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Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Microplastics affecting hormones

It is apparent that the food being transported and distributed for the mass of society is containing microplastics. Is there any scholarly articles that can be referenced to answer this question. How ...
Brady Mock's user avatar
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What has caused my oxeye daisies to mutate?

Some oxeye daisies (Leucanthemum vulgare) in my garden are showing strange mutations. I have a few oxeye daisy plants around my garden in different areas, but only one plant's flowers are showing ...
cerys's user avatar
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Splits during crossing-over

enter preformatted text hereAfter reading the chapter called “Immortal Coils” in The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins, and I am seeking more specifics about meiosis ...
weekendwarrior's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
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Can phenotype change without change in genotype?

If a person with lighter skin is to live in areas close to the equator for a long amount of time, their skin would get darker, and hence their phenotype gets 'altered'. If I'm to look at their gene ...
Mel's user avatar
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What is a reference strain in DNA-DNA hybridization DNA groups?

Results DNA groups identified: All intra-group relatedness values are shown in Table I. By means of reference strains, most of the DNA groups could be identified as groups described by Bouvet & ...
Freezing Soul's user avatar
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How would you find out which gene is causing a specific phenotype in Drosophila through crosses only?

I'd recently attended an interview and was asked a question I've been trying to get to the bottom of. The question was that there is a mutation in which some smaller drosophila are only attracted to ...
Ananya Katikeneni's user avatar
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1 answer
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identification of most Active gene/protein isoform

I am investigating a gene, and on ensemble, it has multiple variants. How can i know which gene or protein isoform is most active?
qwerty's user avatar
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Limma - Voom function for microarray data

I am wondering if anyone can have a look at the voom plot I got below and let me know if this is indicative of an issue with my design? I understand that it should be more of a J-shape rather than a ...
Sachin Rahul's user avatar
7 votes
1 answer
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Are there any completely, or 'true', Mendelian traits that do not display any polygeny at all?

Recently, I learned about polygenic traits and it got me wondering, are there any truly Mendelian traits where the trait displayed exists in a total binary? I have looked at some questions on the ...
gzkts's user avatar
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1 answer
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How to separate two plasmids from E coli with the same backbone?

I'm using transformation-associated recombination (TAR) in yeast to capture a biosynthetic gene cluster (32 kb) by transforming gDNA and a capture vector (11 kb) with homology arms. I identified a ...
Omar Antonio Ocegueda's user avatar
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Most common causes of celiac disease

What are the causes of celiac disease? Is Genetics involved or the environmental effects cause it?
MInhaj Fatima 's user avatar
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Knock-Out (KO) Mice

We have generated an induced KO mice line for a specific gene. However when i perform IF staining I can still see substantial levels of the protein for this specific gene produced, even though the ...
shaii's user avatar
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How are genetic hallmarks of aging somehow “reset” at conception?

I’m a layman and genuinely curious about this, so forgive me if I use the wrong terminology or obviously don’t know what I’m talking about. Regardless of whether parents have a child at 18 or at 40, ...
NominalSystems's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
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Probability of an $AABbCC$ offspring given the cross $AaBbCc\times AaBbCc$, is my solution correct?

So I have been working through the drills in the 26th edition of AP Biology Prep by The Princeton Review for fun when I came across this question in the Chapter 12 drill that I'm not really sure about ...
CrSb0001's user avatar
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What does it mean when observed genotype frequency is different from expected genotype frequency in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

As I understand it, if a population is at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, then the genotype frequencies should be $$p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1,$$ given the allele frequencies of $p$ and $q$, which you can figure ...
geneticscodingnoob's user avatar
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In the context of GWAS we have an alternate allele and a reference allele. Why do we only have one possible alternate instead of three?

I recently started analyzing a GWAS summary dataset. It has a column for the reference allele in which it mentions the base in the reference genome. There is another column for the alternate allele (...
hgz's user avatar
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3 answers
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If you want to understand evolution from a genetics standpoint what are some must reads be it books or textbooks? [closed]

The question basically sums it up. I'm looking for books/textbooks that explain evolution from a genetic perspective.
Shannon T's user avatar
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Interpretation of narrow-sense heritability over one (using R/S = h^2)

Here is my data: Mean height score of the total parental population: 5.2 Mean height score of selected parents (those chosen for breeding due to their higher height): 6.4 Mean height score of the ...
BigMistake's user avatar
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What is important in the Luria-Latarjet effect?

