Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Knock-Out (KO) Mice

We have generated an induced KO mice line for a specific gene. However when i perform IF staining I can still see substantial levels of the protein for this specific gene produced, even though the ...
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Biology help Genotypes [closed]

I missed 2 days of lectures due to hospitalization and am having a hard time understanding how to get the answer to this question: What is the genotype of a pure breeding (homozygous) talk plant? TT
George's user avatar
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How are genetic hallmarks of aging somehow “reset” at conception?

I’m a layman and genuinely curious about this, so forgive me if I use the wrong terminology or obviously don’t know what I’m talking about. Regardless of whether parents have a child at 18 or at 40, ...
NominalSystems's user avatar
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Probability of an $AABbCC$ offspring given the cross $AaBbCc\times AaBbCc$, is my solution correct?

So I have been working through the drills in the 26th edition of AP Biology Prep by The Princeton Review for fun when I came across this question in the Chapter 12 drill that I'm not really sure about ...
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What does it mean when observed genotype frequency is different from expected genotype frequency in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

As I understand it, if a population is at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, then the genotype frequencies should be $$p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1,$$ given the allele frequencies of $p$ and $q$, which you can figure ...
geneticscodingnoob's user avatar
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In the context of GWAS we have an alternate allele and a reference allele. Why do we only have one possible alternate instead of three?

I recently started analyzing a GWAS summary dataset. It has a column for the reference allele in which it mentions the base in the reference genome. There is another column for the alternate allele (...
hgz's user avatar
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If you want to understand evolution from a genetics standpoint what are some must reads be it books or textbooks?

The question basically sums it up. I'm looking for books/textbooks that explain evolution from a genetic perspective.
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Interpretation of narrow-sense heritability over one (using R/S = h^2)

Here is my data: Mean height score of the total parental population: 5.2 Mean height score of selected parents (those chosen for breeding due to their higher height): 6.4 Mean height score of the ...
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What is important in the Luria-Latarjet effect?

In the seminal paper Luria, S.E. and Latarjet, R. (1964) “Ultraviolet irradiation of bacteriophage during intracellular growth”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States ...
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Evolution of the human Y chromosome

This recent news article suggests the number of genes in human male Y chromosome has steadily been reducing in the Y chromosome for a long time and is in danger of dying out all together. What I want ...
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Is there a program that demonstrates overall fitness will increase in a population overtime?

Of course this will not always be the case with environmental factors, but generally speaking. I'm searching for a program that shows evolution works from a statistical standpoint.
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What is the word for a small (under 50 bp) structural variant?

What is the word for a small (under 50 bp) SV? Perhaps it is MNV (multi-nucleotide variant)? Something like microindel? I do not like SNV as "single nucleotide" is not really correct and I ...
BigMistake's user avatar
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Pedigree Analysis

I was doing some pedigree work and couldn't figure out why my answer is wrong. This chart is supposed to be an autosomal Dominant method of inheritance, but I am finding an autosomal recessive pattern ...
John Alvarez's user avatar
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Why do we choose to use agar instead of agarose in various microbial applications?

When performing gel-electrophoresis we always use agarose. Is there a reason we can't perform it using Agar? And in microbial culture Agar is commonly used as solidifying agent, could this be replaced ...
Jayanth Vegesna's user avatar
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Preserving a sample for mtDNA and nuclear DNA analysis

Imagine a person in the early half of the 20th century (1900 to 1950) took some kind of sample(s) from a living human body using any technology of the era. They then stored it using any technology ...
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With CRISPR-mediated gene editing, can the PAM for the guide RNA also be site of the desired edit?

