Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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General Enhancer Questions (Methylation Patterns, ect.)

I have a biological question(s) for ya'll involving enhancers. 1.) Enhancers work by being the binding sites for TFs. But how does this increase transcription? (Especially when enhancers can be ...
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Allelic dominance and recessiveness [duplicate]

What is the reason for the allelic dominance and recessiveness of a gene? Is it all about the chance or probability of getting the fusion of a particular character ? So how can be there a dominance ...
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Genetic expression in interspecific hybrids

Referring to interspecific hybrids, I have the following two questions:- Quoting from wikipedia:- The offspring of an interspecific cross are very often sterile; thus, hybrid sterility prevents ...
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Parents' genetic testing before pregnancy [on hold]

I need to determine whether I and/or my partner should perform a genetic test prior to pregnancy. I find it difficult to filter and analyze the information available on the Internet. I would like to ...
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1answer
45 views

Estimate for number of genes changed in speciation between a megafauna parent and child species [on hold]

At least in terms of a back-of-the-envelope calculation, what is a believable range for the number of gene changes between parent and child species to represent speciation between species of megafauna?...
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41 views

Probability for a megafauna specimen to exhibit a gene not present in either parent

What is the rough probability for a megafauna specimen to exhibit a gene not present in either parent? I'm looking, ideally, at the chance for one specific individual to be the first in a breeding ...
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1answer
60 views

Is it reasonable to assume selection for an observed change? [closed]

Assume a gene G plays a role in regard to factors A, B, C and D. Factor A is important on a daily basis. Factor B is important on a hourly basis. Factor C is important on a yearly basis. Factor D is ...
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92 views

In what does Genetic clustering and Cline sharpness differ?

They are both ways to measure divergence in species but I'm not understanding in what exactly the differ if both use hybrid zones and gene frequencies in the study.
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number of chromatids seen in karyotype

The karyotype is performed on a cell whose cycle has been stopped in metaphase or pro metaphase, using colchicine or by other means. In the textbooks I read that during the S phase each of the 46 ...
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Blood and hair follicles from 25 people put on the Moon; enough to regenerate a human population?

Discussion on the question Why were blood and hair follicles from 25 people put on the Moon? calls into question whether this is a stunt or might have any basis in science. There's two parts to my ...
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What does “dissection-based microscopy” mean as described here, and how can it give genetic information?

The Phys.org article 'DNA microscopy' offers entirely new way to image cells references the new Open Access paper in Cell DNA Microscopy: Optics-free Spatio-genetic Imaging by a Stand-Alone Chemical ...
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Genes & Map Units

Two genes of a flower, one controlling blue (B) versus white (b) petals and the other controlling round (R) versus oval (r) stamens, are linked and are 10 map units apart. You cross a homozygous blue ...
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Webtool to design guide RNA (gRNA) for use with CRISPR-AsCpf1?

My goals are to use a free webtool to: Identify guide RNAs (direct-repeat sequence followed by the targeting sequence) appropriate for use with AsCpf1 in order to target a specific segment of genomic ...
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Why is the size of the human penis not in proportion to that of the rest of the body?

According to this research https://qph.fs.quoracdn.net/main-qimg-2ffcc3b19663af67c96ac1be8f3d6351-c it is more likely for tall men to have large penis but there are still many tall not having large ...
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1answer
59 views

What is a living homo sapiens? [closed]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homo_sapiens I am asking to see if the human zygote should be considered a living homo sapiens. I want to know the sufficient criteria that define the living homo ...
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Do apes and humans share 99% of DNA or 99% of genes? What is the difference?

I made an answer on the Scifi.SE that can be read here. It is about how the characters in the story Jurassic Park might have gotten DNA for all the species shown. In my answer, I said this: Apes ...
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4answers
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How many genes do we share with our mother?

Somewhere I have read we share more than 99% of our genes with every other other person and 98% of our genes with chimpanzees. What does this mean? Don't we share 50% of our genes with our mother and ...
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33 views

How does miRNA change as biomarker after disease remission?