In the seminal paper Luria, S.E. and Latarjet, R. (1964) “Ultraviolet irradiation of bacteriophage during intracellular growth”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States ...
Gigiux's user avatar
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Evolution of the human Y chromosome

This recent news article suggests the number of genes in human male Y chromosome has steadily been reducing in the Y chromosome for a long time and is in danger of dying out all together. What I want ...
KDP's user avatar
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Is there a program that demonstrates overall fitness will increase in a population overtime?

Of course this will not always be the case with environmental factors, but generally speaking. I'm searching for a program that shows evolution works from a statistical standpoint.
Shannon T's user avatar
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What is the word for a small (under 50 bp) structural variant?

What is the word for a small (under 50 bp) SV? Perhaps it is MNV (multi-nucleotide variant)? Something like microindel? I do not like SNV as "single nucleotide" is not really correct and I ...
BigMistake's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
117 views

Pedigree Analysis

I was doing some pedigree work and couldn't figure out why my answer is wrong. This chart is supposed to be an autosomal Dominant method of inheritance, but I am finding an autosomal recessive pattern ...
John Alvarez's user avatar
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1 answer
60 views

Why do we choose to use agar instead of agarose in various microbial applications?

When performing gel-electrophoresis we always use agarose. Is there a reason we can't perform it using Agar? And in microbial culture Agar is commonly used as solidifying agent, could this be replaced ...
Jayanth Vegesna's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
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Preserving a sample for mtDNA and nuclear DNA analysis

Imagine a person in the early half of the 20th century (1900 to 1950) took some kind of sample(s) from a living human body using any technology of the era. They then stored it using any technology ...
CXJ's user avatar
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With CRISPR-mediated gene editing, can the PAM for the guide RNA also be site of the desired edit?

I'm hoping to use CRISPR-Cas9 in yeast to change a single nucleotide in a gene of interest. While there are a couple potential guide RNA sequences I could use, the best option's PAM sequence (TGG) it ...
PigweedHater's user avatar
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0 answers
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Patterns of craniofacial topology

There are animals which are not directly related but have similar craniofacial topology. For example: koala, donkey, mouse, turtle, parrot all have features seemingly belonging to same topology, ...
Mikhail V's user avatar
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1 answer
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Reading genotype aloud

For this genotype, P2ry12$^{+/+}$ I read it "P2ry12 wild type." For animals with the GFP being expressed under one Cx3cr1 promoter, Cx3cr1$^{+/GFP}$, how do I read that aloud? What about for:...
neurosciencecalc's user avatar
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1 answer
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How to resolve the contradiction between the time required for the fixation of neutral mutations and the time available according to the fossil record

More than thirty thousand synonymous single-nucleotide-substitutions have occurred in protein-coding genes in the human genome since the human lineage diverged from the chimp lineage ~7 million years ...
Devin's user avatar
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Why is the expected time to coalesce the same as the ploidy times inbreeding effective population size?

The expected time to coalesce, in generations, is the same as the ploidy (e.g., 2 for humans) times Nef, the inbreeding effective population size, under coalescent theory. Why? Both ploidy * Nef and ...
BigMistake's user avatar
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3 answers
108 views

Have there ever been "half-twins" who were halfway between siblings and twins?

Have there ever been two human siblings who were 75% or more genetically related?
BigMistake's user avatar
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1 answer
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Has perturbation theory been applied to mutation process frameworks?

For example, imagine this Feynman diagram: This is analogous to mutational homoplasy. When comparing haplotypes, there are many possible tree topologies. Under maximum parsimony, we ignore suboptimal ...
BigMistake's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
41 views

How exactly are the eye color genes related?

How exactly are the gey (maybe aka EYCL1?), bey(2?) (aka EYCL3?), HERC2, and OCA2 genes related to each other? There are numerous sources that explain eye color in terms of OCA2's role in the creation ...
robertwb's user avatar
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2 answers
119 views

What are the chances that two children of the same couple will have the same genes without being identical twins?

If I randomly select half the chromosomes of the male and female eventually I will select the same exact half for both a second time. How often does this occur? Is this considered a twin if it is born ...
Dale's user avatar
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1 answer
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How did the Zinder-Lederberg experiment on Transduction work?