I'm hoping to use CRISPR-Cas9 in yeast to change a single nucleotide in a gene of interest. While there are a couple potential guide RNA sequences I could use, the best option's PAM sequence (TGG) it ...
PigweedHater's user avatar
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Patterns of craniofacial topology

There are animals which are not directly related but have similar craniofacial topology. For example: koala, donkey, mouse, turtle, parrot all have features seemingly belonging to same topology, ...
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Reading genotype aloud

For this genotype, P2ry12$^{+/+}$ I read it "P2ry12 wild type." For animals with the GFP being expressed under one Cx3cr1 promoter, Cx3cr1$^{+/GFP}$, how do I read that aloud? What about for:...
neurosciencecalc's user avatar
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How to resolve the contradiction between the time required for the fixation of neutral mutations and the time available according to the fossil record

More than thirty thousand synonymous single-nucleotide-substitutions have occurred in protein-coding genes in the human genome since the human lineage diverged from the chimp lineage ~7 million years ...
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Why is the expected time to coalesce the same as the ploidy times inbreeding effective population size?

The expected time to coalesce, in generations, is the same as the ploidy (e.g., 2 for humans) times Nef, the inbreeding effective population size, under coalescent theory. Why? Both ploidy * Nef and ...
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Have there ever been "half-twins" who were halfway between siblings and twins?

Have there ever been two human siblings who were 75% or more genetically related?
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Has perturbation theory been applied to mutation process frameworks?

For example, imagine this Feynman diagram: This is analogous to mutational homoplasy. When comparing haplotypes, there are many possible tree topologies. Under maximum parsimony, we ignore suboptimal ...
BigMistake's user avatar
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How exactly are the eye color genes related?

How exactly are the gey (maybe aka EYCL1?), bey(2?) (aka EYCL3?), HERC2, and OCA2 genes related to each other? There are numerous sources that explain eye color in terms of OCA2's role in the creation ...
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What are the chances that two children of the same couple will have the same genes without being identical twins?

If I randomly select half the chromosomes of the male and female eventually I will select the same exact half for both a second time. How often does this occur? Is this considered a twin if it is born ...
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How did the Zinder-Lederberg experiment on Transduction work?

In the paper that introduced TRANSDUCTION (J Bacteriol. 1952 Nov;64(5):679-699), Lederberg and his student Zinder reported that S. typhimurium "LT-22 is lysogenic for a virus active on LT-2. ...
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Bacteria genetic screen for mutants

Is there a simple screen for bacterial mutants with increased mutation rates? For example, detection of some loss-of-function mutation that causes increased mutation rates. Any screen I can think of (...
Jeremy's user avatar
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Change of DNA concentration due to restriction digest?

Assume that you perform a restriction digest in a molecular biology lab: you combine genomic DNA, a restriction endonuclease (e.g., EcoRI), and the optimal buffer for that endonuclease and are about ...
Michael Gruenstaeudl's user avatar
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Coefficient of fraternity between grandparent and grandchild from full-sib parents

I have the following pedigree and I would like to calculate the coefficient of fraternity between individual 1 and 5. R/AGHmatrix::Amatrix gives a coefficient of 0 for this pair. Shouldn't it be non-...
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Gene Mapping - Please explain in Lay terms

Taking an AP bio course, and for some reason I cannot comprehend the mechanism of how one determines the location of alleles on a chromosome. The math is simple and I can memorize it, but its bugging ...
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What software can be used for simulating human meiosis, taking linkage and recombination into account?

I want to study the nature of genetic variation in offspring from the same set of human parents. To this end, I would like to take two (male and female) complete genomes, generate gametes from them, ...
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Is there any objective way to describe ethnicity?

Is there any objective way to describe ethnicity that does not rely on arbitrary sociocultural concepts like referring to racial constructs, modern nations like “Spanish”, or even continents like “...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
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Is there a convention regarding the use of forward vs reverse DNA strand to represent DNA sequence?

I see in this paper the notation IL-1A C[-889]T which suggests that for this gene, the reference allele is C and the variant is T. However, when I look up the same gene on dbSNP, it says the alleles ...
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How to calculate df in the chi-square test of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? [closed]

We often use df=1 in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium when there are only two alleles. Some people say that it's because we've used the frequency of two alleles when calculating the expectated values, while ...
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Why is the maximum propotion of MII 2/3 in the ordered tetrad analysis? How is it different from normal recombination?

My textbook says that the maximum propotion of MII gametes in the ordered tetrad analysis is 2/3, and if we put it into the formula RF(recombination frequency)=MII/2(MI+MII), we can find out that the ...
Planarian's user avatar
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Are Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assessment for two alleles on one loci or two locus?

