Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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1answer
83 views

How can a nucleotide falling *outside* a binding site affect a transcription factor's ability to bind to said site?

In this paper regarding a polymorphism within the AQP7 gene and its potential effects on one's metabolic profile, the authors use a luciferase assay to confirm that the alleles of this SNP have a ...
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2answers
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New ORFs occurring in SARS-CoV-2 due to mutations

Are there examples of new ORFs in SARS-CoV-2 created by mutations? The ORFs should not be present in the reference virus, but they should occur in a lineage occurring in the wild (at best, being part ...
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When are Alleles identical by descent? [closed]

I think it's the last one, but I am not sure. I did some research and I think this is the only one that makes sense. A) they are molecularly indistinguishable. B) they are functionally equivalent. C) ...
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What best describes population genetics data for Oceania (Australia & surrounding islands, including the South Pacific)? [closed]

Peoples from Oceania are the only remaining pure Denisovans. Genetically, peoples from Oceania are more similar to Native Americans than to Eurasians. Oceania is a single discrete population, and ...
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Saving a Maize Landrace from Inbreeding Depression

I have 10 seeds of a rare corn landrace. I probably won't be able to acquire more and the cultigen's long term fate is unknown. So, I want to do my best to preserve it for future generations. Corn is ...
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58 views

Are there traits exhibiting avoidance of the mean?

Sometimes if two organisms with an unusually large value of a continuous trait mate their offspring on average will not have a value as large as one might naively expect. Regression toward the mean is ...
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Can offspring be less genetically similar to the parent than more distant relatives?

I'd be interested in answers about any sexually reproducing species, but for simplicity I'm going to focus on humans in this question. If the parents are very genetically different (i.e. the number of ...
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1answer
46 views

How is it determined whether a chromosome is maternal or paternal for imprinting?

For imprinting, how does the cell determine which chromosome is maternal and which is paternal? For example, in the parental imprinting of insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) on chr7 (autosome), how ...
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Is there any genetic sequence, such that, for all the kinds of mutation, it still has a 100% probability to be passed on? [migrated]

This question is more on the theoretical-encoding side. Given the known kinds of genetic mutation, transposition, deletion, and such, what can be said about genes that would be left untouched by the ...
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32 views

How strong can GC skew be?

How strong can GC skew be (in the positive or the negative direction)? What species is the current record holder?
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2answers
58 views

Heterozygous traits with advantages over homozygous traits

I used to believe that there are "good" alleles and "bad" alleles and having two "good" alleles could never be worse than having one "good" and one "bad&...
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Can the effect of an allele on height be context-dependent?

Some data is available on the effect alleles have on height. For example Common DNA Variants Accurately Rank an Individual of Extreme Height However after browsing the literature I was not able to ...
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1answer
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Why do humans share over 99% of their genomes?

From Wikipedia The haploid human genome (23 chromosomes) is about 3 billion base pairs long and contains around 30,000 genes.[33] Since every base pair can be coded by 2 bits, this is about 750 ...
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3answers
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Is it possible to fuse DNA from two sperms and can a baby be born from that? [closed]

If this is possible, then isn't there going to be a chance to have a YY child?
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recessive autosomal diseases that exhibits in all generations

Is there any rare types of diseases which are recessive autosomal but somehow exhibit in all generations of a family pedigree? I mean, there should be such a category (because my professor asked the ...
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1answer
29 views

Are restriction sites added on to the ends of a DNA fragment or are they just conveniently there?

For a DNA fragment to be inserted, it must have two restriction sites on either end. My textbook makes it seem that this is naturally occurring but it seems a little too convenient, are they added in ...
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1answer
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"No two cells in an organism have an identical genome sequence"

In Applications of Single-cell DNA Sequencing there is a claim Indeed, it can be safely assumed that no two cells in an organism have an identical genome sequence, in particular, organisms whose ...
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How many MAOA alleles are there?

