Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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will we get animal like superpowers if our introns end up expressing themselves? (purely hypothetical question) [closed]

so we have around 3.3*10^9 bp in human haploid cell and not all the genomic sequences are expressed at the time of splicing of hnRNA to form mRNA the introns are removed so in case if they are not ...
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Are lockdowns enhancing COVID-19? [duplicate]

It is well known that through natural selection organisms pass down "well-equipped" genes to their offspring. Therefore, the newer generations are better adapted to their environment. If ...
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Genomic library preparation: Why does the restriction enzyme not cut into the gene?

I am currently trying to understand creating a genomic library more profoundly. In most textbooks I read (as well as wikipedia), they mentioned that the genomic library is created by isolating the DNA ...
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Can a strand not be synthesised in 5' -> 3' direction?

I've been solving some biology questions, and according to one of them ( I have the responses too) the following phrase is false: " both strands are always synthesised in the 5' to 3' direction&...
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1answer
47 views

Is it possible to use two forward primer and one reverse primer?

I have eGFP and the gene fragment i assembled by pcr.The next step is that i have to join my fragment fragment into 3'p end of the eGFP.I have three primers FP1 is forward primer for eGFP, FP2 has ...
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502 views

Inheritance simulator not working properly

I created a python program to simulate inheritance (a simplified version of it) to better understand how it works. A person is represented by a class that contains a chromosome property, a method for ...
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Why is Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) less effective for interspecies?

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT), a process for replacing the nucleus of an egg cell with a nucleus containing genetic information of a different animal, seems to be very useful for cloning and ...
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1answer
123 views

Is sonic hedgehog a gene or a protein or both?

Is sonic hedgehog a gene or a protein or both? I think sonic hedgehog is okay as a name for a chemical. Having said that, I am a little bit concerned about the way sonic hedgehog seems to mean the ...
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Length of the human genome, base length of each chromosome [closed]

A human cell usually has one set of paternal genome and one set of maternal genome. For example, we often see ambiguous expressions such as The human genome is about $3*10^9$ bp long. The DNA genome ...
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Direction of translation/transcription

Perhaps it would not be wrong to say that "translation/transcription goes in the direction of 3' to 5'" or "in the direction of 5' to 3'";that's because these statements are ...
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Understanding the probabilities in a Punnett square for a heterozygous mouse breeding pair

I am trying to figure out the genotypes of the offspring of a mouse breeding pair, where both mice in the pair are heterozygous for a particular gene X (they have both a wild-type and knockout allele ...
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1answer
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Is it possible to use PCR to test for Machado-Joseph disease?

Machado–Joseph disease (MJD) is a rare inherited neuromuscular disease that is caused by a mutation in the gene ATXN3. The protein encoded by this gene contains "CAG" repeats in the coding ...
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Why do we need only 1 X chromosome?

In females, one of the X chromosomes will be deactivated randomly to form a Barr body. Why do barr bodies form? We have 2 copies of any other chromosome. Why don't they form for our 22 other ...
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1answer
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Does mitochondrial eve have to exist?

Suppose we took all living humans and found the set of their mothers, mothers' mothers, etc. and then traced down as far as possible. Is there a logical reason that this tree has to converge to one '...
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1answer
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How do you determine “in which direction” DNA is shared between groups of people

In popular DNA ancestry tests you can read lines like "you have 2% neanderthal dna" or "you have 20% italian". How can you distinguish between a person having 20% italian vs ...
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Is CRISPR being utilized when scientists use the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit genes?

"CRISPR" and "Cas9" are different things. When a virus attacks a bacteria, the bacteria stores the viral code of the virus in CRISPR. And when the virus attacks again the Cas9 ...
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1answer
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Can hunting of large specimens of a species make the size and weight of the species tend to be smaller?

Siberian tigers in the wild don't grow as much as they used to be in past (in the 1900s). Their average weight was measured 176 kg in 2005 study. But it was also said that those tigers observed in ...
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Is there “stem” organelles in plant meristems?

Two cytoplasmic genomes exist in plant in addition to the nuclear one. As far as I understand, they divide more or less during the entire life of the plant along with cell proliferation/growth in ...
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3answers
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How likely is a lack of DNA match with a distant relative?

How likely is a lack of DNA match with a distant relative? I have recently gotten interested in ancestry research and have had a DNA analysis performed by a prominent commercial provider. I've been ...
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Best book to read to understand human Genetics for a beginner?

I'm just a person who's interested in human genetics, genetic diseases and the human genome. I have some idea of genetics and humanity as a whole but it is not my profession. Just a hope
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Broadly, what are some considerations for doing a psychological study with a genetics component?

I am a Ph.D. student in a brand new lab that focuses on biological mechanisms relevant to psychotherapeutic processes. I come from a psychology/biology background (undergraduate level) and I have an ...
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1answer
78 views

Impact of Terminator Efficiency in Genetic Constructs

I was looking at the iGEM Bioregistry of Terminator parts which offer varying degrees of termination efficiency. I am wondering why studies into combinatorial synthesis of genetic circuits for ...
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What is the life of cell-free genetic circuits?

Can genetic circuits be tested in a cell-free environment? What would be their life if we keep them at room temperature? The circuits which are composed of DNA-based components are commonly referred ...
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1answer
79 views

Why is DNA replication not 100% accurate

I've been reading about DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and how this process improves DNA fidelity. However, I was wondering, what is stopping MMR from correcting all mistakes in the daughter DNA with 100% ...
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1answer
132 views

Why is male balding so common in comparison to female balding?

