Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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What are the differences between different strains/types of Cre?

Reading from Hedgehog signaling reprograms hair follicle niche fibroblasts to a hyper-activated state: Lineage-specific genetic tools are necessary to precisely study HF fibroblasts; however, their ...
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Is it true that some people are capable of thinking, visualising and remembering things faster than others purely because of genetic factors?

I read that IQ is hereditary to some extent. Wouldn't that conclude that some people are inherently disadvantaged intellectually?
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After artificial wombs become feasible can we start embryo development without human donors needing to donate their eggs and sperms? [closed]

After artificial wombs become feasible https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_womb can we start embryo development without human donors needing to donate their eggs and sperms ? For example by using ...
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What could be the inheritance mode of this pedigree?

I wonder if it is obvious that this tree is of a recessive inheritance, since '1' and '2' do not have the disease but one of their son has. Anyway, what is the most probable mode of inheritance of the ...
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What is "Correlation of growth" according to Darwin and was he correct about it according to modern science?

What are the views that modern biologist have on Correlation of growth? I need some clarification on statement that I'm gonna mention below as well that is it reason to that as mentioned here: "...
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Is there any evidence that physical appearance and temperament are coinherited together in humans?

Recently my wife and I had our second child, and I've noticed a trend with the two. Our first looks a lot like me, similar facial features and head shape, and along with it he also seems to hold many ...
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How many chromosomes does drosophila have?

I've been told that drosophila has 8 chromosomes (2n). In genic balance theory, why has drosophila been shown to have more autosome pairs than the usual number.
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What is the difference between ‘classical’ and ‘non-classical’ pathogen resistance genes in plants?

I have stumbled across a mention of classical resistance genes against pests in plants, however the classification seems a bit vague. What would be classified as classical resistance genes and what as ...
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Can features of modified plasmids be divided into prokaryotic features and eukaryotic features?

Here's what I understand and please correct me if I am wrong: Plasmids modified for gene therapy or genetic engineering should contain factors for certain functions in prokaryotic cells. For example, ...
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DNA from Egyptian Mummies Evolution vs Human of Today

Comment: I ask my biological questions from the point of view of mathematical proportions. I am not a biologist. Are there significant differences in DNA from Egyptian Mummies vs. those available from ...
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Can we study expression of human SRY gene from every person DNA blood tests?

Is it possible to study expression of human SRY gene from person DNA blood tests? Not just to see if this person has/hasn't got the SRY gene, but also to see if this person has a functional SRY gene, ...
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How can drone bees be born from unfertilized eggs?

I am learning about Drone bees and I keep reading that they are born from unfertilized eggs. Now here is my question: if eggs are gametes and therefore reproductive cells, how can they turn into a new ...
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What forms a mutation hotspot?

From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recombination_hotspot#:~:text=Recombination%20hotspots%20are%20regions%20in,that%20of%20the%20surrounding%20region. I understand that hotspots may arise when certain ...
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What would happen if the central dogma was reversed and protein was able to translate to RNA? [duplicate]

During one of my interviews, I have been asked this question. Can somebody please help me with this?
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Could someone please help me understand the outputs for HapFlk [migrated]

Could someone please explain the output file for HapFlk? My input file was a ped file which has three different populations. Two with same number of snps by imputation and third one is an outgroup ...
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How is a haploblock defined with only one SNP location?

I am reading Impact of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms and mRNA levels on obesity and lipolysis – a cohort study and am looking at Figure 1. I understand that haplotypes are associated with ...
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How many ancestors' DNA do we have per generation?

DNA can be recombined and it's pretty random which ancestor will donate how much DNA other than your parents which is an almost perfect 50/50 split. For example, my family have had DNA tests done and ...
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Biology (DNA electrophoresis with agarose)X

I'm researching a polymorphism using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and gel electrophoresis. After RFLP, I should see fragments at 141bp and 111bp, but I can not see in 2% agarose, ...
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What is meant by 'identical alleles'?

I read in my book that "two alleles are considered to be homozygous if they are identical". But at the same time I read the definition of allele to be: genes which code for a pair of ...
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Disease-causing allele frequency and modern medicine

I was thinking about what the impact modern medicine might have on human evolution based on a couple assumptions. If we assume that: modern medicine has massively cushioned the selection pressure ...
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Non fluorescent DNA stain to visualize Drosophila polytene chromosomes

I am working on designing a lab for an undergrad genetics course which involves dissecting and visualising polytene chromosomes from Drosophila salivary glands. I need a non-fluorescent non-antibased ...
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Are there any species whose cells do not copy the DNA that has been inactivated during cell differentiation?

According to this paper, the ATP cost of a having (not counting transcribing) a gene in a diploid eukaryote is about $5\times 10^3$ ATP per base pair, while the lifetime ATP usage of a mono-cellular ...
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Do the cells of any multicellular lifeforms discard their genetic material after differentiating?

There are many types of cells which will never again divide. Some of them may not need DNA to perform their function. Are there any cases where the DNA is discarded after a final differentiation?
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How does the total number of genes increase throughout the course of evolution?

Campbell Biology says: A typical prokaryotic cell has about 3,000 genes in its DNA, while a human cell has about 21,300 genes. If evolution depends on random mutations occurring in the genome, ...
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Targeted gene sequencing and specialist analysis compared to WGS and DYI searches

There seem to be a lot of "genetic consulting" services that focus on things like cancer, with a modus operandi of: Do targeted gene sequencing (usually on a few tumor suppressor genes ...
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Why is a genome of an organism only given in the 5' -> 3' direction?

