Questions tagged [endocrinology]

The area of physiology dealing with the production and effects of hormones.

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517 views

What allows the hypothalamus to detect a lack of thyroid hormones?

On the website www.yourhormones.com it is written: "If there is insufficient thyroid hormone available for the brain, this will be detected by the hypothalamus and thyrotropin-releasing hormone ...
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63 views

Are releasing-hormones and release-inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus ever present in the blood?

Our teacher said that these two hormones are normally never present in the blood stream, and to be carfeul of it if it comes as a question. I'm not conviced to be honest, is this true?
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Do ovaries produce estrogen before menarche?

It is traditionally taught that estrogen is produced by the granulosa cells of the follicle. But before menarche, where does the estrogen come from? Is it from the thin layer of granulosa cells lining ...
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difference between neurotransmitters and hormones

I have been reading a lot about neurotransmitters and hormones but what's the difference between them both or are they the same? It's been confusing for a while now. Also, why do some ...
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Are all of our hormones synthesized in the same gland that they are secreted from?

For example, growth hormone is secreted from the anterior pituitary; is it also synthesized there?
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What is the concentration/molecules per cell of iodothyronine deiodinase in a cell?

I'm trying to parameterize an in silico model and need the approximate concentration (M), or molecules per cell, of iodothyronine deiodinase type II (D2) enzyme in a human cell, ideally a glial cell. ...
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49 views

How are neuromodulator receptors distributed?

Irrespective of where, when and how neuromodulators are released, eventually they are detected by some receptors in the membrane of a target neuron (typically G protein–coupled receptors) ...
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Does donating blood lower testosterone levels? [closed]

I'm a guy and I decided to donate blood because of persuasion. My testicles feel weak afterwards specifically. I mean they feel like they're compensating -- assuming that makes sense. Is this because ...
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456 views

What causes weight loss and fatigue in Addison's disease?

Why would a lack of cortisol cause fatigue? In terms of normal functioning of the gland.
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What is the difference between neurotransmitters acting as neurotransmitters and hormones?

My main confusion is what differentiates the action of a transmitter substance as a neurotransmitter and as a hormone. For example, when norepinephrine is being talked about as transmitter substance ...
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49 views

What causes puberty to begin? [closed]

I understand that puberty begins when hormones are released from the pituitary gland as instructed by the hypothalamus, but why does the hypothalamus instruct this to occur? How is this process timed ...
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can dissolving be endothermic process [closed]

can dissolving be endothermic process. I have a container with glucose(solid state) and added water and found the container getting colder. was wondering there is no reaction(just a physical process) ...
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Is there a biological urge to have children in women?

Searching information about this subject often leads to personal stories from women making the choice to live childfree and women stating they either always wanted to have children or experienced a ...
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Role of auxin and cytokinins in vascular cambium or callus formation

Usually, auxins promote cell growth and cytokinins promote cell division. But, I got an information from my teacher that, in case of vascular cambium or callus formation, auxins promote cell division ...
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Testosterone level in body with activites

Does ejaculation lower level of testosterone in body, Conflicting reports on internet, a firm answer would help a lot?
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Does testosterone weaken the immune system?

I was reading this articles here that states that the higher the blood level of testosterone is, the weaker the immune system gets. I read another article about testosterone here that focuses on the ...
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139 views

Exocrine system + endocrine system =?

What is the title name for endocrine system + exocrine system? In another language that I speak they are called "secretion system" but in English the term secretion system is different and it is ...
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Gland defined based on morphology or hormone secretion?

Is a gland defined by a visible morphology, or is anything that secretes a hormone a gland? The answer does matter for the definition of histamine. Based on the answer I can conclude whether it's an ...
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159 views

How are commercial steroid hormones produced? [closed]

Does someone know how oestrogens and androgens used for treatment are made? Is it with a GMO bacteria? Is it chemistry? Thanks
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What is this small tissue structure found in kidney?

It's covered with white adipose tissue and it is smooth with reddish brown colour. HE dyed with dimensions 3 cm long and 1 cm wide. I'm guessing that this is a rare thing because I already checked ...
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What will happen if there is high concentration of both calcitonin and PTH in blood?

What will happen if there were a high concentration of both calcitonin and PTH (parathyroid hormone) in the blood? In that case, will calcium resorption from bone occur, or absorption from intestine, ...
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What is the current consensus on the Loveheim Cube of Emotion [closed]

I recently encountered the Lovheim Cube of Emotion. I was wondering what level of supporting research there is to go with it and whether or not there is a concensus at this stage. If I'm perfectly ...
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Link between pornography abstinence and hormone levels

I have a question regarding abstinence from pornography, and also possibly celibacy, and how these two lifestyle choices affect hormone levels. Trends such as No Fap have been emerging recently. An ...
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Why is secretin sensitive to acid?

My textbook says, secretin secretion is triggered by the presence of acidic chyme in intestine. But why is secretin sensitive to acidic environment? I checked the wikipedia page of secretin and found ...
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Why do palpitations happen when someone is nearing something rewarding? [closed]

When you are nearing something rewarding (IE: winning a prize, or winning a game), why do you experience tachycardia? For example, if someone entered a raffle with the number 9284938, and the ...
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Attraction and hormones levels

Why do we ignore all imperfections in people we fall in love with for a couple of months, but after a certain period we start noticing imperfections? Can hormones - or any chemical - be used to ...
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What is the function of oxyphilic cells in the parathyroid?

