Questions tagged [endocrinology]

The area of physiology dealing with the production and effects of hormones.

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1answer
148 views

How are commercial steroid hormones produced? [closed]

Does someone know how oestrogens and androgens used for treatment are made? Is it with a GMO bacteria? Is it chemistry? Thanks
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1answer
162 views

What is this small tissue structure found in kidney?

It's covered with white adipose tissue and it is smooth with reddish brown colour. HE dyed with dimensions 3 cm long and 1 cm wide. I'm guessing that this is a rare thing because I already checked ...
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1answer
422 views

What will happen if there is high concentration of both calcitonin and PTH in blood?

What will happen if there were a high concentration of both calcitonin and PTH (parathyroid hormone) in the blood? In that case, will calcium resorption from bone occur, or absorption from intestine, ...
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0answers
112 views

What is the current consensus on the Loveheim Cube of Emotion [closed]

I recently encountered the Lovheim Cube of Emotion. I was wondering what level of supporting research there is to go with it and whether or not there is a concensus at this stage. If I'm perfectly ...
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1answer
1k views

Link between pornography abstinence and hormone levels

I have a question regarding abstinence from pornography, and also possibly celibacy, and how these two lifestyle choices affect hormone levels. Trends such as No Fap have been emerging recently. An ...
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1answer
41 views

Why is secretin sensitive to acid?

My textbook says, secretin secretion is triggered by the presence of acidic chyme in intestine. But why is secretin sensitive to acidic environment? I checked the wikipedia page of secretin and found ...
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0answers
52 views

Why do palpitations happen when someone is nearing something rewarding? [closed]

When you are nearing something rewarding (IE: winning a prize, or winning a game), why do you experience tachycardia? For example, if someone entered a raffle with the number 9284938, and the ...
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1answer
183 views

Attraction and hormones levels

Why do we ignore all imperfections in people we fall in love with for a couple of months, but after a certain period we start noticing imperfections? Can hormones - or any chemical - be used to ...
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0answers
534 views

What is the function of oxyphilic cells in the parathyroid?

Apart from the chief cells, which produce and secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), the parathyroid gland has another type of cells, which are large and fewer in number, have small, dark nuclei and an ...
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135 views

What happens to apetite hormones like ghrelin and leptin when a person in coma?

Don't coma individuals feel hungry? If so, how does the brain senses this condition (as coma is caused by neural death or damage) and switches off gene expression of ghrelin and leptin. Is there any ...
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1answer
58 views

Are hormone secretion variations the same for a pair of monozygotic twins?

I have recently read a paper about how stress affects morning salivary cortisol levels in an individual. I am conducting a study on monozygotic twins and was wondering if cortisol levels would ...
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1answer
2k views

Do all organs of our body secrete hormones?

My teacher says that all organs of our body secrete some kind of hormone so they are all glands. Is the statement entirely correct without any exceptions? Till date I am unable to find any exception ...
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1answer
1k views

What is meant by “catalytic amount of a hormone”?

This textbook says: In the classic definition, hormones are secretory products of the ductless glands, which are released in catalytic amounts into the blood stream and transported to specific ...
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1answer
5k views

what is the difference between pituitary dwarfism and thyroid dwarfism? [closed]

My book (Comprehensive Biology class XI, by J P Sharma ) mentions of two kinds of dwarfism- "Pituitary Dwarfism" and "Thyroid Dwarfism" but does not provide any details about the matter. so please ...
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3answers
4k views

Why is insulin given in type 2 diabetes?

For this reason "insulin insensitivity", or a decrease in insulin receptor signaling, leads to diabetes mellitus type 2 – the cells are unable to take up glucose, and the result is hyperglycemia (an ...
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0answers
756 views

Alan Turing was treated with estrogen-analog, though he was gay. Shouldn't it actually increase his female-like desires?

Alan Turing was a great mathematical genius of all the time, as well was a homosexual-male. However, the biography of Alan Turing on Wikipedia ( Permalink ) tells that : Turing was convicted and ...
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1answer
658 views

Function of testosterone in women and estrogen in men

I was recently surprised to find out that testosterone and estrogen are found in both men and women albeit in different amounts. I know that testosterone is related to the development of facial, body ...
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1answer
362 views

Activation of Glycogen Synthesis by Insulin - mechanism and cellular location?

My textbook states the following... Insulin activates enzymes that convert glucose to glycogen. Does this conversion occur inside or outside the liver and muscle ...
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102 views

Why does pink colour reduce aggressiveness?

According to this Wikipedia page, a shade of pink colour known as "Baker-Miller_Pink" has been known to reduce aggressive behaviour. Is there any biochemical reaction responsible for this? ...
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1answer
551 views

Why are fearful stimuli more powerful at night?

For example, horror movies appear to be scarier when viewed at night than during broad day light. Does light have any role in this phenomenon? Are there changes in hormones at night versus during ...
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69 views

Thyroid transplanted to the abdomen

This question was posed in our endocrinology class, however I have no idea how to answer it: The thyroid gland of a 5-year old boy is transplanted from its normal position in the neck to the ...
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1answer
373 views

Do two hormones have the same effect on a cell if the second messenger is the same?

There are so many hormones/cytokines/neurotransmitters and receptors, all of which act through about 4-5 second-messenger systems. So if one particular cell has receptors for say, two different ...
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2answers
1k views

How do chameleons signal cells to change color?

I have read about how they can change color, but is there literature about the chemical signaling process they use to do so? I read that it could be some combination of hormones and neurotransmitters,...
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53 views

Aging and Hormone Levels

Hormone levels in humans decrease with age. The effects are especially detrimental for women after menopause. Biologists state that turtles do not exhibit most of the phenomena related to aging. For ...
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1answer
1k views

why a testosterone pill can't be effective?