In the paper that introduced TRANSDUCTION (J Bacteriol. 1952 Nov;64(5):679-699), Lederberg and his student Zinder reported that S. typhimurium "LT-22 is lysogenic for a virus active on LT-2. ...
Gigiux's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
60 views

Bacteria genetic screen for mutants

Is there a simple screen for bacterial mutants with increased mutation rates? For example, detection of some loss-of-function mutation that causes increased mutation rates. Any screen I can think of (...
Jeremy's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
144 views

Change of DNA concentration due to restriction digest?

Assume that you perform a restriction digest in a molecular biology lab: you combine genomic DNA, a restriction endonuclease (e.g., EcoRI), and the optimal buffer for that endonuclease and are about ...
Michael Gruenstaeudl's user avatar
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0 answers
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Coefficient of fraternity between grandparent and grandchild from full-sib parents

I have the following pedigree and I would like to calculate the coefficient of fraternity between individual 1 and 5. R/AGHmatrix::Amatrix gives a coefficient of 0 for this pair. Shouldn't it be non-...
jnolen's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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Gene Mapping - Please explain in Lay terms

Taking an AP bio course, and for some reason I cannot comprehend the mechanism of how one determines the location of alleles on a chromosome. The math is simple and I can memorize it, but its bugging ...
Morgan Harkins's user avatar
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1 answer
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What software can be used for simulating human meiosis, taking linkage and recombination into account?

I want to study the nature of genetic variation in offspring from the same set of human parents. To this end, I would like to take two (male and female) complete genomes, generate gametes from them, ...
actinidia's user avatar
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0 votes
3 answers
85 views

Is there any objective way to describe ethnicity?

Is there any objective way to describe ethnicity that does not rely on arbitrary sociocultural concepts like referring to racial constructs, modern nations like “Spanish”, or even continents like “...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
58 views

Is there a convention regarding the use of forward vs reverse DNA strand to represent DNA sequence?

I see in this paper the notation IL-1A C[-889]T which suggests that for this gene, the reference allele is C and the variant is T. However, when I look up the same gene on dbSNP, it says the alleles ...
Youcha's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
175 views

How to calculate df in the chi-square test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? [closed]

We often use df=1 in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium when there are only two alleles. Some people say that it's because we've used the frequency of two alleles when calculating the expectated values, while ...
Planarian's user avatar
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0 answers
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Why is the maximum propotion of MII 2/3 in the ordered tetrad analysis? How is it different from normal recombination?

My textbook says that the maximum propotion of MII gametes in the ordered tetrad analysis is 2/3, and if we put it into the formula RF(recombination frequency)=MII/2(MI+MII), we can find out that the ...
Planarian's user avatar
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0 answers
29 views

Are Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assessment for two alleles on one loci or two locus?

Are Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assessment for two alleles on one loci or two locus? For instance, when the video says BB Bb bb https://www.khanacademy.org/science/ap-biology/natural-selection/hardy-...
monotonic's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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Is there potential to modify GM crops to inhibit their reproduction with non-GM crops?

I've been reading on terminator gene sequences and was wondering whether the same technology could be applied to GM crops to prevent transgene flow. Turns out Monsanto had developed the technology but ...
pesky_nightjar's user avatar
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0 answers
29 views

Is the amount of pigment in one feature (e.g. hair, eyes, skin) connected to the amount of pigment in another?

Let's say, genes allowing it, you have a red-haired child with hazel eyes. The hair is a darker/deeper orange color, so (if I recall correctly) having some degree of eumelanin—not much compared to ...
inkwell87's user avatar
  • 101
0 votes
2 answers
116 views

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Test Result for Merged Genotypes

I was curious if two populations are in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), and if they are merged, then what happens? To find out, I considered populations from the 1000 genome project data. For ...
statm's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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How frequently does recombination occur, and how long are the recombinated fragments?

I understand the mechanics of recombination, but am struggling with the 'scale'. When two homologous chromosomes pair, roughly how many recombination events occur on average? I understand there will ...
user265902's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
132 views

Can a person have different sex at cellular level?

I mean like every cell has a sex chromosome.So does a male with XY chromosomes has all the cells in all the organs inside his body of XY chromosomes only? And vice versa.....
PAWAN's user avatar
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