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Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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In theory, how would genetic engineering of certain genes affect morphology/phenotype of individuals in adulthood?

Say we get to the point where we then can identify all of the correct genes/combination of genes and etc. that are responsible for things like zygoma, maxilla, mandible, frontal bone, etc. shape (...
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To what extent is the angle of the mandible genetic vs. epigenetic?

Is there any scientific literature or studies that can confirm whether the angle of the mandible and/or gonial angle are more strongly influenced by genetics or epigenetics, AKA puberty/hormones/...
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Is complete dominance actually a genotypic process?

An example often stated for codominance is blood groups, where both alleles version of the protein is expressed and can be found in the cell membrane. An example of incomplete dominance often given ...
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Are mitochondrial genes translated the exact same way like nuclear genes?

The mtDNA contains only 22 tRNA-coding genes. So either these genes contain multiple tRNAs per one (which is unlikely because every gene has its own promoter in mtDNA), or mitochondrial tRNAs differ ...
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Is DNA actually like source code repository?

So after reading articles like "People Use Just 8.2% of Their DNA" etc., and thinking a bit... I got this idea: What if DNA is actually like a software source code repository? You know, it has "...
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skin colouration in thalassemia

Now when i was studying about thalassemia, I read that anaemia is its major characterstic. I can understand that fact. But it was also written that the skin gets darker/pale. Wikipedia says that the ...
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Absorbance anomaly

The standard concentration for absorbance of 1 for ssDNA is 33 ug/ml, while for RNA it is 40 ug/ml. I can't find the reason for the difference in this value for these two macro-molecules. My professor ...
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How many genes do viruses have? [on hold]

What is the range for the number of genes any virus contains? What is the average? Are there any viruses that contain only 1 gene?
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What does chrM stand for in a VCF file? [closed]

I'm guessing the M is for Mitochondria, but Googling has not helped me to confirm this question. The wikipedia file for Variant Call Format also was not helpful.
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Intein Splicing

Currently I am trying to read and understand this paper on intein splicing. https://sci-hub.tw/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22001202 However, I'm a little confused with Figure 4. Why do the ...
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Why is the DNA structure a double helix? [closed]

why DNA not mads any other linear structure other than double helix which thing responsible for DNA double helix.
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What is the meaning of child additive to dominance effect, dc/ac =0.5?

I am conducting collaborative research about family-based genome-wide association study, where I am using the genotypes data. There is a point called "child additive to dominance effect, dc/ac =0.5", ...
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What are primary reasons for the failure to localise/anchor sequences in genome assemblies?

My question concerns the incorporation of individual sequence reads into chromosomes during gene sequencing projects, especially those with larger genomes such as Drosophila melanogaster or Homo ...
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Control of protein by DNA sequence with respect to RNA polymerase

I want to know how can a particular base sequence like the TATA box in the -10 region of a gene is able to regulate a protein's function like RNA polymerase? What kind of interaction really occurs?Is ...
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this is a question regarding distance between genes,how is this question done? [closed]

[![this is a question regarding distance between genes,how is this question done?][1]][1] [1]: https://i.stack.imgur.com/1xtF1.jpgthis is a question regarding distance between genes,how is this ...
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1answer
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What is the gene for height?

Height doesn't seem to be linked to sex, which is surprising. I have seen ways to predict children's height and it involves taking the average of both parents height. Upon my search, I did not find ...
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x-linked recessive inheritance and correlation for males

I was inspired by a discussion in this thread. Wikipedia lists a number of disorders linked to recessive genes on the x-chromosome. One typical example is red-green color blindness. Now wikipedia says ...
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What's the benefit of the average human body temperature?

Why would the body choose a resting temperature of 36.1c to 37.2c? It seems a very inefficient mechanism of survival considering the typical ambient temperatures on Earth. If there is a benefit to ...
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How to download different kinds of data from NCBI eutils?

I have been researching NCBI eutils and wish to get some 'big data' from it. I know that I can construct queries to query one of (I think) 8 databases, like this: ...
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What is the difference between different schools of taxonomy?

I have been quite interested about biology lately. I would like to know what are some of the main differences between schools of taxonomy. Thank you for the answer!
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Maximum recombination frequency [duplicate]

During the process of crossing over, Why is the maximum possible recombination frequency between two genes equal to 50% and not more than that?
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The space of all human DNAs [closed]

This is both a math and biology question but I think it makes more sense for a biologist to answer it. My question is: what can be said, if anything, about the space of all possible human DNAs (for a ...
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Is Wikipedia a good source of taxonomy? [duplicate]

I have been quite interested in biology lately,and I would like to know whether it is a good choice to look up taxonomic information there.
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1answer
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If DNA methylation inactivates genes, does DNA demethylation activate them?

DNA demethylation can be passive or active. The passive process takes place in the absence of methylation of newly synthesized DNA strands by DNMT1 during several replication rounds – for example, ...
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Possible combinations in the Meiosis' Telophase 1

As you might already know Meiosis is the process in eukaryotic, sexually-reproducing animals that reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell before reproduction $^{[1]}$ One of the reasons why ...
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E. coli (K-12) sample is not dying to isopropyl alcohol

I am doing a high school science project on the effectiveness of household antiseptics and the resistances the bacteria evolve to them. I am using E. coli K-12. In the sample, the bacteria population ...
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1answer
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Repopullation after a mass extinction [duplicate]

Is it possible to restart the whole human species with less than 10 individual. let say that the whole human species was wipe out of the surface of the earth by a catastrophe only 8 different couple ...
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What is the difference between Regulatory Gene and Modifier Gene?

