Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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How do genes determine facial features?

What is known about the genes responsible for inherited facial features — the family resemblances that are so recognizable? Take for example a particular shape of nose: which gene or genes make it ...
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The following information should be used to answer the following questions [closed]

Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease in humans in which chloride ion channels in cell membranes are missing or nonfunctional. Chloride ion channels are membrane structures that include which of the ...
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Why are Chromosome Territories important?

Chromosomes occupy discrete regions of the nucleus, referred to as 'Chromosome Territories'. This spatial organization is emerging as a crucial aspect of gene regulation and genome stability in health ...
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Are all hybrids infertile?

I'm familiar with the concept of hybrid infertility, but my question is: Are ALL hybrids infertile, or is it just so extremely unlikely that the chances are basically nil that they can actually ...
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Are probabilities of mutations symmetric?

For the premise of this quiestion let's assume that there is an allele A and an allele B. The allele A has a probability P to mutate into the allele B in the given timeframe. Is it also true that the ...
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Do identical twins have the same metabolism rate at birth?

Will monozygotic twins defecate at the same time if fed at the same time during the first weeks of life? They should have the same genetics (and epigenetics) since they are monozygotic and the same ...
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What is the substance that tumors release that stimulates growth of blood vessels but suppresses its release from other tumors?

I'm currently in high school and I am working on a cancer research project. My project consists of a cancer, and different ways to treat it. I have a set of benign tumor and I was thinking of ...
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Genes & Map Units

Two genes of a flower, one controlling blue (B) versus white (b) petals and the other controlling round (R) versus oval (r) stamens, are linked and are 10 map units apart. You cross a homozygous blue ...
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Rigorous definition of the kinship coefficient and proof of a recursion thereof

I am reading Section 5.2, Kinship and Inbreeding Coefficients, of Kenneth Lange, Mathematical and Statistical Methods for Genetic Analysis. There the kinship coefficient $\Phi_{i,j}$ is defined for ...
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Genotypes without Recombination

When given that the parent generation's genotypes are linked traits, how do you determine the genotypes of the F1 generation when no recombination has occurred. For example, given the parents BbNn ...
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Can the self correction mechanisms in cells imply that the DNA code to a degree is self modifying

There is an argument that proteins coded by 20 amino acids via the DNA program has so few successful protein formation that a search never can reach the complexity of it via natural selection and ...
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Evolution: Can the genotype frequencies change, but the allele frequencies remain constant?

If a population isn't evolving because it's in Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium, then I know that both genotype and allele frequencies must stay constant. My question is, can evolution still not occur ...
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How to build SEG in your personal environment?

I'm trying to implement SEG (Wootton & Federhen,1993) in my MATLAB and Python environment. From this oriinal article I cannot figure out what I need to build my script. Are there any related ...
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Different Mutations Leading to Same Allele?

Can different mutations lead to the same allele? In my genetics books, I always see alleles referenced as, eg. Aa where A = dominant and a = recessive, but are these strictly binary phenotypes? Since ...
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Is it possible to breed neanderthals through selective breeding?

I've heard most non-subsaharan africans have neanderthal DNA with it being more prevalent in northern regions, that sometimes 1-4% of the DNA has neanderthal origins. Speaking strictly ...
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Embrionic stem cells mediated gene transfer in mice & chimeric mice

one of the ways of making a transgenic mice is via a technique called "Embrionic stem cell mediated gene transfer". This technique starts by getting a blastocyte from a brown mouse, in which ...
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Limits of gene editing

I was reading some articles about CRISPR and the world of gene editing, but then a lot of questions for which I couldn't find any answer online came into my mind. Those are all about how far can we ...
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Monozygotic vs Dizygotic heteropaternal superfecundation

Update: I had a wrong assumption. After triple checking, I now see that how ordinary monozygotic twins arise is 1 sperm and 1 ovum and then later the zygote splits up. (1.1. and that that phil and ...
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Why is the 5′ end of DNA a monophosphate?

According to my textbook: While the 5′ end of a DNA strand is typically a monophosphate, the 5′ end of an RNA molecule is typically a triphosphate. Source: Biology: How Life Works, 3rd Edition How ...
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Help Finding Specific BlaZ Gene Type Sequences on Genbank

I am doing an undergraduate research project that involves blaZ gene typing for different strain types of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria; for reference, here are some of papers on this topic that ...
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What is the word for a group of genes inherited together?

I know the words haplotype and haplogroup, as well as genetic linkage, but... I recently came across a new phrase describing genes which tend to be inherited as a group, and wrote it down, but now ...
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How to calculate percentage of DNA that ancestors contributed?

In David Reich's book "Who we are and how we got here" there is a graph explaining that more we go back in our ancestors generations, the least we have chances to have any DNA inherited from one of ...
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Do mitochondria have pili and can they do horizontal gene transfer

I was recently thinking about the similarities of mitochondria to prokaryotes. Since mitochondria (according to the endosymbiotic theory) derived from prokaryote species before they became part of ...
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How does the age of a parent affect the chances of occurrence of certain genetically transmitted diseases?

