Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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How to determine the source of EcoRI plasmid sequence flanked by repeating palindromes?

The EcoRI restriction enzyme recognizes the sequence GAATTC. I have searched the sequence of a sequenced plasmid of E.coli at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/LT795507 This plasmid (5th out of 6 ...
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List of small amino-acid peptide sequences that perform useful function? [closed]

According to @David in How does the shape of a protein determine its function? , "the largest category of proteins is enzymes — the proteins that catalyse the chemical reactions". I have ...
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How can SNPs be well-defined if chromosome lengths differ?

I don't have a background in biology, but is trying to learn more about genetics; I have watched many videos about SNPs and still feel confused about the concept of a single nucleotide polymorphism. ...
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How do sequences of amino acids perform and what properties do they have? [closed]

I am learning and have a question regarding sequences of amino acids and their properties, please. There are quite highly detailed accounts of each step of the process getting from the sequence of DNA ...
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Would it be possible to genetically modify a plant to produce usable antibodies? And if eaten would they be used?

I am thinking of a project where i would Gene edit a plants cells to produce anti bodies that humans could use. Does anyone know A. what genes to modify? B. Would the antibodies be usable after ...
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Does Telomere length shortening with age actually cause our cells to age and stop functioning properly?

The human telomere, a simple repeating sequence of six bases, TTAGGG located at the ends of chromosomes (Moyzis et al, 1988) protect them from degeneration, reconstruction, fusion, and loss. It is ...
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Do bacteria duplicate the copied virus DNA to put into a Cas9 protein when fighting the virus off again?

When bacteria insert a part of invading virus DNA into its own genetic sequence, on the 2nd invasion does it duplicate that copied DNA again from wherever the bacteria placed it and put it into a Cas9 ...
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Why isn't speciation a negative feedback loop?

To rephrase my question more articulately: Speciation begins when two groups within a species starts to become reproductively isolated, and is complete when the two groups can't interbreed (for the ...
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Which genes are expressed from Barr bodies?

In someone with a typical female genotype, one x-chromosome is condensed into a Barr body. The majority of the genes in this chromosome are not expressed. Someone with Turner’s syndrome (one X ...
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How to interpret this statement on missing heritability

I'm currently studying a behavioral genetic course, but still, I feel that I'm lacking many basic concepts. A particular topic I don't understand is missing heritability. Here's an example regarding ...
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What has a more negative impact: Having only a partial deletion of a specific gene or the having entire gene deleted?

I am looking through a genomics database to see whether patients who have intellectual disability have deletion of only a specific gene of interest and no other mutations (e.g. deletions or copy ...
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Phenotype of a possible gene mutation

I have noticed multiple cases where patients had similar body characteristics : decreased ability to gain weight (slim) they are capable of sleep only 6 hours or less with normal functioning (...
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Using the law of independent assortment, why can't heterozygous parents make identical twins?

In a case where two parents are heterozygous, why can't any pairs of their children be identical twins? As the question asks, I tried to explain this using the law of independent assortment, which ...
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Why is the genetic code so heavily conserved?

Except some organisms, most organisms follow the same Genetic Code tRNAs, tRNA synthetases, ribosomes, etc. comprise the translational machinery for converting nucleotide codons to proteins. My ...
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How to use karyotype notation?

I'm looking at two karyotypes, one for a person with Klinefelter's Syndrome and another with Patau's. What is the karyotype notation for them? I don't understand what I looked up online. Any help is ...
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What is the latest consensus on the causes of sexuality?

In 2019, scientists concluded that there is no gay gene. Epigentic markers of homosexuality have been disproven. The Exotic becomes Erotic Theory is an ancient decrepit idea that holds no water. Yet, ...
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Why does Meiosis produce 4 daughter cells instead of 2? Won't splitting the initial diploid cell into two haploid cells be easier?

At first, I thought it was because of crossing-over, but when I thought more about it, that didn't seem reasonable. Why don't cells just do meiosis like this? (I know that we don't understand all the ...
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Could someone explain how chromosomes are counted here?

I'm not sure how chromosomes are counted in this picture. I would reason that there would be 8 chromosomes in the diploid cell, but that doesn't seem to be the case. Could someone explain?
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Gene Sequencing [closed]

The human genome project took an effort of around 15 years, billions of dollars and thousands of scientists working together. So how is that the genetic sequencing of covid variants could be done at ...
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What is the probability for an offspring to inherit schizophrenia? [closed]

If an European male (i.e. white) is diagnosed with schizophrenia, but an European female (also white) 2-3 years younger than the male is healthy, what is the probability that their first child will: a)...
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The village of Twins — Mystery behind and Scope

With the presence of more than 200 twins, Kodinhi , a village situated in Malappuram District in Kerala , India , is popularly known as the "Village of Twins".This phenomenon of large ...
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Does DNA ligase have any role to play in replication on leading strand?

Actually I developed this doubt while solving some questions(they are poorly framed I suspect). According to my notes and my institute modules, 1 RNA primer is required on the leading strand as well ...
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Method of determining base values of traits in isolated populations

Prelude: I came across a discussion about the correct formula for calculating the average IQ of offspring, which goes something like the following $$ 100 + \frac35 \left( \left(\text{father's IQ} + \...
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What is the difference between Haploinsufficient and Autosomal Dominant mutations

I have been reading a paper that classifies genes in different groups by the type of disease-cause mutations. Basically it says Haploinsufficient, Autosomal Dominant and autosomal receive mutations. I ...
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What is an example of a benign or beneficial de novo copy number variation?

