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Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Is bi-allelic gene expression random?

Supposing we have the genotypes “Aa”, “AA”, and “aa”... which are not mono-allelic (not imprinted and not X-inactivated). Does the dominance of the “A” allele over “a” allele affect which gene is ...
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Is the way that you laugh genetic?

I have noticed that my friend's laugh is semi-similar to his brother's and was wondering weather that was due to propinquity, genetics, a mix of both, or something else entirely.
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What is the most genetically complex organism?

I understand that new genomes are being sequenced ever day and these answers replace themselves often; although as of today, what has been proven to be the most genetically complex organism (Other ...
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“Gold standard” GWAS methods for gene detection on common SNPs aggregated to genes/proteins

What are the recommended "state-of-the-art" computational methods for association studies on common SNPs that are aggregated to genes (burden analysis, gene set, etc.)? methods that work on GWAS ...
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What do the haploinsufficiency scores in the clinVar database represent?

I understand that haploinsufficiency occurs when one of the two copies of a gene is mutated to the point of being unusable, and the single copy remaining is unable to cope with the cell's demands for ...
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Punnet square practice

Complete a mono-hybrid cross using the following information In guinea pigs, black fur is dominant to white fur. If you crossed two heterozygous guinea pigs what is the expected phenotypic ratio. ...
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How does CRISPR/Cas9 compare to plasmid injection for editing new genes into cells?

I've heard that both of these techniques can be used to add new genes to cells, so I'm curious as to how they compare, e.g.: can plasmids be used in eukaryotes like CRISPR? are plasmids kept after ...
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How do mutations with very little fitness benefit get fixed?

I have one little issue with evolutionary theory that I have not been able to understand. Suppose genetic mutations happen from generation to generation. Nevertheless, from one generation to the next ...
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If mutations are random, why was there just one kind of finches on every Galapagos island?

When Darwin was observing the Galapagos finches he noticed that there was a different kind on each island. The biggest difference was in their beaks. Darwin concluded that the birds had evolved and ...
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I wonder if one of the biggest problems in dealing (treatement) with gene mutation, is when the protein encoded, is used inside the cell

I wonder if one of the biggest problems in dealing (treatement) with gene mutation, is when the protein encoded, is used inside the cell, because, if the potein is secreted (for example: the Hormone) ...
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Does low gravity exposure to early stages of human fetus have potential to unloc unused genetic information from earlier stages of evolution?

The title seems quite self explanatory but let me elaborate. New mutations do take a very long time and many generations to occure in the genetic code. But our genetic code already holds all the ...
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Difference between crossover rate and recombination rate?

I am not a biology student and therefore, need clarification if crossover rate and recombination rate are the same thing. So if the text says 'recombination rate per base pair per generation' or '...
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Convergence compared to genetic distance

Is there an information (preferably in the form of a chart, though anything will do) comparing convergent evolution to how closely related the 2 species are on the tree of life. My searches for ...
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Size constraints on CRISPR guide RNA

I had a quick questions on the size limitations of a CRISPR guide. More specifically on the shorter end. Can I make a guide that is say 7-10bp and still have an active complex? I transfect using an ...
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What does “PDPN+ cells” means?

Are they podoplanin positive cells (cells that tested positive for podoplanin)? "...though it has been shown that podoplanin (PDPN+) cells analogous to mouse FRCs are found in human secondary ...
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Could we breed a dog to the size of a thumb?

We've gotten from a wolf to a small breed such as a chihuahua. So the question is: can we go even further and have a dog as small as a thumb (adult dog)? If not, what are the factors that limit the ...
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Is the lac operon repressed in the presence of both glucose and lactose?

In the presence of both sugars (glucose and lactose) will there be repression of the lac operon completely? I know that more glucose means less cAMP --> less CAP --> less positive regulation, and ...
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Double stranded RNA Single stranded DNA

I have seen in textbooks referring to ds RNA and ssDNA. How a RNA can be double stranded and likewise how a DNA can single stranded and if they do exist why are there names not interchanged?
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Genetics, sickle cell anemia

Sickle cell anemia is autosomal recessive. Then Why is it an example of codominant alleles? I thought a person with sickle cell trait is heterozygous because one of his/her alleles is recessive and ...
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How can a child be blood type AB, if both of the parents are blood type A?

Basically, both of my parents are blood type A (both are confirmed and it's also certain both of them are my biological parents). I recently found out my blood type is AB. How is this possible? I ...
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How to identify whether something is in linkage disequilibrium?

If the following loci indicated the presence of an SNP in flu strains, is Locus 2 and Locus 3, which are located 10 bp apart in linkage disequilibrium? "When alleles and molecular markers are ...
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What is the genetic background for fast metabolism?

I am wondering if it is possible that people with very fast metabolism have some genetic mutation. There are people who can eat a lot while others would definitely get fat with such a diet. In other ...
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1answer
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Why don't rates of cancer increase generation to generation?

As cells divide, they accumulate mutations that can sometimes cause cancer. Gametes have to divide like any other cell, and thus generation to generation mutations should accumulate in people's ...
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Why are sex abnormalities more likely to survive than autosomal abnormalities?

I found that it is because of dosage compensation mechanism to counteract genetic imbalance between males and females , but i didn't understand it , please can you explain it
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How can seedless fruits not be GMO?

Biology is the closest I could find to botany on SE. Grafting can not occur naturally and so if a fruit does not have seeds there is no way it could reproduce in nature. That logic makes complete ...
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Is it possible in modern biology to make any person's identical twin (or genetical clone) using his DNA?

