Questions tagged [epidemiology]

The study of the distribution, incidence, and potential control of a disease.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
4
votes
1answer
255 views

What percentage of individuals infected with COVID-19 don't have symptoms?

There are various statistics estimating mortality of COVID-19 infections, based on how many diagnosed people have died. These numbers are used by various media to extrapolate how many people will die ...
0
votes
0answers
82 views

Could total 2020 flu deaths be low due to Covid19 countermeasures?

A working assumption is that Covid19 countermeasures will also reduce seasonal flu transmission and mortality. Could this effect be so large that the 2020 total global deaths from both causes will be ...
8
votes
1answer
191 views

Role of Prevalence in Estimating Coronavirus Mortality

Let there be a sample of 10,000 people. 100 of them have a fever. You test them for COVID19 and they all come out positive. 5 of them die, 9 of them end up in intensive care. The estimated mortality ...
9
votes
1answer
951 views

Is COVID-19 claimed to get less deadly over time? If so, why?

From a TV news report of a press conference from (I think) the German Robert Koch Institute, I remember hearing an expert declare that he was expecting COVID-19 to get less deadly over time. ...
1
vote
1answer
207 views

how the coronavirus was distinguished?

I have read a lot about the outbreak of the coronavirus, I know that in january scientists had already sequenced the viral genome. How was the virus identified prior to the sequencing Given that ...
10
votes
2answers
5k views

How exactly does alcohol solution kill or neutralize viruses?

To reduce the risk of infection by viruses (including 2019-nCoV) the CDC suggests: Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains ...
0
votes
0answers
66 views

Provisional vaccine for fast spreeding new viruses?

Developing a standard vaccine for coronavirus will take at least a few months - what might be too late: However, its sequence is already known, and is nearly identical - suggesting a recent single ...
0
votes
0answers
47 views

Is there a Zipf law in epidemiology?

Are there cases where Zipf Law appears in epidemiology? I ranked provinces of China by their coronavirus confirmed cases (2020-01-30 14:29): 4586, 428, 311, 278, 277, 200, 165, 162, 145, 142, 129,...
2
votes
2answers
209 views

Can Coronaviridae mutate into something as dangerous as Flioviridae? [closed]

Can coronaviruses mutate to an extent to get as dangerous as fliovirusues such as Marburg viruses, Ravn or Ebola Zaire?
13
votes
2answers
675 views

Why are bats the source of dangerous coronavirus pandemics?

Why do coronaviruses come from bats? I mean, why precisely coronaviruses and not (for instance) herpesviruses? It looks like bats host more zoonotic viruses (per species) than rodents, although they ...
2
votes
1answer
83 views

Where can I find disease diagnosis datasets?

For an epidemiological study, I'm looking for datasets for any kind of vector-borne disease (i.e. West Nile Virus, Malaria, etc.), or any parasites that are dependent on intermediate hosts (i.e. ...
4
votes
1answer
63 views

Neisseria meningitidis transformation into a pathogen

I read the wikipedia article about Neisseria meningitidis, and it says that N. meningitidis is a part of the normal nonpathogenic flora in the nasopharynx of up to 5–15% of adults In some cases ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Person-years and relevance to incidence of condition

If the annual incidence (age and sex-adjusted) of a particular condition x is 21.8 cases per 100,000 person-years and this data was determined in one geographic location, then is it correct to say in ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

How do rare mosquito borne diseases get transmitted if they are so rare?

I recently read a somewhat alarmist notice by the state board of health in NH who claimed that some man had tested positive for Jamestown Canyon virus, a rare disease even in its natural environment ...
1
vote
0answers
145 views

How hot water burn works?

At age of 6 I accidentally dipped my hand into a boiling indian curry(Sambar) which was in a large pot. I got a Boiling Water Burn(Just like in the picture but with a little more radius) in my hand ...
0
votes
1answer
36 views

What is omicron squared in genetics?

Saw this equation in the conext of epidemiological genetics: I have never seen it before and I don't know what variable it represents. Help?
6
votes
2answers
262 views

How do we know that mild forms of rabies are nonexistent?

