Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Why doesn't complete melanism exist in humans? [duplicate]

What would be the evolutionary reasons? Is it because of the importance of vitamin D?
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Pedigrees - Autosomal Dominant vs Recessive Question

I saw this question and the answer key says that the pedigree shows autosomal dominant inheritance. But I'm a bit confused because can't it show autosomal recessive inheritance as well?
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Edit: P generation: AAbbddEEff X aaBBDDeeFF. If A and B are 40 centimorgan apart, what is the probabilty to get aabbddeeff in F2?

(F1 is: AaBbDdEeFf. Then, it goes through this: AaBbDdEeFf X AaBbDdEeFf). I drew the 2 chromosomes for AaBb (in coupling) and then: the possibilty for a is 0.5 (A or a) and the possibilty for no ...
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DNA mutations in humans are generally bad, but why in viruses make their bodies stronger?

I want to know why this happens to viruses. can we apply that technique to the human body too
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What are the effect of radioactivity on grey wolves in Chernobyl?

I am doing some research about the effects that radioactivity has and is having on grey wolves in Chernobyl and more particularly on their genetics, but maybe also looking at the populations in the ...
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When is it better for a gene to cause a biased sex ratio?

Because genes are selfish and want to maximise their transmission from generation to generation, if they can distort a population's sex ratio, isn't it always in their interest to cause a biased sex ...
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Using punnett squares to express sex/gene linkage and recombination frequency

I have been using punnett squares to visualize mating experiments. I am looking at a pairing which is known to have a crossover event occur. I know from empirically collected data the recombination ...
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Why didn't Escobar's hippos introduced in a single event die out due to inbreeding

Today I read a BBC Report about how Pablo Escobar had once imported 4 hippos (1 male, 3 female) into his estate in Colombia for his private zoo. After his downfall, while other species were shipped ...
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Is the number of nucleoli in a nucleus fixed?

A nucleus can have multiple nucleoli. But are there any constraints on the number of nucleoli in a nucleus? Can cells of individuals of different species have a different number of nucleoli? Can ...
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Explanation of “differential transcript usage” (DTU)

This paper describes differential transcript usage as Differential transcript usage (DTU) is a special case of alternative splicing in which a gene’s relative transcript abundance (RTA) profile, the ...
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exercise of gene linkage in genetics

Could you help me solve this problem: AAbbCC is crossed with aaBBcc and the offspring re-crossed with aabbcc. Considering that A and B are linked and their distance is 12 mapping units, while the gene ...
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Get “DNA” of one parent based on its children [closed]

I'm no biology expert so bear with me, but I've been given a task to estimate alleles of an animal based on the animal's children and the children's other parents. I've looked up Mendel's laws but I'm ...
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Why are adenoviral vector vaccines safe in terms of insertion mutagenesis due to genome integration and E4 region's proteins effects?

Disclaimer: I'm neither a genetics professional nor an anti-vax fanatic, I just tried to compare COVID-19 vaccine types currently available on the market and got some questions that I'd like to answer ...
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The Perfect Predator? [closed]

I’m not a biology major or even studying it in any way so I apologize if this makes no sense. I’m curious, if say the Jurassic Park team came up to you and asked you to genetically engineer the ...
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3 primers to know if Homozygous, Heterozygous or WT

In this imaginary experiment, I am using T-DNA to make an insertional mutagenesis that will get randomly inserted into the DNA where it might get inserted within a gene, disrupting it. In order to get ...
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Why is the number of cells virtually a constant?

Going back to highschool, I learnt about mitosis: in order to renew their cells, eucaryots' cells divide themselves into two copies. But my course didn't cover what moderate the replication. By ...
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Cystic Fibrosis Genetic Risk Determination

Let's say Jane has Cystic Fibrosis and we know her brother doesn't. What are the chances of her brother's future child having CF? (The chances of Cystic Fibrosis in the general population can be taken ...
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gene mutation occurs on two strands of DNA or just one strand?

Suppose we have one strand with 3'-AAA-5' and the other strand is 5'-TTT-3'. So when point mutation occurs, does it happen to two strands at the same time? e.g. 3'-AAA-5' becomes 3'-AGA-5' and 5'-TTT-...
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Standard notation for crossings (female, male)

Is there any standard for the notation of a crossing (hybrid) which tells me which part is the mother and which is the father? Example StrainA: egg cell ...
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Can autosomal inheritance follow the rules of linked inheritance?

Sex-linked inheritance occurs, as the name implies, on sex chromosomes, mostly the X chromosomes. Sex-linked inheritance is particularly interesting due to the fact that the set of possible final ...
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How could I make my fish gold?

I'm doing research on how the pigmentation of fish. I want to know how could you change it with the help of genetic modification. I have some Silver Dollar fish (Metynnis argenteus) and I want to make ...
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Questions regarding transformation in bacterial cells

First off, in transformation the donor DNA aligns itself with the complementary bases in the recipient DNA. Now a "perfect" alignment of the donor DNA ( Sorry if my terminologies are ...
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Inheritance of FEVR (Genetic Disease)

If a woman has FEVR and is affected by the disease, what are the chances of her passing the disease to future generations. I read somewhere from a credible source like NIH(I couldn't find the link ...
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Can Taq polymerase be stored with PCR primers?

I don't think it's possible for TAQ to be stored with the primers, but I'm not sure. This storage wouldn't be long-term (a few days, or a week at most). Thoughts?
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Why does the DNA of Bacillus subtilis not contain DNA families of 20-37 members?