I have heard that over 30% of men will be bald by 30, and that 60% will be bald by 50. However, I hardly ever see a bald woman unless it is a story about a cancer survivor or someone going through ...
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2answers
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Why is haemophilia unviable in later stages of life?

A sentence in my textbook is: The possibility of female being haemophilic is extremely rare because mother of such a female has to be at least carrier and the father should be haemophilic (unviable ...
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What if target DNA doesn’t have restriction sites

All the examples on DNA cloning I have encountered have assumed that the target gene and vector both have compatible restriction sites at just the right locations (probably for ease of explanation). ...
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How would you use readthrough as part of a genetic circuit design?

Traditionally, in synthetic biology, researchers tried to avoid some transcription phenomena (like roadblocking of tandem promoters or readthrough of weak terminators) since they are not in line with ...
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Does parental conflict lead to genes combining important functions with functions only advantageous for one of the parents?

In a sitation of a mother-father conflict of interests, the mother might use epigenetics to turn off some genes only advantageous for the father's genes and not her own. I thought a logical father's ...
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1answer
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What can you learn about someone's mother and father by examining their DNA?

Disclaimer: I ask this question from the position of having paid absolutely no attention throughout school/highschool science classes. I am incredibly ignorant, but I don't know how to find the answer ...
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How come the role of the Apis mellifera is determined by nutrition rather than chromosomes?

Prior to making my question I browsed on similiar question such as this one but it doesn't specifically addressed my doubt in the sense that it is related with a different species and on a concept not ...
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1answer
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Can a trait be too successful? Wouldn't overwhelmingly successful traits limit variability, which is one of the requirements of NS? [closed]

Can a trait be too successful? Wouldn't an overwhelmingly successful trait soon limit the gene pool, and if so, how would the process of natural selection react to that? If an individual is born ...
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Why are almost all inborn errors of metabolism autosomal recessive? [closed]

Technically, the only inborn error of metabolism I know that is autosomal dominant is acute intermittent porphyria. Also, the only inborn of metabolism I know that is X-linked recessive is Lesch-Nyhan ...
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How do gene locations change during crossing over events?

Suppose you have two variants from the same species, which have slightly different chromosomes I's to each other. Genes may be in slightly different positions on the chromosome, and the lengths of the ...
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1answer
119 views

How long would you expect a designed plasmid to remain in a population of E. coli after transformation?

When transforming E. coli with a genetically-modified plasmid, how quickly/often is this plasmid "lost" because of mutation, or horizontal-transfer, or "dilution" over reproduction ...
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1answer
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Are genetic crosses between asexual organisms possible?

To my knowledge (Please correct me if I am wrong), genetic basis is the key in defining species. When we encounter an unknown species, we can sequence it's genome and compare the genome with other ...
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4answers
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Statistician confused about exact SNP data type

I'm from a statistical (not biological) background, and I'm very confused about what exactly is the "data" associated with a SNP. Below, I'll explain things as best I can--please correct me ...
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Can a cell receive multiple copies of an insert when using different MOIs?

I want to transduce a cell line with virus that carries a specific insert. When using different Multiplicity of Infection (MOI), I expect to get different percentage of transduced cells, but is it ...
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1answer
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Are there any animals whose genome haven't been sequenced yet? [closed]

I referred to a few websites and it seems like almost every animal's genome has been sequenced. However, are there any animals that haven't yet been sequenced? If so, can you provide the list here or ...
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Confusion about how to compute probabilities for linked genes

I am confused about how to compute probabilities for linked genes. The problem that I am solving is this: P generation: AAbbddEEff X aaBBDDeeFF. If A and B are 40 centimorgan apart, what is the ...
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DNA mutations in humans are generally bad, but why to they make viruses stronger?

When I read about DNA mutations in humans, the mutations are generally bad. When I read about mutations in viruses such as the recent emerging strains of COVID-19, however, it seems to be good for the ...
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What are the effect of radioactivity on grey wolves in Chernobyl?

I am doing some research about the effects that radioactivity has and is having on grey wolves in Chernobyl and more particularly on their genetics, but maybe also looking at the populations in the ...
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2answers
141 views

When is it better for a gene to cause a biased sex ratio?

Because genes are selfish and want to maximise their transmission from generation to generation, if they can distort a population's sex ratio, isn't it always in their interest to cause a biased sex ...
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Using punnett squares to express sex/gene linkage and recombination frequency

I have been using punnett squares to visualize mating experiments. I am looking at a pairing which is known to have a crossover event occur. I know from empirically collected data the recombination ...
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Why didn't Escobar's hippos introduced in a single event die out due to inbreeding

Today I read a BBC Report about how Pablo Escobar had once imported 4 hippos (1 male, 3 female) into his estate in Colombia for his private zoo. After his downfall, while other species were shipped ...
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1answer
48 views

Is the number of nucleoli in a nucleus fixed?

A nucleus can have multiple nucleoli. But are there any constraints on the number of nucleoli in a nucleus? Can cells of individuals of different species have a different number of nucleoli? Can ...
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1answer
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Explanation of “differential transcript usage” (DTU)

This paper describes differential transcript usage as Differential transcript usage (DTU) is a special case of alternative splicing in which a gene’s relative transcript abundance (RTA) profile, the ...
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exercise of gene linkage in genetics

Could you help me solve this problem: AAbbCC is crossed with aaBBcc and the offspring re-crossed with aabbcc. Considering that A and B are linked and their distance is 12 mapping units, while the gene ...
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1answer
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Get “DNA” of one parent based on its children [closed]

I'm no biology expert so bear with me, but I've been given a task to estimate alleles of an animal based on the animal's children and the children's other parents. I've looked up Mendel's laws but I'm ...

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