Apart from the chief cells, which produce and secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), the parathyroid gland has another type of cells, which are large and fewer in number, have small, dark nuclei and an ...
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What happens to apetite hormones like ghrelin and leptin when a person in coma?

Don't coma individuals feel hungry? If so, how does the brain senses this condition (as coma is caused by neural death or damage) and switches off gene expression of ghrelin and leptin. Is there any ...
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Are hormone secretion variations the same for a pair of monozygotic twins?

I have recently read a paper about how stress affects morning salivary cortisol levels in an individual. I am conducting a study on monozygotic twins and was wondering if cortisol levels would ...
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Do all organs of our body secrete hormones?

My teacher says that all organs of our body secrete some kind of hormone so they are all glands. Is the statement entirely correct without any exceptions? Till date I am unable to find any exception ...
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What is meant by “catalytic amount of a hormone”?

This textbook says: In the classic definition, hormones are secretory products of the ductless glands, which are released in catalytic amounts into the blood stream and transported to specific ...
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what is the difference between pituitary dwarfism and thyroid dwarfism? [closed]

My book (Comprehensive Biology class XI, by J P Sharma ) mentions of two kinds of dwarfism- "Pituitary Dwarfism" and "Thyroid Dwarfism" but does not provide any details about the matter. so please ...
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Why is insulin given in type 2 diabetes?

For this reason "insulin insensitivity", or a decrease in insulin receptor signaling, leads to diabetes mellitus type 2 – the cells are unable to take up glucose, and the result is hyperglycemia (an ...
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Alan Turing was treated with estrogen-analog, though he was gay. Shouldn't it actually increase his female-like desires?

Alan Turing was a great mathematical genius of all the time, as well was a homosexual-male. However, the biography of Alan Turing on Wikipedia ( Permalink ) tells that : Turing was convicted and ...
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Function of testosterone in women and estrogen in men

I was recently surprised to find out that testosterone and estrogen are found in both men and women albeit in different amounts. I know that testosterone is related to the development of facial, body ...
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460 views

Activation of Glycogen Synthesis by Insulin - mechanism and cellular location?

My textbook states the following... Insulin activates enzymes that convert glucose to glycogen. Does this conversion occur inside or outside the liver and muscle ...
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Why does pink colour reduce aggressiveness?

According to this Wikipedia page, a shade of pink colour known as "Baker-Miller_Pink" has been known to reduce aggressive behaviour. Is there any biochemical reaction responsible for this? ...
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Why are fearful stimuli more powerful at night?

For example, horror movies appear to be scarier when viewed at night than during broad day light. Does light have any role in this phenomenon? Are there changes in hormones at night versus during ...
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Thyroid transplanted to the abdomen

This question was posed in our endocrinology class, however I have no idea how to answer it: The thyroid gland of a 5-year old boy is transplanted from its normal position in the neck to the abdomen (...
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Do two hormones have the same effect on a cell if the second messenger is the same?

There are so many hormones/cytokines/neurotransmitters and receptors, all of which act through about 4-5 second-messenger systems. So if one particular cell has receptors for say, two different ...
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How do chameleons signal cells to change color?

I have read about how they can change color, but is there literature about the chemical signaling process they use to do so? I read that it could be some combination of hormones and neurotransmitters,...
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Aging and Hormone Levels

Hormone levels in humans decrease with age. The effects are especially detrimental for women after menopause. Biologists state that turtles do not exhibit most of the phenomena related to aging. For ...
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why a testosterone pill can't be effective?

Why estrogen, progesterone etc. in the contraceptive pills survive the acid environment of the stomach and all the digestive enzymes, while testosterone needs to be injected or spread with a gel on ...
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Does the effect of light on melatonin release adapts to light level over long periods of time?

Or do you go to bed with low levels of melatonin when you stay behind a computer screen all day?
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Why do women mature (physically) earlier than men? [closed]

All sources I've read (the first page) states that the fact that women mature (in the sense of physical maturing) earlier than man is caused by the earlier selective prunning in brain. Though, this is ...
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Why do we make T4 if we only use T3?

So, recently, I learnt that T4 and T3 are both released into circulation but only T3 is the active form. Why then, do we make T4 in the first place? I read that T4 has a higher half-life, which might ...
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What are the differences between Signaler and Primer pheromones?

I have searched few authentic books and have found the following difference between them. Signaler pheromone induces fast reaction in the recipient and the Primer induces slow reaction. But I did ...
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How does hyperthyroidism cause diarrhea?

According to Robbin's Pathology, hyperthyroidism leads to an overactivity of the sympathetic system. It also goes on to mention that this sympathetic hyperstimulation in the gut leads to increased ...
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How are Thyroid Stimulating Ab destroying thyroid tissues?

I was reading about Graves' disease, which is an autoimmune disorder. I read a few books, including Endocrinology by Hadley and Levine, and websites where they mentioned that the antibody named TSAb (...
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Is Thyroxine a hormone?

I have read the phrase 'T3 is three to four times more potent than T4' several times both in books and websites. But isn't T4 a prohormone of T3? Why do then these sources talk about its potency as a ...