Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Would it be possible to transfer a thermal resistance gene from a heat resistant organism to vitamin B or C?

Would it theoretically be possible to take a heat resistance gene from a heat resistant organism and transfer it to make vitamin B or C have higher thermal resistance? (And if it would be possible, ...
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How do ribosomes know not to translate non-coding RNA?

I'm unclear as to the molecular mechanism whereby mRNA is translated into proteins, but non-coding RNA is not similarly translated. How do ribosomes know not to translate non-coding RNA?
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What is meant by 'genes overlapping inherited structural variants'?

I am reading a journal paper about genes that are related to autism, and I have come across the following statement: To assess commonality of biological function among rare risk alleles, we compared ...
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What is the difference between a paralog and an isoform?

I am reading a journal paper about the protein kinase GSK3 and I have come across the following statement: Although commonly referred to as isoforms, GSK3α and GSK3β are actually paralogs, homologous ...
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Sextuplet corn (Zea mays with branched ear)

In 2019 I planted some sweet corn next to some Hopi blue flint type corn. Of course my mistake was apparent once I started to see the ears. The closer the two types were to each other, the more they ...
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What does 21q21.1-q21.2 mean?

I am reading a journal paper about the association between NCAM2 and autism, and I have come across the following: We performed microarray analysis and identified a 1.6-Mb deletion of 21q21.1-q21.2, ...
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What is a proximal deletion breakpoint?

I am reading a journal paper about the relationship between NCAM2 and autism. I have come across the following statement in the paper: Based on analysis utilizing the UCSC Genome Browser (hg18, build ...
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How is it decided in following paragraph that the “knocked-out gene” is the dominant allele?

The following quote was in Wikipedia about Knockout Mice Some of the newborn chimera mice will have gonads derived from knocked-out stem cells, and will therefore produce eggs or sperm containing the ...
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What do they mean by “most single-gene traits are recessive.” How can a gene be recessive; isn’t it an allele which can be recessive or dominant?

Here’s the paragraph pg. 45 of “Principle of Neural Science”: “Although most single-gene traits are recessive, rearrangements that lead to duplication or deletion of multiple genes often have dominant ...
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How can we estimate how many generations have passed between two individuals?

I am taking a course in Bio Informatics, but my biology knowledge is pretty limited. So a question raised for me. Let's suppose we have a pair of aligned sequences, how can we estimate how many ...
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What is a 21q21 deletion?

I am reading a journal paper about the relationship between the protein NCAM2 and autism, and I have come across the following statement: We report three patients affected with neurodevelopmental ...
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metaphors for explaining the role of DNA in the cell [closed]

Various metaphors are used to explain the central role of DNA in a cell to laypersons. These include blueprint, recipe, catalogue, instruction manual etc. I even heard someone describing DNA as a '...
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What is a Toll-Like Receptor (TLR)

Being the highschool senior noob that I am, I cannot wrap my head around the explanations I find online. I think TLRs are things that can recognise which bacteris is in the body based on whether it is ...
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What is the impact of selection on orthologous and paralogous genes? How would this impact differ in different regions of protein coding genes?

Since paralogs increase the size of the genome and provide more opportunity for the evolution of novel characteristics, would they be more prone to selection?
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Can Cas13 edit DNA

Can Cas13 be used to edit DNA or is it only for RNA? I have tried looking at literature an my understanding is that is can only edit RNA Thanks in advance
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Hardy Weinberg equilibrium problem with no heterozygous mating

In a diploid population of A1A1, A1A2, A2A2, the A-locus was initially in H-W equilibrium. Due to certain changes in the mate choice pattern, heterozygotes completely stopped mating with each other (i....
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Can mRNA entering cells via vaccination possibly integrate into the genome?

In mRNA vaccine, any viral reverse transcriptase that could possibly transcribe viral RNA to DNA has been deleted, the only mRNA that enters the cell is the one coding for the immungenic protein (...
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What does allelomorph mean?

Is there any difference between allele and allelomorph since most websites call them the same. If they are same then why two different term?
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Some related questions about DNA differences in a single organism

If you took a DNA sample from someone's brain and that same persons liver at more or less the same time, would that DNA - all else being equal (e.g. no mutations from radiation) - be exactly the same? ...
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Reproduction in animals

Humans have acquired knowledge about their environment through many observations. Today, humans have wide variety of resources to gain knowledge about reproduction in human beings and other ...
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Why is a solution of cesium chloride used in Meselson & Stahl's DNA replication experiment?

Centrifugation involves separating particles of different sizes, masses, density and etc. In the experiment, the DNA macromolecules are suspended in a solution of cesium chloride gradient and then ...
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When there is incomplete dominance of one allele, is one allele still considered recessive?

When you have incomplete dominance between two alleles of a gene (say, on two different tail lengths blending into an intermediate tail length or two rose colours blending together), can you still ...
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What does γ mean before a gene name?

I am reading the following paper and I have come across the following statement: It has been demonstrated that the phosphorylation of histone H2AX-Ser139 to form γH2AX. I am not sure what the γ ...
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Hardy-Weinberg principle

The following paragraph on Wikipedia about the Hardy-Weinberg principle is bothering me. It should be mentioned that the genotype frequencies after the first generation need not equal the genotype ...
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Question about probability of being a heterozygous carrier

A 26-year-old woman of Norwegian descent seeks genetic counseling. Her brother died at age eight of documented cystic fibrosis. Both of their parents are deceased. The woman undergoes DNA testing for ...
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How did Rna replicate according to Rna World Hypothesis?