I am going to start a research about miRNA and I found it is not only used a biomarker as genetic susbitbilty, but also a response marker. This idea is so unintutive for me that what me to ask: How ...
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Do performance-enhancing drugs alter DNA?

Suppose someone was taking a drug that boosts cognitive performance. Would this change be reflected in his or her DNA? I'm guessing not because the genetic component of IQ is set at birth but I just ...
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1answer
56 views

What is the Definition of Homologous Chromosomes? length, gene position are the same or similar?

what is the Definition of Homologous Chromosomes? this post says Homologous chromosomes are chromosome pairs (one from each parent) that are similar in length,...
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What are the consequences of less DARC expression as a result of a Duffy weak allele?

According to codegen.eu I'm a carrier of a Duffy weak allele. For SNP rs34599082 I have alleles C and T. T is a rare allele that found is less thatn ~1% of the population. Codegen.eu directs me to ...
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1answer
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DNA and Genes, which consists of which? It seems that the hot answer on quora is different to the nih post

This quora's answer has got 8.3k views and 20 Upvoters. "Genes are a part of the DNA." per nih, "Genes are made up of DNA, which is telling the truth." in my understanding, the quora version ...
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Consider gene is countable, can anyone give a concrete example of “a gene”?

gene is a countable noun but people always say genes, so what is A gene? for instance, Each chromosome contains many genes, so, which part of the chromosome of Escherichia coli could be ...
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1answer
33 views

How accurate are Illumina microarray chips for genotyping?

What is the error rate for these machines in genotyping (like for 23&me)? What is the chance of a false positive or false negative?
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Why isn't the human zygote considered a human life how is a living anatomically modern human defined biologically?

It has 46 chromosomes by default when healthy(Differences almost always are pathological) and has almost every biological functions, processes a Newborn or and Adult person has. It even invades ...
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Examples of environmentally influenced gene-expression in humans?

In discussions of the relevant importance of genetic and environmental influences on the development of the individual, it's often stated that the genetic and environmental influences interact. An ...
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Is presence of air necessary for silica gel to absorb moisture?

I am a biologist currently doing field work where I need to quickly dry leaf samples using silica gel crystals. I use the orange indicating kind that are 2-4mm in size. The setup is like this. I ...
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1answer
43 views

Is there a name for survival of the fittest in a single family? [closed]

Imagine a case where the children of a bird each have a 50% chance of being born blind. But the bird always has on average 4 chicks. So on average 2 will be blind and 2 sighted. (Perhaps this could ...
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2answers
3k views

Is it possible to breed neanderthals through selective breeding?

I've heard most non-subsaharan africans have neanderthal DNA with it being more prevalent in northern regions, that sometimes 1-4% of the DNA has neanderthal origins. Speaking strictly ...
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Are mutations a source of genetic variation?

Here is a question from the book SAT II Success Biology E/M (where the SAT is the exam taken by the American high school students): Which of the following statements is true about mutations? (A) ...
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What causes cellular differentiation?

Each cell in our body contains identical dna. And, yet some cells become liver cells, some become brain cells etc. How this happens , when all of them has same dna? Is it because of epigenetic control ...
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1answer
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Difference Junk DNA and Pseudogenes [duplicate]

1-Are Pseudogenes and Junk DNA both Non-Coding DNA or they are different entity? How much Pseudogenes & Junk DNA do we have respectively? 2-I read that Non-Coding DNA has functions, my question ...
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Is brachydactyly due to mutation?

I have this so called "clubbed thumbs"also known as brachydactyly. It is of D-type. I searched for it on internet and found that it is a dominant inherited disease. But to my surprise,none of my ...
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3answers
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Is the genetic term “polycistronic” still used in modern biology?