The question is about the human gene MAOA. I've seen MAOA-H and MAOA-L mentioned in papers. The page https://www.ensembl.org/Homo_sapiens/Gene/Summary?db=core;g=ENSG00000189221;r=X:43654907-43746824 ...
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homologous recombination and non-homologous recombination ratio during S-phase

Can I assume that it is easier to do targeted gene knock-in in rapidly dividing cells because they should have a short period of G1? Is there an easy way to measure the relative amounts of homologous ...
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1answer
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Is it possible to assert who is the parent/child by looking at DNA sequence only?

Suppose I have whole genome sequences for two people of the same sex. I know one person is the parent of the other, but I do not know who is the parent and who is the child. Is it possible to ...
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Extensions of proteins in SARS-CoV-2 variants

What lineages of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 occurring in the wild show some extensions, i.e., mutations of the stop codons to codons encoding amino acids (mutations to another stop codon don't count ...
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1answer
96 views

Did Dinosaurs have a neocortex? [closed]

Did dinosaurs have a neocortex in their brains? If not, when did it come into existence?
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2answers
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Do the genes for external viral epitopes mutate faster than for viral machinery (e.g. Proteases)?

To fight SARS-COV-2 we use vaccines which train our immune system against viral epitopes like the external S(pike) protein. Since these structures change a lot, would it not have been a better idea to ...
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1answer
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Is it possible for a brown cat to birth an orange kitten?

I have a brown (cinnamon) cat, I assume her alleles would be b’b’ and oo. She was bred with either a black male (B_ o) or an orange male (__ O), or both if it’s possible for her to have carried the ...
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2answers
114 views

Red and White Flower or purely Pink? Phenotype of a Flower Species with a Co-dominant Trait

As I understand it, co-dominance is when both genes in an allelomorphic pair produce both their effects equally on the organism in question whilst incomplete dominance applies to an instance where a ...
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How can you identify recessive mutations in a gene that has been disrupted by a chromosomal translocation?

I am reading a journal paper about a patient who has intellectual disability. The patient was found to have a balanced chromosomal translocation t(11;16)(q24.2;q24). This chromosomal translocation ...
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1answer
58 views

Are there any online resources for visualising on which band of a chromosome a particular gene is located?

I am studying some genes that are expressed in the brain. I use the online database UniProt to get information about the proteins encoded by the genes of interest. However, I would like to know on ...
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1answer
261 views

Are there any phenotypically visible examples of gene linkage in humans?

Are there any examples of two "visible" or "obvious" phenotypic traits in humans that are a priori unrelated, but which tend to be inherited together (i.e. their inheritance ...
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2answers
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Coronavirus lineages with amino acid insertions

Is there an overview over SARS-CoV-2 lineages that have some insertions in their genomes? Tools based on GISAID sequences do not show them. I am aware of a few lineages with insertions Mu with S:...
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1answer
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How often are diseases caused by more than a single mutation of a gene?

Many genetic diseases are caused by mutations in a gene and often, it is a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that has dramatic consequences (e.g. the E6V hemoglobin mutation in sickle cell disease)....
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When doing crosses (Punnett square) with drosophila, how can you be *sure* your parents are *pure lines*? [duplicate]

In plants, when someone wants to confirm that the parents are pure lines (homozygous) for the alleles studied, the person can self pollinate the plant to make sure that the descendants are identical ...
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Relative abundance and action of 5p and 3p microRNAs

I am a beginner in genetic research and am currently conducting a project concerning microRNAs. Let's say we have miR-1-5p. If miR-1-5p is upregulated in a disease, will miR-1-3p always be ...
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Difference between heritability on the scale of liability versus the scale of observation

I was reading a paper on disease heritability ("Estimating Missing Heritability for Disease from Genome-wide Association Studies") and it struck me that I don't have a great understanding of ...
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3answers
194 views

How do we know if a trait is genetic rather than via rearing environment?