Why estrogen, progesterone etc. in the contraceptive pills survive the acid environment of the stomach and all the digestive enzymes, while testosterone needs to be injected or spread with a gel on ...
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1answer
74 views

Does the effect of light on melatonin release adapts to light level over long periods of time?

Or do you go to bed with low levels of melatonin when you stay behind a computer screen all day?
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1answer
1k views

Why do women mature (physically) earlier than men? [closed]

All sources I've read (the first page) states that the fact that women mature (in the sense of physical maturing) earlier than man is caused by the earlier selective prunning in brain. Though, this is ...
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1answer
338 views

Why do we make T4 if we only use T3?

So, recently, I learnt that T4 and T3 are both released into circulation but only T3 is the active form. Why then, do we make T4 in the first place? I read that T4 has a higher half-life, which might ...
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1answer
397 views

What are the differences between Signaler and Primer pheromones?

I have searched few authentic books and have found the following difference between them. Signaler pheromone induces fast reaction in the recipient and the Primer induces slow reaction. But I did ...
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1answer
834 views

How does hyperthyroidism cause diarrhea?

According to Robbin's Pathology, hyperthyroidism leads to an overactivity of the sympathetic system. It also goes on to mention that this sympathetic hyperstimulation in the gut leads to increased ...
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2answers
169 views

How are Thyroid Stimulating Ab destroying thyroid tissues?

I was reading about Graves' disease, which is an autoimmune disorder. I read a few books, including Endocrinology by Hadley and Levine, and websites where they mentioned that the antibody named TSAb (...
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4answers
378 views

Is Thyroxine a hormone?

I have read the phrase 'T3 is three to four times more potent than T4' several times both in books and websites. But isn't T4 a prohormone of T3? Why do then these sources talk about its potency as a ...
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1answer
1k views

Are glands in human made up of muscles?

I came across this idea while reading an excerpt of my textbook $-$ Muscles move eye lid , tongue, beat the heart, popel food through gut, discharge wastes, squeeze out secretion from the glands ...
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1k views

Can human be emotionless?

Is it possible that a person can't produce, like, dopamine, serotonin, and other emotion hormones? Or, a part of the brain can't function to make one feel something?
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1answer
483 views

Role of the Hypothalmus in the control of Blood Sugar

In homeostatic regulation of blood glucose, the receptor and effector is the Pancreas, but how does the control centre — the Hypothalamus — connect and link into this process?
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1answer
238 views

How are constitutive enzymes regulated?

I found that inducible enzymes can be regulated by many ways, but I cannot find how constitutive enzymes are regulated...
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1answer
760 views

What was the precursor of testosterone? [closed]

Testosterone evolved about 500 million years ago (says 8fact.com). What was the precursor of testosterone (if any)? If possible, what caused the 'precursor' to evolve?
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1answer
77 views

How is oxytocin produced?

Is oxytocin (or other peptide hormones) produced from a gene through translation, or is it made some other way?
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2answers
1k views

After hysterectomy does FSH secretion stop?

This question came in an exam, and my reference book says yes, it does. But it hasn't explained why. If the ovaries are also removed, then the menstrual cycle should stop. In absence of hormones ...
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1answer
552 views

Thyroid hormone metabolism and excretion

My understanding is that hormones generated by the thyroid gland, including, for example, T4, are excreted and recirculated in the body through the digestive tract. The reason for thinking this is ...
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1answer
724 views

What is the effect of TSH on the calcitonin?

I know that TSH is released from the pituitary gland and it motivates the thyroid gland to release thyroxine, and calcitonin is released when the calcium level is high in the blood, but is calcitonin ...
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1answer
257 views

Freestyle Libre's Glucose's Specificity and Accuracy?

I am studying the Continuous Glucose Monitoring devices i.e. glucose sensors with continuous monitoring. Here one good presentation about the topic. They are considering interstitial fluid in their ...
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1answer
4k views

What will happen when humans are injected with plant growth hormones

Will plant growth hormones (PGHs), (let us consider auxins for example) poison our body or not? I do realise that when you eat a shoot, auxins get digested and are less likely to be poisonous but when ...
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1answer
1k views

Does TSH and Growth hormone have any role in menstruation?

Actually, I came across this on a mcq (multiple choice question) exam: Name the hormone which has no role in menstruation: A. LH B. FSH C. GH D. TSH (only 1 correct option) Both FSH and LH have ...
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25 views

Glycoprotein hormones metabolism

Why do the carbohydrate groups in glycoprotein hormones decrease the rate of metabolism? And increase the half-life?
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1answer
2k views

Difference between LH and ICSH

Are Luteinizing hormone and Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone(ICSH) the same?
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1answer
3k views

Can a hormone be absorbed into the body digestively?

Obviously, to act most hormones must be present in the bloodstream. What happens if a hormone or hormone-containing food is consumed normally? Is there any way for the hormone to reach the bloodstream?...
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1answer
772 views

Could a trans-female person ever become pregnant?

I was told that a transgender person, which I will define as anyone assigned male or female at birth that identifies opposite to that assignment, could never become pregnant conceptually, due to the ...
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1answer
422 views

Are there testosterone receptors in female mammary tissue?

Does female mammary tissue have receptors for testosterone hormones? Do male hormones influence female mammary glands, as female hormones influenced the male mammary tissue, such as in gynecomastia?
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Does physical exercise of a specific part affect muscles in the other parts of the body?

There is a theory among bodybuilders, that is, if you train big muscle groups (e.g. legs, chest), it will increase the overall growth of muscles all over the body; the trained muscle will release ...