Duplication events in particular. In any species. Have enough genomes been sequenced and studied to identify any? It is rather easy to find studies which identify them with diseases but have they ever ...
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Do ethnic groups differ in non-coding DNA?

There are services (23andme, AncestryDNA) that will associate an ethnic group to you from your spit. Could non-coding DNA in theory be useful for this goal i.e. are there statistically meaningful ...
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Are coding DNA and invariant DNA independent as subsets of the human genome?

Within the human genome we can identify the coding DNA and the invariant DNA i.e. the DNA that is shared by all humans. For example here the authors claim to identify a sequence that is shared not ...
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How can a nucleotide falling *outside* a binding site affect a transcription factor's ability to bind to said site?

In this paper regarding a polymorphism within the AQP7 gene and its potential effects on one's metabolic profile, the authors use a luciferase assay to confirm that the alleles of this SNP have a ...
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New ORFs occurring in SARS-CoV-2 due to mutations

Are there examples of new ORFs in SARS-CoV-2 created by mutations? The ORFs should not be present in the reference virus, but they should occur in a lineage occurring in the wild (at best, being part ...
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Saving a Maize Landrace from Inbreeding Depression

I have 10 seeds of a rare corn landrace. I probably won't be able to acquire more and the cultigen's long term fate is unknown. So, I want to do my best to preserve it for future generations. Corn is ...
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Are there traits exhibiting avoidance of the mean?

Sometimes if two organisms with an unusually large value of a continuous trait mate their offspring on average will not have a value as large as one might naively expect. Regression toward the mean is ...
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Can offspring be less genetically similar to the parent than more distant relatives?

I'd be interested in answers about any sexually reproducing species, but for simplicity I'm going to focus on humans in this question. If the parents are very genetically different (i.e. the number of ...
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How is it determined whether a chromosome is maternal or paternal for imprinting?

For imprinting, how does the cell determine which chromosome is maternal and which is paternal? For example, in the parental imprinting of insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) on chr7 (autosome), how ...
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How strong can GC skew be?

How strong can GC skew be (in the positive or the negative direction)? What species is the current record holder?
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Heterozygous traits with advantages over homozygous traits

I used to believe that there are "good" alleles and "bad" alleles and having two "good" alleles could never be worse than having one "good" and one "bad&...
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Can the effect of an allele on height be context-dependent?

Some data is available on the effect alleles have on height. For example Common DNA Variants Accurately Rank an Individual of Extreme Height However after browsing the literature I was not able to ...
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1answer
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Why do humans share over 99% of their genomes?

From Wikipedia The haploid human genome (23 chromosomes) is about 3 billion base pairs long and contains around 30,000 genes.[33] Since every base pair can be coded by 2 bits, this is about 750 ...
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Is it possible to fuse DNA from two sperms and can a baby be born from that? [closed]

If this is possible, then isn't there going to be a chance to have a YY child?
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Are restriction sites added on to the ends of a DNA fragment or are they just conveniently there?

For a DNA fragment to be inserted, it must have two restriction sites on either end. My textbook makes it seem that this is naturally occurring but it seems a little too convenient, are they added in ...
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How many MAOA alleles are there?

The question is about the human gene MAOA. I've seen MAOA-H and MAOA-L mentioned in papers. The page https://www.ensembl.org/Homo_sapiens/Gene/Summary?db=core;g=ENSG00000189221;r=X:43654907-43746824 ...
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homologous recombination and non-homologous recombination ratio during S-phase

Can I assume that it is easier to do targeted gene knock-in in rapidly dividing cells because they should have a short period of G1? Is there an easy way to measure the relative amounts of homologous ...
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Is it possible to assert who is the parent/child by looking at DNA sequence only?

Suppose I have whole genome sequences for two people of the same sex. I know one person is the parent of the other, but I do not know who is the parent and who is the child. Is it possible to ...
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Extensions of proteins in SARS-CoV-2 variants

What lineages of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 occurring in the wild show some extensions, i.e., mutations of the stop codons to codons encoding amino acids (mutations to another stop codon don't count ...
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Did Dinosaurs have a neocortex? [closed]

Did dinosaurs have a neocortex in their brains? If not, when did it come into existence?
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Do the genes for external viral epitopes mutate faster than for viral machinery (e.g. Proteases)?

To fight SARS-COV-2 we use vaccines which train our immune system against viral epitopes like the external S(pike) protein. Since these structures change a lot, would it not have been a better idea to ...
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Is it possible for a brown cat to birth an orange kitten?

I have a brown (cinnamon) cat, I assume her alleles would be b’b’ and oo. She was bred with either a black male (B_ o) or an orange male (__ O), or both if it’s possible for her to have carried the ...
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Red and White Flower or purely Pink? Phenotype of a Flower Species with a Co-dominant Trait

As I understand it, co-dominance is when both genes in an allelomorphic pair produce both their effects equally on the organism in question whilst incomplete dominance applies to an instance where a ...
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How can you identify recessive mutations in a gene that has been disrupted by a chromosomal translocation?

I am reading a journal paper about a patient who has intellectual disability. The patient was found to have a balanced chromosomal translocation t(11;16)(q24.2;q24). This chromosomal translocation ...
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Are there any online resources for visualising on which band of a chromosome a particular gene is located?

I am studying some genes that are expressed in the brain. I use the online database UniProt to get information about the proteins encoded by the genes of interest. However, I would like to know on ...
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Are there any phenotypically visible examples of gene linkage in humans?

Are there any examples of two "visible" or "obvious" phenotypic traits in humans that are a priori unrelated, but which tend to be inherited together (i.e. their inheritance ...

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