In articles like this one, I often read that several "genes variants are associated to a given trait". It is often added: "genetic factors explain (say) 20% of the trait variance." ...
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1answer
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Hybrid corn yield vs mass-selected corn

I am a social scientist and I was reading "The political economy of hybrid corn" by Jean-Pierre Berlan and Richard Lewontin. https://go.gale.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA4325182&sid=...
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Why do chromosome pairs have different shapes and sizes?

When I look at microscopic images of human chromosome pairs I see that they have different shapes and sizes. Is there a deeper biological reason for that? Is there some evolutionary pressure for them ...
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2answers
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Chromosomal disorders

I was reading about chromosomal disorders and encountered a line stating that 'An individual may lack one of any one pair of chromosomes' So does it mean that an individual cannot have monosomy of ...
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1answer
32 views

Can CNVs have a phenotypic effect unrelated to the direct modification of transcriptional units?

I'd like to know how (or if) copy number variations can have a phenotypic effect unrelated to the direct disruption/movement/duplication of sequences for coding regions, promoters, enhancers etc. I ...
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1answer
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Is there any way siblings could be related more than 3/4th siblings, but less than full siblings?

I couldn’t find anything on Wikipedia. 3/4th siblings are 37.5% related while full siblings are 50% related. Is there anything in between?
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Searching for a vaccine vs searching for poor genes in the covid-19 pandemic

I have only basic knowledge about biology. I have some propositions (may be wrong) and a question about the covid-19 pandemic. In 1918, the world had a similar pandemic, the Spanish Flu. Millions of ...
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1answer
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Pedigree probability question - complete penetrance

The inheritance pattern of a common trait that shows complete penetrance is shown below: What is the kind of inheritance? If III-1 is a carrier, what is the probability of IV-1 (from III-1 and III-2 ...
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1answer
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Pedigree probability question

The following pedigree shows the inheritance pattern of a trait. From the following, select the possible mode of inheritance and the probability that the daughter in generation III will show the trait....
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Monogenic disorders vs multifactorial inheritance disorders

There's a condition called SYNGAP1-related intellectual disability which is caused by mutations to the SYNGAP1 gene. I believe that this is called a monogenic disorder, while disorders that are caused ...
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1answer
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Why is BRCA-1 mutation a dominant mutation?

BRCA-1 gene is a tumor suppressor gene and undergoes a loss of function mutation to become cancer inducing. Why is it that only one allele needs to be mutated because loss of function mutations are ...
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What are the additional considerations for primer design in ancient DNA?

I'm familiar with the principles of primer design and have previously designed primers for use in modern DNA. However, in my current project I am working with ancient DNA (nuclear gene) and need to ...
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Can chain-linked genetic segment data be used to reliably assign unknown relatives to either the donor's mother or father?

I am analyzing DNA matching segment data, and I am trying to broadly group all DNA matches by my donor's parents. Based on documented evidence, I can confidently identify "Person 'B'" as a ...
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1answer
33 views

Do TADs derive from operons?

TADs (Topologically associated domains) are DNA sequences in the eukaryotes genome (except plants) that are between two sequences named "Insulator". The genes in TAD just are affected by ...
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3answers
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If a small population left one continent and sailed to another, would the genes of the population that left show relation to the original population?

This question has a specific context, a religious one, and so I'm not sure this is the right place to ask, but I can't think of a better place. I would like as objective and unbiased an answer as ...
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1answer
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Number of homozygous recessive offspring

A question from the KVPY-SX examination, organised by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) in Bengaluru, India, held on 3rd November, 2019. A plant heterozygous for height and flower colour (TtRr) ...
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1answer
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Can you calculate the coefficient of inbreeding (F) without a family history?

Apologies in advance, this question may be completely obvious. Say, I didn't have a family tree for two individuals. Could I calculate their coefficient of inbreeding? If not, is there a good proxy ...

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