells lining ...
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Exocrine system + endocrine system =?

What is the title name for endocrine system + exocrine system? In another language that I speak they are called "secretion system" but in English the term secretion system is different and it is ...
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Alan Turing was treated with estrogen-analog, though he was gay. Shouldn't it actually increase his female-like desires?

Alan Turing was a great mathematical genius of all the time, as well was a homosexual-male. However, the biography of Alan Turing on Wikipedia ( Permalink ) tells that : Turing was convicted and ...
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Why does pink colour reduce aggressiveness?

According to this Wikipedia page, a shade of pink colour known as "Baker-Miller_Pink" has been known to reduce aggressive behaviour. Is there any biochemical reaction responsible for this? ...
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How does estrogen influence collagen synthesis?

Through what mechanisms does estrogen interact with collagen synthesis? Especially in the context of elevated estrogen levels and genesis of purpura simplex .
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Do circadian hormones fluctuations follow sleeping patterns or the time of day?

It is said that testosterone and cortisol are at their highest early in the morning, at 8 am, and lowest at night. What happens, though, if someone regularly goes to sleep at 8 am and wakes up in the ...
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Could certain drugs enable one to consistently eat above TDEE or BMR without fat gains?

I heard anabolic steroids and stuff like DNP and ephedrine and etc. can somewhat enable one to eat more and get away with it without much or any fat gain, despite eating more than the body would ...
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Why is erythropoietin produced in the kidney?

Erythropoietin is a hormone produced in the kidney to stimulate the generation of more red blood cell. It is triggered by low oxygen via HIF transcription factors. Makes sense. Oops, oxygen is low, ...
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What is the concentration/molecules per cell of iodothyronine deiodinase in a cell?

I'm trying to parameterize an in silico model and need the approximate concentration (M), or molecules per cell, of iodothyronine deiodinase type II (D2) enzyme in a human cell, ideally a glial cell. ...
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Nail polish toxicity studies?

Are there any well-founded studies that authoritatively demonstrate negative effects from the use of nail polish, particularly in children? I've been brought into the fray of a couple of folks who ...
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562 views

Proteases in the blood

I’m reading on hormones and the book talks about how peptide or amine hormones are easily broken down by proteases present in the blood plasma. This has led me to question the interactions between ...
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797 views

What's the feedback regulation of Thyroid diseases and body temperature?

While going through the feedback regulation, the control of blood glucose level by insulin and glucagon is quite discussed in multiple materials including the textbook. I also understand the basic ...
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Is there an entry-level circadian model of serotonin, ghrelin, dopamine and the sense of well being?

I've long been interested in circadian rhythms and recently came across a variety of articles that appear to indicate that the following neurotransmitters, transferases and hormones are connected. ...
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Effect of angle of light on flowering of plants

I understand that the angle of light changes the direction of growth in plants (phototropism), but would the angle of light have any effect as such on the flowering of plants? Thank you!
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Prolactin and Dopamine throughout orgasm?

Dopamine is also known as a prolactin-inhibiting hormone, which keeps prolactin levels in the body in check. However, during orgasm, dopamine is released to make the experience pleasurable. I know ...
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What happens to eyelids when we feel sleepy?

Why is that whenever we feel sleepy, our eyelids start to feel heavier. It is not like we can any time close our eyes and will immediately fall asleep. But, when we feel sleepy our eyelids ...
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Delay of sleeping on cortisol cycle

I was told that cortisol has to be measured at 9am or 4pm, because those where its peak level. But I wonder if changes on sleep patters affect the cortisol cycle. I mean, if I usually go to sleep ...
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174 views

Does estrogen increase muscular growth in females?

Regarding humans it is said that most psychological effects caused in men by testosterone are caused in women by estrogens. There are many studies on that, particularly regarding temporary shifts of ...
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How are neuromodulator receptors distributed?

Irrespective of where, when and how neuromodulators are released, eventually they are detected by some receptors in the membrane of a target neuron (typically G protein–coupled receptors) ...
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What causes weight loss and fatigue in Addison's disease?

Why would a lack of cortisol cause fatigue? In terms of normal functioning of the gland.
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Role of auxin and cytokinins in vascular cambium or callus formation

Usually, auxins promote cell growth and cytokinins promote cell division. But, I got an information from my teacher that, in case of vascular cambium or callus formation, auxins promote cell division ...
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270 views

Does testosterone weaken the immune system?