If both controls the expression of another gene by physically or genetically interacting with the target gene, which attributes make "Regulatory gene" different from "Modifier gene" or vice-versa?
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The Viceroy Evolution Paradox [duplicate]

The viceroy butterfly generates a toxin compound which make it distasteful to predators. Biologists agree that the viceroy must have developed this trait as a passive defence mechanism to prevent ...
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The afflictions of Tarrare

Are there any conjectured mechanisms that cause Tarrare's extremely oversized stomach and abdominal cavity? Along with his superhuman appetite of course. Whether from a medical perspective or a ...
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1answer
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Interpretation of genetic results

Result of genetic testing indicated: c.341del, p.Thr114Lysfs*37. The c.341del probably means:deletion at the cDNA 341 nucleotide. Buy what does the second part:p.Thr114Lysfs*37 ?
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what is the difference between homozygous and heterozygous duplication?

In a genetic test result it's written homozygous duplication or heterozygous duplication Does it mean four copies of the ...
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Does the law of independent assortment apply to homologous chromosomes or alleles, or both?

My textbook is giving me two definitions 1st def: "random orientation of homologous chromosomes at the metaphase plate in meiosis 1." 2nd def: "alleles for one gene separate into gametes ...
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1answer
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How do biologists discover information from fossils? [closed]

I have a query about the study of fossils (palaeontology). Let me know about the study of fossils. How do biologist discover "DNA" information from dead and old fossils such as a dinosaur? (answer ...
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What are the issues with excessive tandem repeats in replication?

Why is it that tandem repeats like CAGCAGCAG cause primer-template misalignment and diseases like Huntingtons disease? By my understanding, too many such repeats can cause strands to form hairpins and ...
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1answer
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Do all gene mutations in pathogens lead to more harmful consequences for humans?

It seems that the concern we always hear is that bacteria and viruses mutate to dodge our treatments either through random mutations or survival of the fittest. Do harmful living things ever mutate to ...
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Can I train my non-dominant hand and make it dominant?

Are our dominant limbs decided on birth or is there some way in which I can train my non-dominant hand and make it as coordinated as my dominant?
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Is evolution theory falsifiable by whether mutations result in a loss or gain of genetic information? [closed]

If I understand the theory correctly, evolution revolves around the process of adaptation of a being to its environment which results in the increment of survival and reproduction chances for that ...
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What does Ercc1-/- / DAT-Cre+ mean?

I really need to know what Ercc1-/- / DAT-Cre+ mean. I think the 1st part means that the mice don't have the Ercc1 gene (knockout). But what about DAT-Cre+? This question arised from reading the ...
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Why not self pollination for finding the genotype instead of test cross?

Test cross can tell us what's the genotype of a plant is. But we can know that even by self pollinating the plant. For example, If a garden pea plant has the genotype TT, then self pollinating them ...
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How are mitochondrial diseases like MERRF inherited?

I am doing a project on the disorder MERRF in Mitochondrial DNA. I have to make a pedigree and explain how it is transferred on from generation to generation. I know that it is inherited maternally, ...
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What are the different types of SNPs?

When I search for this online I get answers such as substitutions, deletions, insertions etc. But I mean in the sense that I have been reading different terms infront of the word SNP such as: lead SNP,...
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How can inbreeding be used for selecting mutations?

I understand that inbreeding, after a number of generations of crossing genetically related individuals eventually yields homozygotes, however I can't seem to understand how it can be used for ...
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1answer
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What makes an E.coli an E.coli, genotype or phenotype?

According to this paper, among 61 strains of E. coli they studied only 6% of the genes are common in all. Which means that the overwhelming majority of the genes are not shared. And wikipedia ...
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1answer
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Have there been new discoveries concerning the perception of taste for the last 10 years? [closed]

What are the last discoveries concerning the perception of taste for the last 10 years? We discovered the 5th flavour: umami. Also the 6th and 7th: oleogustus and starchy. Anything else? Maybe in ...
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Are all genetic disorders inherited?

I know that genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis are often passed down through generations and are therefore classified as genetic disorders, but if a mutation occurs spontaneously, which for ...
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Can environmental pressures affect genes in one generation? [duplicate]

Environmental pressures are the catalyst of evolution. Pushing a species to adapt to changes therein. My question is can these mechanisms cause significant adaptation over one generation(parent-> ...
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1answer
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What impedes the understanding of genotype/phenotype relationship without statistics? [closed]

Most genetic research tries to establish a relationship between a certain genotype and certain phenotype. To me this is like trying to understand a system as a black box, where you try to establish ...
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What genes in a plant determine whether a stem is erect or climbing?

I was randomly reading this Wiki article on Jasmine and this question crossed my mind after reading the following lines: Jasmine can be either deciduous (leaves falling in autumn) or evergreen (...
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What exactly does the phrase “chimerical sharing” mean in this abstract?

The Gizmodo article Australian Siblings Are Semi-Identical Twins, Some of the Rarest Humans Ever links to the new paper in NEJM Molecular Support for Heterogonesis Resulting in Sesquizygotic Twinning ...