I am reading the book "Molecular biology of the Cell, 6th edition" and in chapter one page 18 the following figure is included I am presuming this figure represents all genes within the ...
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How to figure out frequency of genotypes in generation n+1 AFTER figuring out the recombinants?

I have something that I want to make sure that it makes sense. I am not an expert on population genetics For example: I have population at generation 1 individuals : (A,A,B,D) I know that there was 1 ...
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What is neutral theory of evolution?

The question is not about the very basics, but more about where the line separating the neutral theory from the rest of population genetics lies. One often reads/hears claims that "the findings ...
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In theory, would it be possible to genetically engineer an adult to experience more pleasure or (physical) pain?

(Not sure if this is too close to be acceptable, but this is similar to a question I asked in the neuroscience/psychology stack exchange, but with a focus on the genetic aspect. Might be best to check ...
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Should I consider one or two DNA chains to find how many nucleotides are in a gene?

I am trying to solve an exercise. How many nucleotides does a gene contain if information about 287 amino acids is encoded in it? What is the molecular mass and length of this gene? AFAIK, I have to ...
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Why does this study about genetic likelihood of COVID hospitalization not associate risk to base pairs?

In the study "Genetic mechanisms of critical illness in Covid-19", (free to download) the authors share their findings on which genomes seem to be associated with an increased likelihood of ...
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Can one derive COVID-19 risk from a cheap consumer genetic test like 23andme?

Studies have found genes associated with a significantly higher risk of severe COVID-19, some of them claiming it to be 1.6 times the general risk. They mention genes at markers such as rs35044562, ...
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Can the mutation rate vary for individuals of the same species, growing in similar environments?

Suppose we consider several populations who originally inherited their genome from the same ancestor, and that we put for a few thousands generations in similar environments. Could the mutation rate ...
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How do ribosomes know not to translate non-coding RNA?

I'm unclear as to the molecular mechanism whereby mRNA is translated into proteins, but non-coding RNA is not similarly translated. How do ribosomes know not to translate non-coding RNA?
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What is meant by 'genes overlapping inherited structural variants'?

I am reading a journal paper about genes that are related to autism, and I have come across the following statement: To assess commonality of biological function among rare risk alleles, we compared ...
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What is the difference between a paralog and an isoform?

I am reading a journal paper about the protein kinase GSK3 and I have come across the following statement: Although commonly referred to as isoforms, GSK3α and GSK3β are actually paralogs, homologous ...
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Sextuplet corn (Zea mays with branched ear)

In 2019 I planted some sweet corn next to some Hopi blue flint type corn. Of course my mistake was apparent once I started to see the ears. The closer the two types were to each other, the more they ...
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What does 21q21.1-q21.2 mean?

I am reading a journal paper about the association between NCAM2 and autism, and I have come across the following: We performed microarray analysis and identified a 1.6-Mb deletion of 21q21.1-q21.2, ...
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What is a proximal deletion breakpoint?

I am reading a journal paper about the relationship between NCAM2 and autism. I have come across the following statement in the paper: Based on analysis utilizing the UCSC Genome Browser (hg18, build ...
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What do they mean by “most single-gene traits are recessive.” How can a gene be recessive; isn’t it an allele which can be recessive or dominant?

Here’s the paragraph pg. 45 of “Principle of Neural Science”: “Although most single-gene traits are recessive, rearrangements that lead to duplication or deletion of multiple genes often have dominant ...
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What is a 21q21 deletion?

I am reading a journal paper about the relationship between the protein NCAM2 and autism, and I have come across the following statement: We report three patients affected with neurodevelopmental ...
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metaphors for explaining the role of DNA in the cell [closed]

Various metaphors are used to explain the central role of DNA in a cell to laypersons. These include blueprint, recipe, catalogue, instruction manual etc. I even heard someone describing DNA as a '...
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What is the impact of selection on orthologous and paralogous genes? How would this impact differ in different regions of protein coding genes?

Since paralogs increase the size of the genome and provide more opportunity for the evolution of novel characteristics, would they be more prone to selection?
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Can Cas13 edit DNA

Can Cas13 be used to edit DNA or is it only for RNA? I have tried looking at literature and my understanding is that it can only edit RNA.
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What does allelomorph mean?

Is there any difference between allele and allelomorph since most websites call them the same. If they are same then why two different term?
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Some related questions about DNA differences in a single organism

If you took a DNA sample from someone's brain and that same persons liver at more or less the same time, would that DNA - all else being equal (e.g. no mutations from radiation) - be exactly the same? ...
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Reproduction in animals

Humans have acquired knowledge about their environment through many observations. Today, humans have wide variety of resources to gain knowledge about reproduction in human beings and other ...
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Why is a solution of cesium chloride used in Meselson & Stahl's DNA replication experiment?

Centrifugation involves separating particles of different sizes, masses, density and etc. In the experiment, the DNA macromolecules are suspended in a solution of cesium chloride gradient and then ...
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When there is incomplete dominance of one allele, is one allele still considered recessive?

When you have incomplete dominance between two alleles of a gene (say, on two different tail lengths blending into an intermediate tail length or two rose colours blending together), can you still ...
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What does γ mean before a gene name?

I am reading the following paper and I have come across the following statement: It has been demonstrated that the phosphorylation of histone H2AX-Ser139 to form γH2AX. I am not sure what the γ ...

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