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Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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What species would this be?

A common way to define species can be found on Wikipedia: A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can ...
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Gene frequency — database/site

Is there any free database when one can check the gene frequency in a healthy population? For example I would like to check it for genes like BIN1, CLU or CR1. On the English Wikipedia I found a gene ...
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How can I calculate Fst, Gst, and Nei diversity index?

I got different polymorphisms of Cucumber mosaic virus in different regions of its genome from different libraries of RNAseq. This virus have two coding regions which are 3A and CP regions. I have ...
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skin colouration in thalassemia

Now when i was studying about thalassemia, I read that anaemia is its major characterstic. I can understand that fact. But it was also written that the skin gets pale. Wikipedia says that the skin ...
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Meaning of letter “c” in description of mutation: “Homozygous c.195C>G; (p.Cys65Trp)”

In a table in a paper titled Cerebral folate deficiency: Analytical tests and differential diagnosis, there's the following description of a mutation in a patient: Homozygous c.195C>G; (p.Cys65Trp)...
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Is it possible to change the DNA of all the cells of an adult human

The process of making and transferring changes is pretty straightforward relatively speaking in an embroyo. You change the DNA of one cell and all the cells now inherit this change. But let's say ...
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Does recombination slow mutation accumulation in sexual populations? Is there any evidence?

Mullers Ratchet is the process by which asexual organisms would accumulate mutations without bound. It is claimed that sexual organisms would slow this mutation accumulation through recombination. Is ...
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Comparing DNA over an SNP poor region

First I want to give the disclaimer that I am not a biologist. I had my DNA tested and show as a match to a woman on parts of chromosome 1. However, parts of various chromosomes are not tested due to ...
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Mechanism behind Philadelphia chromosome translocation?

I was reading up on causative factors of leukemia on medicinenet and I came across the following statement: ...an exchange between chromosomes 9 and 22 leads to what is known as the Philadelphia ...
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Balancing selection vs introgression?

Balancing selection can maintain polymorphisms in natural populations for extended periods of evolutionary time. However, in this paper, Dannemann et al. 2016 identify three archaic haplotypes in the ...
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How to interpret these mutations obtained from Annovar output file?

Need help in interpreting the following. What does each mutation represent? E115Rfs*24 - If it means that it is a frameshift of 24 nucleotides, then why is it represented as E115Rfs*24 and not as ...
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Walnut Buccaneer Micropropagation? [on hold]

Please consider trees micropropagation technique, is it possible to achieve a full healthy Buccaneer tree (without grafting) starting from micropropagation? What about successfull yield per plant/...
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If some humans inherited 3% of Neanderthal DNA, why are we 99.9% same genome? [duplicate]

Many sources say that humans are 99.5 to 99.9 percent the same. Also some sources state that some humans have 3.4% Neanderthal DNA and some don't share those genes. Why is that?
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Are all genes transcribed in differentiated cells?

My textbook tells me that it’s specific transcription factors that allow for a different set of genes to be expressed in different cells (differential gene expression). My book gives the example of ...
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The differences between meiosis and mitosis have profound genetic consequences. Explain what these consequences are [closed]

Explain what the profound genetic consequences are due to the differences between meiosis and mitosis.
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How do scientists genetically modify Interleukin for medical use, where do they source the gene and insert it?

I was wondering how scientists genetically modify Interleukin for medical use. Where do they source the gene from, what are the steps involved in genetically modifying Interleukin for medical use, how ...
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Why can't a genetically sound human stay alive for an indefinite amount of time given all the ideal conditions? [duplicate]

I have read that even if we can control our food and lifestyle and keep things as ideal as possible, there are other factors beyond our control like effects from neutrinos passing through our body ...
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Are all fusion genes somatic in origin or can fusion genes be germline?

Fusion genes should have an origin.These are essentially hybrid genes that are translocated in its entirety. Eg. BCR-ABL, EML4-ALK are known to be implicated in cancer pathogenesis. Do these ...
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How are haplotype blocks different from genes?

According to Cardon et al. 2003, a haplotype block is A discrete chromosome region of high linkage disequilibrium and low haplotype diversity. It is expected that all pairs of polymorphisms ...
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Do human genes get affected by irregular sleep and other factors

I'm new here so please go easy on me. Do our genes-the ones that carry our appearance, intelligence and other traits get destroyed or lost due to irregular sleep, excessive body heat, smoking, ...
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Rationale behind Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)?

My main question is this - I heard Richard Dawkins say in a video that after 1000s of years, any giving individual alive today will be either an ancestor to ALL of the humans (in that future time) or ...
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Why is the strength of genetic drift inversely proportional to the population size?

I saw a concept on the Internet that says "the strength of genetic drift is inversely proportional to the population size". I don't know why they are inversely proportional? Can somebody explain? ...
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Fertilization of the human egg- where does our centrosome come from?

Is there a centrosome in a human egg cell? Is the reason why the egg cell remains paused before meiosis 2 because there isn't a centrosome, and it only divides when the sperm fertilizes it thus it can ...
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Recombination due to crossover, outcome?

Garden peas normally have 7 pairs of chromosomes (n=7, 2n=14). Please calculate how many different types of gametes can be produced through the meiotic process if no crossover happens. If cross-over ...
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Is it possible to Clone a Dinosaur with a full strand of their DNA? [duplicate]

If you have a full strand of Dinosaur DNA would it be possible to make it living and hatch a dinosaur? Or would it be a failure? Could you use a bird or alligator, for replacein
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x-linked recessive inheritance and correlation for males

I was inspired by a discussion in this thread. Wikipedia lists a number of disorders linked to recessive genes on the x-chromosome. One typical example is red-green color blindness. Now wikipedia says ...
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How do crossbreeding with Neanderthals affect the genetic difference between ethnic groups?

