Questions tagged [eukaryotic-cells]

Organisms whose cells contain organelles, complex structures enclosed within membranes, in particular a nucleus.

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What is the difference between a macrophage and dendritic cell?

I am aware that both these cells (monocytes) are phagocytes and are able to present antigens upon their own Class II - MHC integral proteins. Other than their difference in structure (size and shape), ...
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Is the cell memrane of a typical eukaryote involved in ATP production?

I know the majority of ATP in eukaryotes is produced in mitochondria membranes, but wonder if the cell membrane still works in that role?
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How can I easily distinguish between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells using flow cytometry?

I am trying to count populations of cells in a co-culture. One organism is Pichia pastoris and the other organism is a gram-negative bacterium. Pichia stains gram-positive using crystal violet and the ...
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What is bacterial (prokaryotic) cell division called?

Eukaryotic asexual cell division is sometimes referred to as mitosis, although this is more strictly used to refer to the specific stage at which “the replicated chromosomes separate into two new ...
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What is the "anatomy" of transcriptional regulation in Archaea?

I want to know what are the DNA elements that are recognized by transcription factors in Archaea and so what is the "anatomy" of transcriptional regulation in this case. I found in this ...
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"Free space" volume in the nucleus

Take a mammalian cell, say a HeLa cell for concreteness. If a molecule (e.g. a transcription factor) enters the nucleus, what is the effective volume that it can explore/access there by free diffusion?...
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What is the difference between apoptosis caused by the release of enzymes from the electron transport chain vs that from the lysosome?

I know that the mitochondria is responsible for regulating apoptosis via release of enzymes from the electron transport chain. I believe that the release of hydrolytic enzymes from a lysosome is how ...
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Are there any barriers to telomere sequencing other than length?

In the comments to an answer on this question, it was noted that long read sequencing methods (e.g., from PacBio or Oxford Nanopore) have largely eliminated repeat-based assembly problems for bacteria....
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Why are Chromosome Territories important?

Chromosomes occupy discrete regions of the nucleus, referred to as 'Chromosome Territories'. This spatial organization is emerging as a crucial aspect of gene regulation and genome stability in health ...
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In plant cells, is water stored only in the vacuole?

In the turgor of plant cells, is water stored only in the vacuole or can it be stored in the cytoplasm and the other cellular organs too?
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About genomic imprinting

In the context of genomic imprinting, how does a human cell "know" whether a chromosome is paternal or maternal(out of a homologous pair), in order to silence genes?
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Why is a cell in anaphase (without a nuclear envelope) be considered as a eukaryotic cell?

Can anyone shed some light on this? All I can think of is that it has something to do with the chromosomes being paired
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Do larger unicellular eukaryotic organisms have larger organelles?

It seems that many of the giant unicellular eukaryotic organisms (size 1mm and above) are multinucleate but there are some with a single nucleus as well (the genus of Acetabularia). My question is: do ...
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Need either a [similar] ribosome to the following few | a heuristic for finding [similar] macromolecule given 20 others

Background : Hi! I am running a small experiment dealing with structural heterogeneity of the ribosome, actually of ribosomes across all domains of life. It's entirely computational: I get cryoEM ...
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Can plasmodial slime molds be infected by virus?

According to the definition, plasmodial slime mold consist of a "single cell" with thousands of nuclei. How would such a unique type of cell response to viral infection (if any)? Google search yield ...
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What happens to embedded membrane proteins after a vesicle is formed?

When an animal cell is going through endocytosis it cell surrounds a food particle, and the membrane swallows it, creating a vesicle within the cell. However, what happens to the embedded ...
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How many different chemical substances are there (on the average) in a human cell?

How many different chemical substances are there (on the average) in a human cell? I saw of an estimation of ~ 1 billion (10^9) in sci-pop books. Is there any reliable estimation rooted in the ...
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What renders a cytoplasm basophilic?

I know that being basophilic or acidophilic corresponds to affinity to certain dyes used in microscopy. What i want to know is what characteristics of the cytoplasm can we infer from its basophilic ...
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Did Plant Cells Evolve from Animal, Protist, or Fungal Cells?

I know protists and animals preceded plants but I am unaware of when fungi arose in relation to plants. At the moment, I cannot find a resource stating how plants evolved from existing kingdoms, or ...
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DNA replication - how many times and when does it occur?

I’m currently learning about DNA replication in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. And my lecturer has mentioned that replication is a once in a lifetime activity. And I’m not sure what this is ...
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L-selectin in white blood cells

The white blood cells' function is mainly to fight off external antigens. However, another one of its traits is its ability to bind to vascular endothelial cells with the help of L-selectin. What is ...
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Why are the cells the smallest unit of life? [closed]

Please Tell me why the cells are called the smallest unit of life. According to me I know that they are called so because they are smallest entity which is alive that is they show the properties of ...
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How long does each of the stages in meiosis take?

For each stages of meiosis (i.e. Interphase, Prophase I, ...), I wanted to know the time between each stages either in percentages or minutes. However, while I could find the cell cycle for mitosis ...
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Neutral genetic mutations in eukaryotic cells [closed]

Why are most mutations in eukaryotic cells neutral? i.e. have no effect on the phenotype.
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Is this sentence about RER correct on Wikipedia?

While studying about Endoplasmic Reticulum on Wikipedia, I came across this sentence A ribosome only binds to the RER once a specific protein-nucleic acid complex forms in the cytosol. This special ...
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Why do mitochondria have a phospholipid bilayer?