Is the term "cistronic", meaning an ORF on a mRNA, still commonly used in modern genetics? I´ve seen "polycistronic" being applied to prokaryotic mRNA in old textbooks, but I´ve rarely stumbled upon ...
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Inbreeding depression in Gouldian Finches

I currently breed Gouldian finches, including the yellow mutation. I was lucky to breed 6 youngsters including pure yellow and yellow split. How far can I interbreed the offspring (i.e step brothers/...
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Species diversity in cheese and yoghurt?

There have been studies on the number of species on humans and in various other environments. I was wondering how many species including: viruses, bacteria, yeasts, and fungi inhabit ordinary farm ...
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1answer
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Confusion about result of monohybrid cross in Mendelian genetics

I was studying monohybrid crosses in genetics where the character considered is stem height. Whenever I came across punnett squares, I used to calculate the probability of the genotype of the ...
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3answers
139 views

What makes an E.coli an E.coli, genotype or phenotype?

According to this paper, among 61 strains of E. coli they studied only 6% of the genes are common in all. Which means that the overwhelming majority of the genes are not shared. And wikipedia ...
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1answer
61 views

If coelocanths are more related to humans than groupers -does a Coelocanth's DNA literally have more sequences in common with a human than a grouper?

Would a coelocanth and a human still have more sequences in common than a coelocanth and a grouper? Would the coelocanth and human dna basically "look" more similar than either would to a ray-finned ...
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2answers
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In marine DNA viral diversity studies, what would “paradigm of rampant mosaicism” refer to?

The recent paper in Cell Marine DNA Viral Macro- and Microdiversity from Pole to Pole describes the (huge) new Global Ocean Viromes 2.0 (GOV 2.0) dataset. In the Results and Discussion section, the ...
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1answer
124 views

What's the exact meaning of and how to derive the coefficient of the path from sire to offspring?

According to Wright's Coefficients of Inbreeding and Relationship, the coefficient of the path from sire to offspring is given as $p_{o \cdot s}=\frac{1}{2}\frac{\sqrt{1+F_s}}{\sqrt{1+F_o}}$ But ...
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1answer
31 views

What is the use of having a surrogate mother in animal cloning?

In animal cloning, an ovum is collected by an animal and processed to form an embryo after fusion, which is going to be inserted to a surrogate mother. So my question is that why can't the embryo be ...
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1answer
13 views

Easy Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium [duplicate]

Hi My friend and I get 2 different answers to this question. I would like to know how to calculate the value of q. My friend says that 500/1500=q because there are 500 recessive alleles in the ...
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1answer
31 views

Studying the epigenetic variability, can I use SNPs?

So, I'm trying to study the effects of epigenetic variability on the brain structure. Can I use SNPs associated with a gene's higher expression to compute the likelihood of that gene being expressed ...
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1answer
62 views

Are all fusion genes somatic in origin or can fusion genes be germline?

Fusion genes should have an origin.These are essentially hybrid genes that are translocated in its entirety. Eg. BCR-ABL, EML4-ALK are known to be implicated in cancer pathogenesis. Do these ...
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What is Mendelian Segregation and how is it related to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

I can't find the exact definition of Mendelian segregation. In addition, I am wondering how it is related to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
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1answer
31 views

Are chromosomal microdeletions passed on?

I've been looking around but can't find a clear answer: are chromosomal micro-deletions passed on (hereditary) or not?
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1answer
57 views

What does “PDPN+ cells” means?

Are they podoplanin positive cells (cells that tested positive for podoplanin)? "...though it has been shown that podoplanin (PDPN+) cells analogous to mouse FRCs are found in human secondary ...
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2answers
145 views

GULO only for mammals?

I am not a biology student, but just want to know if GULO gene are present only in mammals or all species possess it ? And is GULO gene active in human fetus?
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Rationale behind Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)?

My main question is this - I heard Richard Dawkins say in a video that after 1000s of years, any given individual alive today will be either an ancestor to ALL of the humans (in that future time) or ...