I was told by a Biotech professor (who came in our college for a guest lecture) that Bio Technology has now become so advanced that if we want to make an identical twin (or Genetical DNA Twin) of a ...
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Finding intensity of selection against dominant homozygotes

I was looking at some Olympiad questions and came across the following: If the frequency of a completely recessive allele is $0.2$ and it remains unchanged from generation to generation due to ...
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RNA transcription [closed]

During RNA transcription the mRNA is spliced before becoming a mature mRNA. Describe the process of splicing. (5 marks)
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Parts of our bodies form during different critical periods. What keeps those parts locked after the period has closed?

Parts of our brains and bodies 'lock' after various critical periods. What keeps those body parts locked after the critical period closes? For example, our limbs stop growing at a certain length or ...
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When gene editing are both chromosomes in a pair changed?

Sorry for the possibly confused question, my knowledge of genetics is limited to medical training only but I have a question. Are gene editing techniques such as CRISPR used on both of the ...
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How has the frequency of proteinogenic amino acids changed during evolution?

Genes code for 20 different amino acids that occur in proteins. There's genetically combinatorially room for more (64, right?) and hundreds of different (today abiotic) amino acids are chemically ...
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Which enzyme is Nick Lane referring to?

In Life Ascending the author, Nick Lane, refers to an enzyme in his introduction: '' It concerns an enzyme (a protein that catalyses a chemical reaction) that is so central to life that it is found ...
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Is it possible that a pcr product show exact binding as gene but it is vector?

I ran pcr with gene and saw the binding in agarous gel. Then i purified the DNA products and transferred to e. coli. Then after doing miniprep, i ran pcr with positive and negative control. I saw band ...
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How is a specific fragment isolated for PCR amplification?

For background I am interested in studying engineering applications of a specific protein, which is not commercially available. My end goal is to express the gene for the protein in bacterial cells, ...
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How does further hybridization affect fertility?

Numeruous scientific sites state that hybrids (like mules) are infertile. On the other hand, ligers are known to mate with both tigers and lions and still have viable offspring. So my question is: if ...
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Does a mutation in the sense strand of a particular gene affect the polypeptide formed?

Recently, I came across this picture which represents the DNA sense strand of a gene. The ‘Altered’ picture shows a (frameshift) mutation in the nucleotide sequence in which a T base is deleted. The ...
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1answer
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Balancing selection vs introgression?

Balancing selection can maintain polymorphisms in natural populations for extended periods of evolutionary time. However, in this paper, Dannemann et al. 2016 identify three archaic haplotypes in the ...
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1answer
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Are there examples of Apis mellifera of different colors?

Re: my previous species-identification question, What species is this gray bee? I'm still curious: Are there any recorded/reported cases of either albino Apis mellifera, or at least with ...
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Strand representation in the DNA version of the Genetic Code

A Wikipedia entry entitled DNA Codon Table states that the codons presented in the table are on the ‘sense strand of the DNA’. But what is the purpose of this, if the sense strand doesn’t code for ...
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How do these triplets code for these proteins?

I am slightly confused by the diagram above. The first codon of the unaltered DNA is AAG. During transcription, isn't this coverted to UUC (mRNA). So doesn't UUC code for phe and not Lys? Likewise, ...
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Are STOP codons impacted by base insertion or deletion mutation?

I am learning about base insertion and deletion mutations. An example in my textbook is given below. GUU CCA CAU AUC. So if there is an insertion (of guanine): GUU GCC ACA UAU C_ _ (there will be a ...
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What is omicron squared in genetics?

Saw this equation in the conext of epidemiological genetics: I have never seen it before and I don't know what variable it represents. Help?
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What percent of genetic disease are preventable? [closed]

I like to know what percentage of genetic disease are preventable before birth? Also, when we can detect all of them? I heard in a TV show a doctor said about 5 years later we can prevent all genetic ...
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Degree of relatedness over assumed match in SNP poor region

First I want to give the disclaimer that I am not a biologist. I had my DNA tested and show as a match to a woman on parts of chromosome 1. However, parts of various chromosomes are not tested due to ...
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Gene frequency — database/site

Is there any free database when one can check the gene frequency in a healthy population? For example I would like to check it for genes like BIN1, CLU or CR1. On the English Wikipedia I found a gene ...
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Could you save a species if there were only two remaining? [closed]

Let's say an endangered species had only two left (male and female) and they produced 4 children (two male, and 2 female), and those produced? Wouldn't the incest slowly degraded their genes? (...
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1answer
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Cloning a coding gene into a non-expression vector

Does it make any sense to clone a CODING gene into a NON-expression vector? doing this will only give us multiple copies of the gene, while we could run PCR instead (Let's say we know the gene ...
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1answer
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Intelligence as measured by DNA tests

Suppose a person has an IQ of 130, as measured by a standard IQ test, when he is 18 years old. He then goes on to develop severe mental illness, which reduces his IQ to 100. After this, he takes a DNA-...
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I want to extract genes from genomes [closed]

I m a student at computer science and I'm working in a project called Plant Breeding and for moment I need to extract genes from a file with genomes. I know that the start sequence of a gene is ATG ...
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Why is Turner's syndrome a problem?

So Turner's syndrome is a chromosomal defect where one of the X chromosomes is missing. For more details visit the [Wikipedia page] (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turner_syndrome). But I don't ...