So, a thought came up and I couldn't find all that much info online, so I thought I'd ask some professionals here! The endosymbiont theory states that: mitochondria came to be ingested by bigger ...
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Why is translation so much faster in prokaryotes than eukaryotes?

Prokaryotes perform transcription and translation much faster than eukaryotes. If memory serves, a single 70S prokaryotic ribosome can incorporate around 20 amino acids per second, whereas the 80S ...
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Are there differences between the activation proteins of Eukaryotes and those of Prokaryotes

I'm in BIO 203 (for reference to my skill level), and I noticed the textbook makes a whole section out of transcriptional activator proteins, their function and applications in eukaryotes, but in ...
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What organelles are in an onion cell?

I was wondering what organelles are in an onion cell, because, based on the labs we are doing in my biology class, I only saw a nucleus and cell wall. My friends and brother say there are all the ...
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Why is the rough ER necessary to make extracellular proteins? [closed]

It is my current understanding that free ribosomes synthesise proteins to be used inside the cell, and the rough endoplasmic reticulum is necessary to make proteins that are to be secreted by the cell....
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How do you differenciate between the eukaryotes and prokaryotes?

I wonder how we differentiate between the eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Eukaryotes: Eukaryotes (also spelled "eucaryotes") comprise animals, plants, and fungi—which are mostly multicellular - as ...
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Difference in multicellularity between prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms

As most prokaryotic organisms are single-celled, and in eukaryotic organisms this is the reverse, is there some evolutionary advantage that led to these features evolving? Or is it purely the fact ...
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What attaches plant cells to the cell wall?

In animal cells integrins span the plasma membrane and attach the cell membrane to the extracellular matrix. I was wondering how are plant cells attached to the cell wall? Is it just the middle ...
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Plants and Specialised Cells

Would the number of specialised cells in a leaf decrease if the plant was located in a shadier area? I thought it would decrease as there would be no need to store as much food in the plant and that ...
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How Mitochondria differs from Prokaryotes(probably regarding energy production)? [closed]

In other words, what evolutionary advantage is offered by mitochondria to eukaryotes(probably regarding energy production), which prokaryotes themselves cannot evolve or do?(here I am assuming that ...
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How much DNA do humans have?

A normal human body has approximately 3 billion base pairs. Given that humans have 10 trillion cells, how is that the number of base pairs of DNA is less than the number of cells? It can happen only ...
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What is the function of multiple nuclei in syncytial cells?

What is the function of multiple nuclei in syncytial cells specially in protists with cilia? Is multiple nuclei a special characteristics of only ciliated cells?
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How does repair take place on leading strand in eukaryotes?

I am currently reading molecular biology of the gene by Watson to develop an understanding of the mechanism of replication and repair. Under the topic mismatch repair of DNA, they mentioned that ...
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Haploid eukaryotes?

I was wondering whether there are any eukaryotes which never have a diploid phase. I can't think of any. Fungi have diploid stages, and I know any sexually reproducing organisms will have at least ...
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How did the nucleus of eukaryotic cells evolve?

What is/are the most popular theory/theories on how the nucleus evolved? I know mitochondria came from alpha-proteobacteria, chloroplasts from cyanobacteria and that eukaryotes evolved directly from ...
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Did the Great Oxygenation Event also cause a mass extinction?

It's usually assumed that the Great Oxidation Event around 2.3 billion years ago caused a great extinction of anaerobic life on earth. However, I was reading Nick Lane's book, The Vital Question, and ...
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What are chiasmata?

I have a confusion in understanding what chiasmata are. My ‘NCERT’ book says ‘The beginning of diplotene is recognised by the dissolution of synaptonemal complex and the tendency of the recombined ...
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Why are plant cells rectangular and animal cells spherical shaped?

Is that because the plant cells have cell walls and animal cells don't, or is there a function performed by the different shapes? Perhaps round shapes assist the movement of cells?
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Do eukaryotes assimilate DNA that is floating in the extracellular membrane?

Prokayotes, which replicate primarily using binary fission, don't get much genetic diversity. For this reason, they take in any genetic material they encounter, in a gambit to help them better adapt ...
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Why did eukaryotic cells develop? [closed]

If eukaryotic cells can survive in extreme conditions, then why are their still prokaryotic organisms?
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What determines whether the maternal or paternal allele is expressed?

I am taking cell biology and have this question: During the process of gene expression, it is possible to express either the maternal allele or the paternal allele. When and how is the determination ...
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Chemoautotrophic eukaryotic cells?

There are heterotrophic prokaryotes, and there are autotrophic prokaryotes. In the autotrophic prokaryotes category, there are photoautotrophic prokaryotes and chemotrophic prokaryotes. Are there ...
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Could viruses be used as antibiotics?

Could we use viruses that only affect bacteria to act as antibiotics? The more bacteria, the more times the virus divides, so the stronger it gets. Is this practical?
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Linear and Circular DNA

So school has taught us that eukaryotes have DNA that is linear and inside of a membrane - called the nucleus. And that prokaryotes have circular DNA that is free floating inside of the cell. We ...
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How stable is linear DNA transfected in eukaryotic cells?

I would like to know, with references from the literature, what is the half life of a linear dsDNA transfected in a mammalian cells. For example, if I transfect human cells with a PCR product (500-...
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