Questions tagged [gastroenterology]

Questions pertaining to the study of the digestive system.

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Is it advised to calculate QED parameters for salts?

QED (quantitative estimation of drug-likeness) is a score which helps you to predict if a small molecule is desirable as an orally absorbed drug, described in the Quantifying the chemical beauty of ...
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How typhoid fever severe case's intestine perforation occur? (non trauma)

In typhoid severe case, intestinal perforation occurs. As stated here [4, 6]. Intestinal perforation is a serious complication of typhoid fever My question here is, how does the bacteria (Salmonella ...
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Why is urobilinogen reabsorbed from the gut just to be excreted via the kidneys?

The Wikipedia article on Urobilin states: Bilirubin is... excreted as bile, which is further degraded by microbes present in the large intestine to urobilinogen... Some is reabsorbed into the ...
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Why aren't the antibodies in the mother's milk digested by the infant's digestive system?

Why aren't the antibodies in the mother's milk digested by the infant's digestive system? Enzymes like pepsin have been found to be present in infant's digestive system(1). Though the pH in the ...
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Gastric and intestinal gas exchange

A very long time ago, I happened across research into using an oxygenated liquid in the stomach and or intestinal cavity. I wondered what further results came about of that research, and am having ...
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What happens to intrinsic factor exactly at the terminal ileum, where B12 is absorbed?

IF is very important for IF-dependent B12 absorption in the terminal ileum, the mechanism by which most of dietary B12 is absorbed. The B12-IF complex bind to IF receptors on enterocytes, but does the ...
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What do we know about "continence" in animals?

What do we know about continence in animals? In particular, what do we know about the development of continence in animals? By "continence", I'm referring specifically to whether or not a wild animal,...
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What happens when a human ingests a large meal, and after a short time follows it up with a large amount of indigestible carbs?

A human eats a large meal and indigestible carbs (IC) with such a timing that the IC arrive to the small intestine when it is already full and busy breaking down and absorbing the meal. What would ...
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Do we excrete waste in same order of food intake?

Obviously I do not expect we poop out molecule by molecule in exact order. All I am asking is, is it possible for us to pass stool's of today's food before we poop yesterday's food. Does our GI tract ...
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8 votes
2 answers
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How does the stomach handle continuous eating?

In biology class, we learned this familiar story: Food enters the stomach, the stomach churns it with acid and enzymes, and then, somehow, the stomach senses when the stew is ready and releases it ...
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Does eating beans of a mother cause flatulence on babies?

Is it true that if you eat beans it could cause flatulence on babies (when breastfeeding them)? I can't find any research or scientific facts about that topic. I thought the body of the mother would ...
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What can pass through the intestinal membranes?

As I understand it, most substances need help to pass through the walls of the intestines. For example, in hepatic recirculation (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2781307/) bile salts are ...
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Can polystyrene sulfonate bind calcium or sodium in the gut? How?

Polystyrene sulfonate is used as a potassium binder to treat hyperkalemia in traumatic rhabdomyolysis, acute and chronic kidney disease. It is listed as an ion-exchange resin that can also remove ...
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What is the replacement period of gastrolithes in doves?

Gastrolithes are common in doves and pigeons. Do they keep ingested stones for ever? If not, how often are they to be replaced?
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Where in the digestive tract are melatonin pills dissolved? Same question for gelatin capsules

I want to do a blind controlled experiment on myself to learn whether melatonin pills have any effects on me. I bought some empty gelatin capsules. I am going to fill some of them with rice and put ...
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Sensitivity Along Digestive Tract [closed]

Suppose you swallowed a little capsule with a blunt poker which had some impulse of force applied every few seconds. What would be the sensitivity ordering (of lips, mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach,...
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What is the resting human stomach pH?

This article in ThoughtCo.com claims we have a resting stomach pH of 4-5. Unfortunately, there are no references, so I can't verify what it says. I am slightly confused, however. The study says "...
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Carbohydrates in acidic stomach

How does the acidic environment in the stomach affect carbohydrate and fast digestion? Does it aid, impede or remain neutral in their digestive process? Or do the carbohydrates, fats and proteins ...
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What amount of protein comprises the feces of a domestic cat?

I've heard it said that the fecal excrement of cats, Felis catus, contains adequate amounts of protein so as to attract the interest of other animals e.g. dogs (Canis familiaris). However, I am ...
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What percentage of human excrement is toxic if ingested?

I have been considering food production, waste management and 3D food printing, particularly during space exploration. This led me to wonder if human excrement could be processed into raw materials ...
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16 votes
1 answer
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Are the bacteria in the stomachs of unborn babies beneficial?

