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Questions tagged [epidemiology]

The study of the distribution, incidence, and potential control of a disease.

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What is omicron squared in genetics?

Saw this equation in the conext of epidemiological genetics: I have never seen it before and I don't know what variable it represents. Help?
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How do we know that mild forms of rabies are nonexistent?

Wikipedia's rabies article says: "Death usually occurs 2 to 10 days after first symptoms. Survival is almost unknown once symptoms have presented, even with the administration of proper and intensive ...
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Is it possible to contract the plague by kissing a wild chipmunk?"

I watched this cute video and I came to conclusion that the lady in the video is putting her life in danger. She kisses a wild chipmunk. As I know, they have fleas, and fleas have a black plague. ...
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What causes biennial epidemics?

I read the Wikipedia article on acute flaccid myelitis which contains a graph showing confirmed US cases peaking biennially in 2014, 2016 and 2018. That got me wondering because I found that pattern ...
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What is the reason behind studying seroprevalence of a disease?

Scientific literature on viral disease, specifically ones like Zika and Dengue, contains seroprevalence data. What is the reason behind understanding seroprevalence?
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Why don't retroviruses kill everything? Show math? [closed]

Each retrovirus produces thousands of copies. They would spread and kill every cell in the body in a few days. I would like to see the math behind how this doesn't happen.
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Vibrio vulnificus from liquid soap

At some point between 2002 and 2006 I attended a departmental seminar in the UK on Vibrio infections, and particularly on the (then relatively unheard of) V. vulnificus, which causes necrotizing wound ...
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Are Measles patients infectious until death?

I'm examining a dataset of a measles outbreak, and for each patient I have the date of first appearance of symptoms $t_1$, date of appearance of rash $t_2$, and if applicable, date of death $t_d$. ...
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Which infectious disease would increase global life expectancy the most if eradicated [closed]

In the 1700s it was estimated, by Daniel Bernoulli, that wiping out smallpox would increase global life expectancy by over three years. If we could wipe out one infectious disease today, which would ...
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In a factorial design, if the effects of drug A and B are independent, how would the A+B treatment compare to A/B only?

The sample is divided into four groups, taking A and B, taking A, taking B, taking neither. I want to know what the theoretical outcome table would look like if the effects of drug A and B are ...
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48 views

What is the difference between infected and infectious in epidemiology?

I am studying the SIR model and in the infected class I, both infectious and infected individuals are included, as stated here I know that the model uses the assumption that the disease has an ...
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To what extent is prion aggregation responsible for Alzheimer's disease?

I was intrigued by a description of prions as a factor regarding 'Mad Cow Disease', the epizootic threatening the cattle stock of the United Kingdom and France predominantly. Understandably, the ...
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What does “optimal balance of biological control” mean in nematodes?

I have been reading several articles on nematode life-history for my insects class. Several articles say that Entomopathogenic nematodes(EPNs) are the only nematodes possessing an "optimal balance of ...
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Epidemiology/Biostatistics Problem Sets and Textbooks

Where can I find more epidemiology and biostatistics problem sets and solutions? The difficulty and breadth of the problem sets I'm hoping to find should be the same as that of Kenneth Rothman's ...
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Why it is important to vaccinate a human newborn within 24 hours since birth?

In Poland a newborn has to be vaccinated within 24 hours against hepatitis B and tuberculosis. As I understand it is good to be vaccinated against both, I do not see the need to hurry so much. ...
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Recommendations for textbooks on statistical and quantitative genetics, and genetic epidemiology

I'm looking for a textbook on statistical genetics, quantitative genetics, association mapping, and genetic epidemiology. My interests include, but are not limited to, complex trait analysis, and the ...
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How is increase in breast cancer to rapid to be explained by genetics alone?

I have been told that if it was purely genetic it would take 25 years to pass from generation to the next, suggesting it is to do with the environment and epigenetics. How does it suggest it is to do ...
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Mathematical model for malaria

The simplest malaria model is as follows: $$\frac{dI}{dt} = \frac{\alpha \beta I}{\alpha I + r} (1-I) - \mu I$$ where $r$ is the natural death rate of mosquitoes, $\mu$ is the death rate of humans, $\...
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Units of parameters in epidemiological model

The simplest malaria model is given by $$\frac{dI}{dt} = \frac{\alpha \beta I}{\alpha I + r} (1-I) - \mu I$$ where $\mu$ is the death rate of humans, $\alpha$ is the transmission rate from humans to ...
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Are there statistics on Sickle Cell Traits based on country of origin? [closed]

And where was it originally from and how does it spread? Thanks.
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120 views

Why does no one get vaccinated against plague in Europe?

I've read on Wikipedia that only people who work with Y. pestis and people in 3rd world countries get vaccinated against it: Since human plague is rare in most parts of the world, routine ...
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What determines the courses of multi-dose vaccines?

I understand that some proportion of individuals will fail to develop immunity from a single dose of a vaccine. Rather than test every member of the target population following each vaccination, it ...
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Any references contradicting Hormesis from low dose studies?

I've recently read some papers on Hormesis (the stimulatory effect of low doses of substances toxic at high doses). The papers are all published in respected peer-reviewed journals, here, here, and ...
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How to send many samples to a lab for testing mosquito-transmitted diseases?

I am doing a project for the science fair in my school on mosquito-borne diseases in Panama. We want to collect mosquitoes from three different areas in the country to document what diseases they had, ...
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What is the Attributable Risk of birth defects in Zika infected pregnancies?

Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus–Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure — U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016 A recent CDC report shows that ...
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Is the basic reproduction number unique?

Given any epidemic model of an infectious disease, there are various ways of computing a basic reproduction number($R_0$) such as; the next-generation method, survival function, largest eigenvalue of ...
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To what extent are lifestyle factors taken into account in medical testing? [closed]

A glance at any official health bodies advice will show that we are entreated to eat more healthily, take more exercise and reduce stress. Presumably, there is some reasonable evidence that these ...
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Why don't phagocytes eliminate mutualistic foregin organisms residing in our body?

Many organisms residing in our body and have a symbiotic mutualistic relationship with our body e.g. organisms in our small intestines. How come our body does not activate an immune response against ...
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525 views

Non-Lifestyle related diseases

Given the obvious importance for global health, I've found it easy to track down lists from Google of the top lifestyle related causes of death (like heart disease, lung cancer etc), but as a ...
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2answers
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Is it feasible to eradicate a virus without vaccines?

Although a vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains elusive, new direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs can cure HCV effectively and conveniently. The latest DAA, Epclusa, can cure 95-99% of chronic ...
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Why WHO has not eliminated chicken pox like smallpox?

Chicken pox is a viral disease, so why then has the World Health Organization (WHO) not eliminated chicken pox like smallpox? Smallpox still exists in labs.
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Is there a gold standard for syphilis?

When you say the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL) has a specificity of x% and sensitivity of y%, what are you comparing to? What is considered as the truth? Because, Wikipedia says, ...
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Why is Leptospirosis so difficult to catch?

I was on a small mammals training course and the professor was warning of the dangers of Leptospirosis. Apparently 5-40% of Rats have it and an unknown proportion of other animals. The warning sheet ...
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Olympic's epidemiological impact on Zika?

I've seen a lot of fear mongering, misinformation and overall general panic concerning the zika virus surrounding the Rio Olympics. However, little has been said about the actual epidemiological ...
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Enzootic vs Epizootic?

I'm studying microbiology and I see these words - epizootic and enzootic, often but there are no clear explanations for them online. Can someone help please?
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Age-Dependent STD Infection

It seems that young females (comparing age 15 vs age 24) are 20x more likely to get chlamydia from a single unprotected sexual encounter with an infected male. What are the reasons for this? Are ...
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4answers
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Is it possible to make a contagious cure to a virus?

In a TV series I've been watching The Last Ship, - spoiler alert - a scientist develops a cure for himself for a virus, but actually continues to remain a carrier, and sort of weaponizes the virus ...
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How do I tell if the mosquitos in my New York City apartment can carry Zika?

The species that carries Zika, A. aegypti, is unlikely to be found in New York. However, the related species A. albopictus is prevalent and quite concerning. So this question is focusing on A. ...
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Why doesn't the Tsetse fly wipe out all animal life in its range?

The Tsetse fly, which is native to interior West Africa, carries the protozoan that causes sleeping sickness, a disease which was apparently invariably fatal before the advent of modern medications. ...
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Is Zika suspected of causing birth defects only if contracted during pregnancy?

There seems to be growing evidence that a recently spreading strain of Zika virus is in fact linked to microencephaly and other birth defects in newborns (see here, here, and here for examples). I ...
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143 views

How is HIV evolutionarily viable despite its extreme virulence?

How does HIV survive natural selection? And how has it managed to kill far more than any non-airborne virus in recorded history?
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Basic reproduction number in epidemiology

The basic reproduction number $R_0$ of diseases depends on the population size (or the number of susceptible individuals). The commonly reported $R_0$ is based on what population size (when they do ...
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Is disease transmisson through milk consumption or meat consumption considered direct or indirect transmission route?

From an epidemiological point of view, is consumption of raw milk or meat considered as indirect or direct transmission ? Let's take the example of bovine TB. Is consumption of unpasteurized milk ...
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Definitions of common and rare disease

Is there an epidimiological way to define rare and common diseases ?
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Is there an advantage to antibacterial soap?

There are plenty of different hand soaps out there, as well as hand sanitizers. Is there an advantage to soaps that claim that they're antibacterial vs soaps that just say soap? In particular I'm ...
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Anopheles arabiensis lifespan and sporogony duration

What is the longest observed lifespan of a mosquito, especially of the species Anopheles arabiensis? How long does it take for Plasmodium parasites to develop and move into the salivary glands of ...
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What is contiguous premise culling and dangerous contact culling?

I am reading this paper related to FMD (foot and mouth disease) epidemics which occurred in UK. It mentioned about terms like IP (infected premise culling), CP (contiguous premise) and DC (dangerous ...
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GWAS: why is replication in another cohort so crucial?

Almost all the landmark GWAS (Genome-Wide Association Studies) reviews agree that, for a GWAS finding to be valid, it needs to be replicated in an independent cohort. What exactly is the rationale ...
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Reasons for the HIV-1 epidemic

So, the HIV-1 jump to humans occurred as early as the 1920s, but the AIDS epidemic didn't start until the early 1980s. Some things I don't understand about this: Why the delay? What is needed for a ...
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How long can Cholera bacteria survive in a dead host?

How long can cholera bacterium survive inside a dead host? Can they remain dormant in such conditions? BACKGROUND On a hill not far from where I live, there was a hospital operating since 16th until ...