If u look up a genome of a certain organism or virus, it's always given in the 5' to 3' direction. I understand that one can derive the other direction very easily by just constructing the ...
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What is the heredity model of the following heredity tree?

I have the following heredity tree: and I need to decide which heredity model it fits the most, with the least number of assumptions, from the following models: autosome dominant autosome recessive ...
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Copy number deletion and high expression [duplicate]

I have a region that has significant CNV loss. But the expression for the genes in those regions is high compared to the expression found in the samples that don't have the regions lost. How can this ...
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Are all genes capable of being switched on or off?

Are all genes capable of being switched on or off or only some genes? Are there some genes that permanently do not have the functionality that enables them to be switched on or off? Everything I have ...
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How I can find the list of transcription factor proteins involved in transcription of a specific gene?

I want to get the list of transcription factor proteins involved in the transcription of the human SIRT1 gene. How can I access that?
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Apparant inconsistency in DNA topology theory in formation of origin of replication [duplicate]

I'm studying an introductory course in genetics and came across something I don't fully understand. I obviously used Google to find where I'm thinking wrong, but I still can't understand it. To ...
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mendelian inheritance calculating probabilities help

In a recent exam our teacher gave us the following questions: Assume that D, E, F, G, H, and I are autosomal genes on different chromosomes. From the mating (parent A) DdeeFfGGHhIi x (parent B) ...
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Sickle cell anemia IS inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, but sickle cell trait IS NOT inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern?

It's all about the alleles of the hemoglobin beta gene. Sickle cell anemia is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means that both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. Those ...
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Database of unique attributes of biological model systems

I am interested in deviations from standard eukaryotic biological mechanisms: Sperm chromatin lacks nucleosomes, and are instead highly condensed by protamines. (most eukaryotic chromatin has ...
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How do genetic variants of a gene moderate an association, leading to counterintuitive result?

I have run moderation analysis to study the interaction between SNP (dominant model) of a gene (A) with DNA methylation on cognition measures. For this, I have calculated the mean DNA methylation ...
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What will be the effect of "gene-drives" on natural selection and speciation?

I understand that gene-drives not only contain a genetic mutation brought about by CRISPR-CAS, but that rather they also contain the alleles necessary for CRISPR-cas to operate in descendants. Thus ...
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How can SNP arrays be used to detect deletions within a gene?

I am reading a journal paper where the researchers are studying the effect of disease-causing mutations in the IL1RAPL1 gene. In the first figure of this paper, they show pedigrees of families where ...
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Is Zayed et al.’s revision of Orthornavirae robust?

Zayed et al. (April 7, 2022) in Science “Cryptic and abundant marine viruses at the evolutionary origins of Earth’s RNA virome” report several major hitherto-unknown Ribovirial phyla: The two most ...
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Difference between in cis/in trans and in phase/out of phase

Something I've never been quite clear on is the difference between in cis/in trans and in phase/out of phase (in the context of diploid organisms). My understanding is that the in cis/in trans ...
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What is the DNA sequences between two Inverted Repeats called?

I would like to know some rules about the nomenclature of Inverted Repeats DNA sequences. More in detail, I want to know what is the name of sequences between two inverted repeats. For example, I have ...
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Would viral diversity result in a change in the effectiveness of CRISPR systems in a population of bacteria, within a closed system?

I have here my hypothesis, does this make scientific sense? Assume this situation is occurring in a closed environment with only bacteria and bacteriophages. The effectiveness of CRISPR/Cas9, being an ...
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What is an intuitive explanation of linkage disequilibrium?

Is it possible to give a simple and intuitive explanation of the concept of linkage disequilibrium? You know, so I can sort of sound like I know what I'm talking about. Everything I read about it has ...
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1 answer
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How frequent are transposons in action? [closed]

A transposable element (TE, transposon, or jumping gene) is a DNA sequence that can change its position within a genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genetic ...
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2 answers
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Really having problem comprehending this Hardy-Weinberg example from biology textbook

Genetic equilibrium is a hypothetical state, but it is often used as a benchmark. Consider how the Hardy–Weinberg equations were used in early studies of an allele that causes hereditary ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Human gene number distribution on different strands of the chromosomes

I cannot find an article that describes the gene distribution based on their appearances on different strands and if I find one, like this from 2007, there are some aspects which are confusing, for ...
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A question about transposons

I would like to use the plasmid pXen5 (by Xenogen) for a transposon screen. It contains two inverted repeat sequences, with Luciferase, Kanamycin, and the transposase itself in between. (It's tn1409). ...
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Are introns conserved among cells?

To elaborate on the title: Among somatic, post-mitotic cells, would the same intron on a given chromosome have the same sequence among all cells descended from a progenitor cell?
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Is being able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring a transitive relation in biology?

Being able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring is one criterion to decide whether two populations are of different species. Are there 3 populations A, B, C such that A and B are able to ...
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7 votes
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How can I find/simulate mixed-ancestry DNA data?

Some collaborators and I are building an ancestral inference tool, and we're having trouble obtaining reliable ground-truth data for samples of mixed ancestry. All the ground-truth DNA datasets we're ...
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Making sense of infinite-sites mutation but finite-sites recombination coalescent simulator

Hudson (1983) introduced a coalescent simulator with infinite-sites mutations and finite-sites recombination. This seems paradoxical because the documentation of the simulator (section on crossing ...
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