Wikipedia's rabies article says: "Death usually occurs 2 to 10 days after first symptoms. Survival is almost unknown once symptoms have presented, even with the administration of proper and intensive ...
1
vote
1answer
195 views

Is it possible to contract the plague by kissing a wild chipmunk?"

I watched this cute video and I came to conclusion that the lady in the video is putting her life in danger. She kisses a wild chipmunk. As I know, they have fleas, and fleas have a black plague. ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

What causes biennial epidemics?

I read the Wikipedia article on acute flaccid myelitis which contains a graph showing confirmed US cases peaking biennially in 2014, 2016 and 2018. That got me wondering because I found that pattern ...
1
vote
1answer
22 views

What is the reason behind studying seroprevalence of a disease?

Scientific literature on viral disease, specifically ones like Zika and Dengue, contains seroprevalence data. What is the reason behind understanding seroprevalence?
1
vote
1answer
58 views

Vibrio vulnificus from liquid soap

At some point between 2002 and 2006 I attended a departmental seminar in the UK on Vibrio infections, and particularly on the (then relatively unheard of) V. vulnificus, which causes necrotizing wound ...
3
votes
1answer
105 views

Are Measles patients infectious until death?

I'm examining a dataset of a measles outbreak, and for each patient I have the date of first appearance of symptoms $t_1$, date of appearance of rash $t_2$, and if applicable, date of death $t_d$. ...
1
vote
0answers
48 views

Which infectious disease would increase global life expectancy the most if eradicated [closed]

In the 1700s it was estimated, by Daniel Bernoulli, that wiping out smallpox would increase global life expectancy by over three years. If we could wipe out one infectious disease today, which would ...
1
vote
1answer
83 views

What is the difference between infected and infectious in epidemiology?

I am studying the SIR model and in the infected class I, both infectious and infected individuals are included, as stated here I know that the model uses the assumption that the disease has an ...
2
votes
1answer
432 views

To what extent is prion aggregation responsible for Alzheimer's disease?

I was intrigued by a description of prions as a factor regarding 'Mad Cow Disease', the epizootic threatening the cattle stock of the United Kingdom and France predominantly. Understandably, the ...
1
vote
1answer
27 views

What does "optimal balance of biological control" mean in nematodes?

I have been reading several articles on nematode life-history for my insects class. Several articles say that Entomopathogenic nematodes(EPNs) are the only nematodes possessing an "optimal balance of ...
7
votes
2answers
383 views

Why it is important to vaccinate a human newborn within 24 hours since birth?

In Poland a newborn has to be vaccinated within 24 hours against hepatitis B and tuberculosis. As I understand it is good to be vaccinated against both, I do not see the need to hurry so much. ...
6
votes
1answer
366 views

Recommendations for textbooks on statistical and quantitative genetics, and genetic epidemiology

I'm looking for a textbook on statistical genetics, quantitative genetics, association mapping, and genetic epidemiology. My interests include, but are not limited to, complex trait analysis, and the ...
1
vote
1answer
60 views

Mathematical model for malaria

The simplest malaria model is as follows: $$\frac{dI}{dt} = \frac{\alpha \beta I}{\alpha I + r} (1-I) - \mu I$$ where $r$ is the natural death rate of mosquitoes, $\mu$ is the death rate of humans, $\...
1
vote
0answers
33 views

Units of parameters in epidemiological model

The simplest malaria model is given by $$\frac{dI}{dt} = \frac{\alpha \beta I}{\alpha I + r} (1-I) - \mu I$$ where $\mu$ is the death rate of humans, $\alpha$ is the transmission rate from humans to ...
0
votes
1answer
80 views

Are there statistics on Sickle Cell Traits based on country of origin? [closed]

And where was it originally from and how does it spread? Thanks.
1
vote
3answers
274 views

Why does no one get vaccinated against plague in Europe?

I've read on Wikipedia that only people who work with Y. pestis and people in 3rd world countries get vaccinated against it: Since human plague is rare in most parts of the world, routine ...
1
vote
0answers
60 views

What determines the courses of multi-dose vaccines?