I was studying Rna World Hypothesis in Khan Academy, and there is a line..... The RNA world hypothesis suggests that life on Earth began with a simple RNA molecule that could copy itself without help ...
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Question regarding genetic variance and heritability

According to early studies (performed by Wright) on guinea pig coat color, the total variance in a randomly mating strain was 0.573. The variance in an inbred strain was 0.340. From correlations ...
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Is there any evidence that humans isolated from each other genetically are less able to produce viable offspring?

I would guess that before a new species originates, members of subgroups might have difficulty in interbreeding. Is this possible?
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Why doesnt the SARS-Cov-2 affect other animals?

Why doesn't the coronavirus affect animals like dogs and cows? I know that the SARS-CoV-2 is a zoonotic virus i.e. it can affect both humans and other animals. I also know that the DNA composition ...
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Clarifying distinction between genetic recombination , translocation. and transposition

Having thought about the distinciton between these terms I have come up with the following definitions, are these correct? Translocation describes the relocation of a chromosomal segment to a ...
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Can Euchromatin convert into Heterochromatin?

I know that Heterochromatin can convert into Euchromatin but is the reverse possible? If yes, then How?
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what kind of dinucleotides can be considered important from a mutational point of view other than CpG islands?

CpG islands are regions with an high frequency of CpG (Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine) sites. The usual formal definition is that of a region with at least 200 bp, a GC percentage greater than 50% and an ...
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How does permanently modifying human DNA work? And how does it impact procreation?

So I read an article about a metabolic disease being treated with gene therapy, where they inserted corrective dna into the patient. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/dna-permanent-change-...
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if an SNP were edited using CRISPR What are the chances that, absent artificial selection, wild type alleles would reemerge?

I am researching a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) SNP RS324420 and FAAH out microdeletion that together lead to reduced pain sensitivity and reduced anxiety (Moreira et al 2008). The causative ...
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Why are parents of contrasting genotypes involved for a reciprocal cross? [closed]

In a reciprocal cross, we try to determine whether a trait is sex-linked Or not... One thing I couldn't understand was that, why are parents of contrasting genotypes involved? Does that mean that at ...
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How can Chronic myeloid Leukaemic drugs reduce the production of the Philadelphia genotype?

How can Chronic Myeloid Leukaemic drugs (Tyrosine kinase inhibitors, e.g. imatinib, etc.) that act by inhibiting bind of ATP to the active site of the BCR-ABL1 protein actually reduce the prevalence ...
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What degree of influence do SNPs have on activity of ligands at receptors?

I know that generally, evolution tends to evolve towards having some wiggle room in respect to effect of polymorphisms on binding of endogenous ligands, but with synthetic ligands, especially modern ...
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Determine similarity in percentages between species A and B, A and C, and B and C

The chart above is a graphic that shows the amino acid sequence differences between different organisms for a protein keratin. The question I am required to answer begins as, "Keratin is made up ...
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How to identify an unknown species from a .fasta file containing its genome sequences [closed]

I am a Biochemist that is unfamiliar with bioinformatic tools and new to academia as a whole. I am currently using ILLUMINA PE DNA sequence data, which I trimmed (Trimmomatic), corrected (Rcorrector) ...
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What does Δcys mean after a gene name?

I am reading a paper and I have come across the following statement: "Plasmids encoding full-length NCAM140 and NCAM140Δcys, intracellular domain of NCAM140, and the NCAM140ID729–750 fragment ...
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What does it mean for a protein to be dominant-negative?

I am reading this journal paper, which investigates the interaction of the NCAM protein and the Pak1 protein. In this paper I have come across the term "dominant-negative Pak1" and "...
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Probability of all alleles represented in a sample

I'm trying to wrap my head around some formulas presented in the 1992 paper from Chakraborty Sample Size Requirements for Addressing the Population Genetic Issues of Forensic Use of DNA Typing, but I ...
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Estimate mutation rate in UVC treated cells

I am wondering how to get a coarse estimate of the number of mutation I obtain doing UVC treatment on eukaryotic cells (microalgae) starting from information such as the survival rate, genome size, ...
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Quantifying Gene Expression

I have found that many studies use the mRNA concentration as a “proxy” for protein activity because there should be correlation between mRNA levels and proteins expression levels. How is protein ...
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Microarray experiment validation meaning

I have a quick question: what does microarray experiment validation mean ? I was reading a paper in which they say that the data of the experiment show that the 3 genes radB, dp1 and dp2 are co-...
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Meaning of 5’–3’ in relation to ORFs

I was reading a paper in the journal Molecular Basis of Disease, which stated: The ORFs are arranged as replicase, and protease and major S, E, M, and N proteins which follows a typical 5’—3’ order ...
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Do we come to know which allele is dominant by seeing family genration tree only?

I know that a Gene has Alleles (variation) and one is Dominant over Other i.e the Other Recessive. Then I got a Thought that How can we tell whether an Allele is Dominant or Recessive...... and I came ...
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Genes are linearly arranged on the chromosome [closed]

Could someone please explain the meaning of the statement given by TH Morgan: "genes are linearly arranged on chromosomes" Since according to my knowledge there are noncoding parts in ...
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Can alleles have cyclic dominance?

Do the relationships between alleles always form a hierarchy? Ignoring partial and codominance, can alleles have a cyclic relationship? For example, is there anything that exists analogous to the ...
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Why do I get cytosine to guanine/adenine transitions in bisulphite treated sequences?

I got my sequencing results (bisulphite treated and non treated sequences of same species Allium cepa) and now I have to do analysis in Cymate online tool. I prepared all sequences as it is written in ...

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