Babies are born with bacteria in their stomachs. I heard on The radio that when a child is given antibiotics for the first time unique bacteria in the stomach are destroyed and cannot be replaced. Is ...
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What are the differences among food poisoning, gastroenetritis and diarrhoea?

I have now studied a major chunk of my microbiology course without understanding the basic difference between the three. The terminologies seem to be confusing. Is it a necessity for food poisoning to ...
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Why does influenza sometimes cause GI symptoms?

I'm speaking strictly of influenza, not gastroenteritis which is sometimes mistakenly called "stomach flu." I just read this article on the mechanism through which rotavirus causes diarrhea and ...
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Is there any mechanical digestion that occurs once food/chyme enters the small intestine?

Does mechanical digestion occur in small intestines and, if so, how does it occur? I found some sources that say digestion happens mechanically and chemically in the small bowel, and others that say ...
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Is there nutrient absorption in the large intestine of hindgut fermenters?

In hindgut fermenters, plants are digested in the caecum by microbes. I want to know whether hindgut fermenters can absorb the nutrients obtained from the digestion in the large intestine because the ...
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What neuro-motor diseases cause the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) to malfunction?

Please note: This question is neither homework nor seeking medical advice. I'm simply asking for a factual, objective, biological explanation of the various neuro-motor diseases/illnesses that can act ...
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Why we do not get hurt from HCl secreted in the stomach?

I read in my book that during digestion our stomach secretes hydrochloric acid ($HCl$). Why we do not get hurt from it? It was also said that mucous provides protection, but from where is it coming?
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How is circadian rhythm of gastric acid secretion regulated?

Gastric acid secretion shows a circadian rhythm where acid production in the morning is minimal and it reaches a maximum towards the evening. How is this process regulated?
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Can Helicobacter pylori be eradicated naturally?

This question is not to discuss whether substances that have anti-H. pylori activity work or not, or to discuss the pros and cons of such but from a medical perspective. Assuming that one is able to ...
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Exact location of E. coli in human body

E. coli lives in lower intestine. But exactly where can we find E. coli, and where is there none (or a really small amount) of it? I need the exact names of parts of the lower intestine where we can ...
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6 votes
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What controls gut motility?

I have two different papers. One claims that gut motility is reduced by stimulation of the Opioid κ and δ receptors. The receptors are activated by Morphine and certain derivatives, specifically ...
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Gastroenteritis virus causing mutation of the Enterochromaffin cells

I am working on the solution to a worldwide problem: IBS or chronic diarrhea following a viral gastroenteritis infection. I think I have an answer. The only missing piece to the puzzle I found in a ...
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What is the biological reason for a burst appendix being potentially lethal?

Given that the appendix does not seem to be used by the human body, what is the biological reason that it is potentially lethal when this organ bursts? Also, what would cause the 'burst'?
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2 votes
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Gastro-intestinal physiology reference

I am a physicist but I have always wanted to understand how my digestion takes place in as much detail as possible. I have no idea about books or reference on the subject of Gastro-intestinal and ...
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1 answer
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To understand clearly extraintestinal diseases

Extradistestinal disease seems to prefer to "bowel" diseases, I think this is about diseases outside gastrointestinal tract so stomach. Consider diseases ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease (...
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8 votes
1 answer
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How does lactulose cause the removal of ammonia from the colon?

Lactulose is also used to reduce the amount of ammonia in the blood of patients with liver disease. It works by drawing ammonia from the blood into the colon where it is removed from the body. [Source]...
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Whence fecal E. coli (et al.) if swallowing it is dangerous?

I don't know much about medicine, and I know even less about microbiology, but I understand that there are organisms in the lower gastrointestinal tract (and in feces) of a human, like Escherichia ...
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18 votes
1 answer
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What is the composition of human feces?

Are there any studies or general information on the composition of human feces? I'd specifically like to know the percentage of carbohydrates and amino acids relative to the amount that was ingested ...
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1 answer
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What is the effect of garlic on intestinal flora?

Now that we can compare whole microbiomes, has there been investigations on the effect of garlic (or diallyl disulfide, its main ingredient) on intestinal flora? From the proven antimicrobial activity,...
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3 votes
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Are the intestinal microbiota substantially different within a diverticulum of the colon?

From the Wikipedia page for the vermiform appendix: This proposal is based on a new understanding of how the immune system supports the growth of beneficial intestinal bacteria, in combination with ...
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