I understand that some proportion of individuals will fail to develop immunity from a single dose of a vaccine. Rather than test every member of the target population following each vaccination, it ...
6
votes
0answers
101 views

Any references contradicting Hormesis from low dose studies?

I've recently read some papers on Hormesis (the stimulatory effect of low doses of substances toxic at high doses). The papers are all published in respected peer-reviewed journals, here, here, and ...
3
votes
0answers
46 views

How to send many samples to a lab for testing mosquito-transmitted diseases?

I am doing a project for the science fair in my school on mosquito-borne diseases in Panama. We want to collect mosquitoes from three different areas in the country to document what diseases they had, ...
8
votes
1answer
135 views

What is the Attributable Risk of birth defects in Zika infected pregnancies?

Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus–Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure — U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016 A recent CDC report shows that ...
3
votes
1answer
75 views

Is the basic reproduction number unique?

Given any epidemic model of an infectious disease, there are various ways of computing a basic reproduction number($R_0$) such as; the next-generation method, survival function, largest eigenvalue of ...
3
votes
0answers
118 views

To what extent are lifestyle factors taken into account in medical testing? [closed]

A glance at any official health bodies advice will show that we are entreated to eat more healthily, take more exercise and reduce stress. Presumably, there is some reasonable evidence that these ...
6
votes
1answer
102 views

Why don't phagocytes eliminate mutualistic foregin organisms residing in our body?

Many organisms residing in our body and have a symbiotic mutualistic relationship with our body e.g. organisms in our small intestines. How come our body does not activate an immune response against ...
0
votes
2answers
1k views

Non-Lifestyle related diseases

Given the obvious importance for global health, I've found it easy to track down lists from Google of the top lifestyle related causes of death (like heart disease, lung cancer etc), but as a ...
2
votes
2answers
174 views

Is it feasible to eradicate a virus without vaccines?

Although a vaccine for hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains elusive, new direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs can cure HCV effectively and conveniently. The latest DAA, Epclusa, can cure 95-99% of chronic ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Why WHO has not eliminated chicken pox like smallpox?

Chicken pox is a viral disease, so why then has the World Health Organization (WHO) not eliminated chicken pox like smallpox? Smallpox still exists in labs.
1
vote
1answer
168 views

Is there a gold standard for syphilis?

When you say the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL) has a specificity of x% and sensitivity of y%, what are you comparing to? What is considered as the truth? Because, Wikipedia says, ...
1
vote
0answers
119 views

Why is Leptospirosis so difficult to catch?

I was on a small mammals training course and the professor was warning of the dangers of Leptospirosis. Apparently 5-40% of Rats have it and an unknown proportion of other animals. The warning sheet ...
4
votes
1answer
141 views

Olympic's epidemiological impact on Zika?

I've seen a lot of fear mongering, misinformation and overall general panic concerning the zika virus surrounding the Rio Olympics. However, little has been said about the actual epidemiological ...
0
votes
1answer
6k views

Enzootic vs Epizootic?

I'm studying microbiology and I see these words - epizootic and enzootic, often but there are no clear explanations for them online. Can someone help please?
2
votes
2answers
77 views

Age-Dependent STD Infection

It seems that young females (comparing age 15 vs age 24) are 20x more likely to get chlamydia from a single unprotected sexual encounter with an infected male. What are the reasons for this? Are ...
3
votes
4answers
896 views

Is it possible to make a contagious cure to a virus?

In a TV series I've been watching The Last Ship, - spoiler alert - a scientist develops a cure for himself for a virus, but actually continues to remain a carrier, and sort of weaponizes the virus ...
1
vote
2answers
626 views

How do I tell if the mosquitos in my New York City apartment can carry Zika?

The species that carries Zika, A. aegypti, is unlikely to be found in New York. However, the related species A. albopictus is prevalent and quite concerning. So this question is focusing on A. ...
1
vote
2answers
237 views

Why doesn't the Tsetse fly wipe out all animal life in its range?

The Tsetse fly, which is native to interior West Africa, carries the protozoan that causes sleeping sickness, a disease which was apparently invariably fatal before the advent of modern medications. ...