Are Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assessment for two alleles on one loci or two locus? For instance, when the video says BB Bb bb https://www.khanacademy.org/science/ap-biology/natural-selection/hardy-...
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Is there potential to modify GM crops to inhibit their reproduction with non-GM crops?

I've been reading on terminator gene sequences and was wondering whether the same technology could be applied to GM crops to prevent transgene flow. Turns out Monsanto had developed the technology but ...
pesky_nightjar's user avatar
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Is the amount of pigment in one feature (e.g. hair, eyes, skin) connected to the amount of pigment in another?

Let's say, genes allowing it, you have a red-haired child with hazel eyes. The hair is a darker/deeper orange color, so (if I recall correctly) having some degree of eumelanin—not much compared to ...
inkwell87's user avatar
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Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Test Result for Merged Genotypes

I was curious if two populations are in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), and if they are merged, then what happens? To find out, I considered populations from the 1000 genome project data. For ...
statm's user avatar
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How frequently does recombination occur, and how long are the recombinated fragments?

I understand the mechanics of recombination, but am struggling with the 'scale'. When two homologous chromosomes pair, roughly how many recombination events occur on average? I understand there will ...
user265902's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
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Can a person have different sex at cellular level?

I mean like every cell has a sex chromosome.So does a male with XY chromosomes has all the cells in all the organs inside his body of XY chromosomes only? And vice versa.....
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Do multiple alleles undergo crossover?

For a reference, point 3 of this article: https://www.biologydiscussion.com/genetics/multiple-alleles/multiple-alleles-meaning-characteristics-and-examples-genes/35452 According to google Bard and ...
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How many base codes are in DNA? Two or four?

We know there are four bases found in a DNA: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). We also know that A always pairs with T and G always pairs with C. Can we say that the DNA is ...
Mehdi Abbassi's user avatar
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What is the most accurate polygenic score for Alzheimer’s disease?

To date, which polygenic score (i.e. which study) has produced the largest effect size for Alzheimer’s prediction in out-of-sample validation?
BigMistake's user avatar
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Are there two different senses of the word 'heritability' in use?

Target Height as Predicted by Parental Heights in a Population-Based Study states: The heritability value was taken as the regression coefficient between final height and midparental height Is this ...
Mohan's user avatar
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Why do many plasmids for Flp-mediated Flip-Excision only flanked by one FRT site on each side and not two non-homologous?

I'm trying to build some molecular gene switches into a model, and want to use both Cre and Flp. I understand how to invert gene segments with Cre, double floxing (e.g. with loxP and lox2272, like in ...
immunoLogical's user avatar
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Could the inability of adult mammals to digest lactose be partially explained by the loss of lactose-metabolizing bacteria from the microbiome?

BACKGROUND: 1. Lactase persistence Lactase persistence is the continued activity of the lactase enzyme in adulthood, allowing the digestion of lactose in milk. According to Wikipedia, only a small ...
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Ames Assay Confusion: Aren't the odds of spontaneous revertants too low to be able to accurately test the mutagenicity of certain compounds?

I am a student conducting a test with the Ames Assay. This assay uses a strain of bacteria that has a mutation in an amino acid synthesizing operon, which doesn't allow it to synthesize its protein. ...
Kyotiq's user avatar
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What is the exact definition of the term 'trait'?

A trait is a characteristic shown by an organism. For example a Tt plant would show the 'tallness' trait. It seems to me that, by analogy, sickle cell anaemia (SCA) carriers should show the 'normal' ...
Harjot Dhillon's user avatar
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Can someone with albinism have red hair with very pale skin and blue eyes?

I have heard of a type of albinism that occurs in races with darker skin that can give people red hair, but in the pictures I've seen, they usually have reddish-brown hair, a medium skin tone, and ...
Apollo's user avatar
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Can hybrids from closely related species with similar chromosomes reproduce?

Let's say the plant Triticum monococcum which has 2 sets of 7 chromosomes when diploid and 1 set of 7 chromosomes when haploid has the genome AA. When interbred with a different species that has the ...
Woo Luke's user avatar

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