I do not know exactly how much Neanderhtal/Denisova DNA non-subsaharan peoples carry around today, but I have heard figures of less than two percent in Europe, up to three percent in East Asia and ...
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Where can I find DNA decryption research? [closed]

What is the name of the science that studies the mathematics of DNA? Where can I learn about maths, statistics, types of code, numbers, patterns and graphs for genes and information found in DNA?
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Do bacteria evolve qualititative traits as readily as quantitative traits?

Bacteria can evolve resistance to antibiotics very quickly, as demonstrated by this (https://youtu.be/plVk4NVIUh8) experiment. What im really interested in is if it's plausible that a large colony ...
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what are best methods for mrsa screening in hospital?

methods for screening MRSA are based on PCR (mecA detection) and MRSA latex test and culture. I need to know sensitive, specific and cost-effective methods for diagnosis MRSA infection on one work day ...
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What's the difference between reaction norms and phenotypic plasticity?

I'm trying to understand better these two concepts, but I cannot see a clear difference yet. Reaction norm: "set of phenotypes that can be produced by an individual genotype when exposed to different ...
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How does a neutral allele change relative to a nearby allele under selection?

Suppose I'm looking at a gene being selected against (A) that's decreasing at a rate ($\Delta$P). If there's a nearby allele that is neutral (B) am I correct to assume that B will decrease with A at a ...
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Are left-handed people more likely to be colorblind?

My friend, uncle, and I are left handed and also suffer from Protan colorblindness. Is it more likely for left-handed people to be colorblind? Disclaimer: I was originally Right handed and due to a ...
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Is there natural occurrence of induced pluripotency / expression of Yamanaka factors and what is the evolutionary explanation of that?

Is there natural biological processes in which the full (full reprogramming into pluripotent state) or partial (partial reprogramming, stopped before point-of-no-return, preserving the functional ...
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How to search for a DNA sequence in a genome on ENA (European Nucleotide Archive)?

I have to do a search for small DNA sequences in the genome of an organism in ENA. I have the accession number and project id. However, I can't download the whole genome because of the download size ...
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Can Females Songbirds Have Male Plumage?

Male birds are colorful for courtship displays, females are dull for camouflage. But, is written in a website somewhere that sometimes, when females birds are sterile, they grow male plumage due to ...
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How does gene recombination explain the various phenotype observed in F2 generation of dihybrid cross [closed]

How does gene recombination explain the various phenotype observed in F2 generation of dihybrid cross.
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is it possible for a son to inherit an allele on a Y chromosome?

Obviously, the only way for one to be male is to inherit the Y chromosome, but are there alleles on the y chromosomes? Or is it just automatically the recessive trait without an allele.
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N value in a GWAS?

Just like the title says. I am reading about a GWAS but I don't know much about them. I understood most of it but I couldn't figure out what the "n" value was.
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Math behind the Genetic Relationship Matrix

The genetic relationship matrix (GRM) can estimate the genetic relationship between two individuals ($j$ and $k$) over $m$ SNPs and $i$ representing a specific SNP. What I don't understand from their ...
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What is the expected amount of DNA shared by first cousins and the people between them in a family tree?

What is the expected amount of DNA that is shared by all of the people between first cousins, including the first cousins, in a family tree?
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Need help to determine % difference between DNA-strand from two different haplotypes. Known nucleotide diversity and more

Backround: 229 DNA sequences 493 bp in length Haplotype diversity: 0.9956 Average number of nucleotide differences: 12.50544 Polymorphic sites: 145 Nucleotide diversity: 0.02426 Is it possible ...
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How can a child be blood type AB, if both of the parents are blood type A?

Basically, both of my parents are blood type A (both are confirmed and it's also certain both of them are my biological parents). I recently found out my blood type is AB. How is this possible? I ...
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How can insulin regenerates? [closed]

Can insulin regenerates? I have tried so many things for it but all I have done failed. Can anyone tell me about this?
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In marine DNA viral diversity studies, what would “paradigm of rampant mosaicism” refer to?

The recent paper in Cell Marine DNA Viral Macro- and Microdiversity from Pole to Pole describes the (huge) new Global Ocean Viromes 2.0 (GOV 2.0) dataset. In the Results and Discussion section, the ...
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Criteria for exchange of gene

I want to know what exactly determines whether this kind of recombination between two strands is allowed or not as it is said that after recombination the recipient may get new genes which logically ...
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If DNA methylation inactivates genes, does DNA demethylation activate them?

DNA demethylation can be passive or active. The passive process takes place in the absence of methylation of newly synthesized DNA strands by DNMT1 during several replication rounds – for example, ...
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What is the cause of “imbalanced” linkage disequilibrium?

With perfect linkage disequilibrium ($D' = 1, R^2 = 1$), you might have the following table of counts for the alleles: B b A 100 0 a 0 100 With "...
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How to find suitable qRTPCR reference gene for a inflammatory response experiment?

I have tried several housekeeping genes – Hprt, β-actin and GAPDH, to analyze the relative expression of a cytokine for measuring the inflammatory local response in mice ears. However, all ...
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Advantages of pain sensation?

The hazards of congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) are well-known. This question is about the obverse: what selective advantage, if any, does the normal sensation of pain confer? I'm thinking of ...