Questions tagged [epidemiology]

The study of the distribution, incidence, and potential control of a disease.

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Any references contradicting Hormesis from low dose studies?

I've recently read some papers on Hormesis (the stimulatory effect of low doses of substances toxic at high doses). The papers are all published in respected peer-reviewed journals, here, here, and ...
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Is there any biological evidence corroborating a historians' claim that the 1918 "Spanish flu" originated from China?

A 2014 History article says According to new research by a Canadian historian, the 1918 flu outbreak that killed 50 million people originated in China. [...] Humphries found medical records ...
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How to send many samples to a lab for testing mosquito-transmitted diseases?

I am doing a project for the science fair in my school on mosquito-borne diseases in Panama. We want to collect mosquitoes from three different areas in the country to document what diseases they had, ...
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How to fit simulated with measured data having systematic errors?

Consider a given time series of measured data, i.e. the number of persons tested positive for COVID-19. And consider a simulation - consisting of a model, possibly fed with some parameters estimated a ...
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How to model social structure in SIR models

I refer to J.H. Jones' Notes on R0. More details in this question at Mathematics SE: How does the reproduction number depend on characteristics of the physical contact graph of a population? The ...
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198 views

How hot water burn works?

At age of 6 I accidentally dipped my hand into a boiling indian curry(Sambar) which was in a large pot. I got a Boiling Water Burn(Just like in the picture but with a little more radius) in my hand ...
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What causes biennial epidemics?

I read the Wikipedia article on acute flaccid myelitis which contains a graph showing confirmed US cases peaking biennially in 2014, 2016 and 2018. That got me wondering because I found that pattern ...
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Units of parameters in epidemiological model

The simplest malaria model is given by $$\frac{dI}{dt} = \frac{\alpha \beta I}{\alpha I + r} (1-I) - \mu I$$ where $\mu$ is the death rate of humans, $\alpha$ is the transmission rate from humans to ...
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What determines the courses of multi-dose vaccines?

I understand that some proportion of individuals will fail to develop immunity from a single dose of a vaccine. Rather than test every member of the target population following each vaccination, it ...
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119 views

Why is Leptospirosis so difficult to catch?

I was on a small mammals training course and the professor was warning of the dangers of Leptospirosis. Apparently 5-40% of Rats have it and an unknown proportion of other animals. The warning sheet ...
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54 views

Can SARS-COV2 strain competition be modelled by inter-species lotka volterra equations?

Currently studying infectious diseases epidemiology and never studied ecology. But I was wondering if the interspecies Lotka Volterra equations could model and explain strain dominance. r = could be ...
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28 views

Does specific immunity affect the incubation period of viruses?

My interest was inspired by the observed variation in incubation times for different strains of Covid-19, however I ask the question in the broader sense as it seems hard to find an answer in general. ...
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Would this be classified as a cross-sectional study design?

Let's say I'm conducting a study in which persons recently diagnosed with an infectious disease were recruited to provide a variety of different specimens and answer standardized clinical survey ...
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60 views

Relationship between BMI and age?

I'm trying to study how age as a confounder may affect the relationship between commute mode and BMI (and design a research proposal). To explain age as a potential confounder, I compared age to ...
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Are there any examples of viruses that have jumped from reptile to human?

I know that there are plenty of examples of zoonosis occurring from reptiles to humans that involve bacterial pathogens, (e.g. Salmonella) but are there any instances of viruses being transferred from ...
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How can we calculate the constants of the SIR model?

I am not a biologist by profession, but I am attempting to implement a simple SIR model from the following paper. The paper assumes the following constants are known: rc = growth rate of ...
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Could total 2020 flu deaths be low due to Covid19 countermeasures?

A working assumption is that Covid19 countermeasures will also reduce seasonal flu transmission and mortality. Could this effect be so large that the 2020 total global deaths from both causes will be ...
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66 views

Provisional vaccine for fast spreeding new viruses?

Developing a standard vaccine for coronavirus will take at least a few months - what might be too late: However, its sequence is already known, and is nearly identical - suggesting a recent single ...
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47 views

Is there a Zipf law in epidemiology?

Are there cases where Zipf Law appears in epidemiology? I ranked provinces of China by their coronavirus confirmed cases (2020-01-30 14:29): 4586, 428, 311, 278, 277, 200, 165, 162, 145, 142, 129,...
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Person-years and relevance to incidence of condition

If the annual incidence (age and sex-adjusted) of a particular condition x is 21.8 cases per 100,000 person-years and this data was determined in one geographic location, then is it correct to say in ...
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71 views

Fluctuations in disease burden of respiratory viruses (especially influenza/coronaviruses)

Compared to peaks in terms of disease burden (morbidity and mortality, or incidence of severely symptomatic cases and deaths caused by a viral strain within a population), is the relatively light ...