I was reading this articles here that states that the higher the blood level of testosterone is, the weaker the immune system gets. I read another article about testosterone here that focuses on the ...
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542 views

What is the function of oxyphilic cells in the parathyroid?

Apart from the chief cells, which produce and secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), the parathyroid gland has another type of cells, which are large and fewer in number, have small, dark nuclei and an ...
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Thyroid transplanted to the abdomen

This question was posed in our endocrinology class, however I have no idea how to answer it: The thyroid gland of a 5-year old boy is transplanted from its normal position in the neck to the abdomen (...
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Glycoprotein hormones metabolism

Why do the carbohydrate groups in glycoprotein hormones decrease the rate of metabolism? And increase the half-life?
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Why do Sorghum Bicolor leaves roll up?

In A level Bio today we talked about abcesic acid as a stress hormone, and its ability to reduce osmotic potential around guard cells to close stomata. My question is, is abscesic acid in sorghum ...
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Hormones and body mass

I was wondering how some animals (bulls, elephants etc.) become so large by only eating grass or plant based material and why some humans can build large amounts of muscle and mass without a proper ...
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Is there a biological urge to have children in women?

Searching information about this subject often leads to personal stories from women making the choice to live childfree and women stating they either always wanted to have children or experienced a ...
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2answers
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Hormonal effects of Luteinizing hormone on endometrium

What is the effect of luteinizing hormone on the endometrium? A general answer to this query is that it only thickens it. The same could also be said for the effect of Follicle stimulating hormone (...
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When assessing a threat, does the amygdala compare the stimulus to memories of the amygdala or the hippocampus?

Two excerpts from the one article. My understanding of this excerpt is that the amygdala is using its own memories: The amygdala learns how to respond to various stimuli based on it’s reference to ...
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Mandibular angle steepness/curve — adjustment possibilities from a biological and physics/mechanical standpoint

Is there any known way by anyone on here who could postulate a method by which the steepness of the mandibular angle can be altered to a lower degree with the concepts of morphogenic, bioenergetic/...
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Why isn't there T2 thyroid hormone?

The follicles in the thyroid, intake iodine and bind them onto the tyrosine rings (attached to the thyroglobulin). This produces either MIT or DIT (tyrosine rings with 1 or 2 iodines attached ...
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Silly question about two human mechanisms: induced “REM dreams” by masturbation?

First of all, I'm a layman concerning Biological discussion. Well, my question is simple: is there any relationship between the hormones liberated by masturbation and REM phase of sleep? I'm ...
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Which hormones, metabolites, or other molecules build up as the day progresses, other than melatonin and adenosine?

Melatonin and adenosine reach peak levels around midnight/bedtime. I was wondering what other molecules also buildup as the day progresses. Particularly molecules that affect the CNS and/or immune ...
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Endocrine system in frogs, interstitial pressure gradient prevents absorption into blood?

Frogs have an elastic interstitial space and the pressure gradient to capillaries prevents reabsorption (Hendrick, 2013). Does this mean that diffusion of hormones into capillaries becomes a problem, ...
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Endocrinology - cortisol and its effect on growth

If cortisol has permissive effect on growth hormone then why does patients with Cushing syndrome are of stunted growth ?
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Gland defined based on morphology or hormone secretion?

Is a gland defined by a visible morphology, or is anything that secretes a hormone a gland? The answer does matter for the definition of histamine. Based on the answer I can conclude whether it's an ...
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Can human be emotionless?

Is it possible that a person can't produce, like, dopamine, serotonin, and other emotion hormones? Or, a part of the brain can't function to make one feel something?
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Does physical exercise of a specific part affect muscles in the other parts of the body?

There is a theory among bodybuilders, that is, if you train big muscle groups (e.g. legs, chest), it will increase the overall growth of muscles all over the body; the trained muscle will release ...
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Root etiology of non-pituitary low T4 and low TSH

Please note: I'd like to preface this question by stating that this is neither homework nor me seeking medical advice. I am simply trying to understand the biological, physiological root etiology ...
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Why males are more prone to cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks than females?

I often see more people of males undergoing treatment for heart disease. It is often said that female reproductive hormone (oestrogen) has some cardio-protective action by preventing constriction of ...
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132 views

Testosterone level in body with activites

Does ejaculation lower level of testosterone in body, Conflicting reports on internet, a firm answer would help a lot?
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292 views

Does exercise really reduce stress in the biological meaning?

It is a very widespread claim, that movement in general helps body to get out stress hormones. It is used as a warning for long sitting at the computer and I also heard it as a pro-vegan argument (We ...