Do genetically transmitted age-related diseases (like hypertension, arthritis etc.)have the probability of occurring at an earlier(younger) age in the offspring if they are born at a later age to ...
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Walk me through microsatellite markers and PCR

Three polymorph microsatellite markers are used to try and narrow down the location of a disease locus, with the use of PCR with 2 flanks on each side of the actual polymorphic area. The PCR product ...
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Microsatellites and Minisatellites: Which of these form the basis of DNA fingerprinting?

I'm in a fix. Prepare yourself for a long read We've just learned about minisatellites and microsatellites at class (okay, by "learned", I mean we were told their definitions and essentially ...
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Is natural selection actually random?

In the Theory of Evolution, two main factors take place: One is random, which are the different mutations that organisms' DNA suffer. This process adds genetic variability to a given population. The ...
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Understanding ancestry testing mathematically

Forgive me if this question has been asked here before, because it is something which should be very easy to find, but I can't seem to find an answer no matter where I search. The question is simply ...
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Why is selection less effective in small populations than in larger?

I can understand that the genetic drift has a higher impact on smaller populations, but what does it mean for the selection to be less effective in small populations than higher?
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Tree-pest coevolution

Many trees first reproduce decades after germination. Many pests of trees reproduce in under a year. It would seem that the pests have an advantage in the evolutionary arms-race, as they can evolve ...
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Can there be traits which aren't possible objects of selection, e.g. beneath a “threshold of genetic noise”?

Is it possible that there are traits that might not be possible objects of the selection because of highly sensitive dependence on genotypes? The context of my thought came when I was having a ...
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How do ribosomes interpret stop codons as selenocysteine and pyrrolysine?

How does the protein synthesising machinery determine that UGA and UAG in mRNA should be decoded as selenocysteine and pyrrolysine, respectively, in certain circumstances, rather than as stop codons?
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Pre-Mendelian genetics

In the 18th century, Joseph Gottlieb Kölreuter concluded from his plant experiments that in some hybrid generations the characteristics of grandmother generation, grandfather species and F1 generation ...
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BLAST, using Smith-Waterman in the last step and S-score

In my bioinformatics course we studied the BLAST agorithm. After finding the HSP's and joining the HSPs together that are close enough and in a correct diagonal trend, we perform a next step: namely a ...
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Biological Calculations

(a) At the moment of fertilization a female egg is about 100μm in diameter. Assuming that each lipid molecule in the plasma membrane has a surface area of 10-14 cm2 , how many lipid molecules are ...
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How is knowledge about farming transfered between generations in farming ants

There are some varieties of ants capable of "agriculture", e.g. dairing ants farming aphids and leaf-cutting ants farming fungus. How is the knowledge about the techniques involved passed ...
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Do I not have any alleles from my mom's mom & my dad's dad?

So, I have an XX, & I got an X from my mom, & an X from my dad. My dad would have gotten his only X from his mother, & my mother could have gotten the X I got from her father or mother. ...
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Genetic engineering for insulin production

In order to put human DNA inside a bacteria in order to have it create Insulin, from what type of cell would you need to take the gene for insulin? I thought it should be from any somatic cell, since ...
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How do the CFTR alleles interact within an individual with Cystic Fibrosis when mutations of different classes are present?

So mutations in CF are classified by the severity of the impact on the production of the CFTR. But an individual may have two different CFTR mutations. I assume that the least severe mutation of the ...
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De novo mutation selectivity

I was recently reading about genetic diseases and came to understand that many of them are caused by de novo mutations in the prezygotic or early embryonic stages of the life cycle of the organism. ...
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What's the evidence against SARS-CoV-2 being engineered by humans?

A couple of colleagues suggested in a discussion that the virus that causes COVID-19 appears to be made by humans, since nature could not have produced such an efficient virus — that spreads so fast ...
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Would tattoos be considered a phenotype?

I'm trying to understand how broad the definition of "phenotype" is. If someone gets a tattoo, would that tattoo be considered part of their phenotype?
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What is the chance a given gene will end up in a given gamete?

Let us say a germ cell had a desired allele. This germ cell was replicated during interphase so that it had two of the desired allele. It then underwent meiosis. My question then is, what is the ...
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Do viruses pickup new genetic sequences from the host cell?

Virus replication does not involve meiosis so the virus genome does not gain diversity from having two parents , so other than from mutation, do viruses obtain new genetic sequences from the host cell ...
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How Incomplete dominance can be explained at molecular level?

What is exactly happening at the molecular level when two alleles constitute incomplete dominance? Whether the protein formed from each of the alleles constitute a new protein having a different ...
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Why is cannibalism not an evolutionary stable situation?

In the 'the selfish gene' Dawkins writes (page 109): "The reason lions do not hunt lions is that it would not be an ESS (evolutionary stable situation) for them to do so. A cannibal strategy would be ...
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How many of the four meiotic daughter chromosomes of a homologous pair can be recombinant via crossover?

In graphics I've seen, crossing over occurs between the "inner" two chromatids in a side-by-side arrangement of two duplicated chromosomes: This suggests that only two of the four meiotic daughter ...
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Cell division in primordial eucaryotes

The evolution of eucaryotic cells is usually described as an event wherein one procaryote engulfed another probably smaller procaryote and rather than the engulfed procaryote being taken apart the two ...
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Is this basic gene diagram correctly labeled?

I keep seeing this gene diagram, and I am not sure how to interpret it. I don't know what this diagram is called or where it was first depicted, but in the second picture, I have labeled it with what ...

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