Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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4answers
7k views

Why do men have nipples?

I'd be tempted to call nipples in men vestigial, but that suggests they have no modern function. They do have a function, of course, but only in women. So why do men (and all male mammals) have them?
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Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium for SNPs

I have a SNP stats file structure, which contains all information about genotypes and imputed SNP/INDEL imputation qualities, allele frequencies and minor allele assignment. ...
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2answers
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Examples of environmentally influenced gene-expression in humans?

In discussions of the relevant importance of genetic and environmental influences on the development of the individual, it's often stated that the genetic and environmental influences interact. An ...
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2answers
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Why we need an egg cell donor and a surrogate mother in an organism cloning process?

Could a whole set of artificial organism-cloning process only be operated on the somatic nuclear donor ,which means for example ,can we extract the somatic nuclear from animal "A" and put it into the ...
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1answer
67 views

What are the disadvantages of myelin

The myelination of axons has plenty of advantages. It increases signal speed in axons, and thereby reduces reaction times. This is, of course, very good for the survival of the animal in question. ...
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More efficient method of calculation genotype or phenotype ratios rather than doing a trihybrid punnett square or forked-line method?

Is there any other more efficient method of predicting ratios of offspring phenotypes or genotypes than doing a trihybrid Punnett square or forked-line diagram? Or are those two methods really the ...
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How does the colinearity of the HOX genes determine the body plan of an organism?

I was recently reading about colinearity in the HOX genes that give an organism its high-level body plan (where the order of the HOX genes on the chromosome follow the head-to-tail order of body ...
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1answer
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Does gene editing have any technical cross-species limits?

How far could you go in cross-species gene editing? Is it possible for example to introduce plant genes into human DNA and vice versa? Question: How is gene editing limited by the "donor" and "...
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Can men with Klinefelter syndrome produce chromosomally normal sperm?

Individuals with Klinefelter syndrome are XXY. Even though sperm counts are low some individuals can generate enough to be used in IVF and have offspring. Does this mean that when sperm are formed, ...
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1answer
33 views

lifespan of Nautilus compared to other cephalopods

Most cephalopods live uncharacteristically short lifes compared to other creatures of their size and intelligence. The octopuses with the longest lifespan for example, the giant pacific octopus, only ...
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56 views

Why do individuals vary in the number of SNPs for a given gene ( e.g. FOXO3A )?

Individual #1, sequenced by 23andMe and then inputed into Promethease for SNP data has the following SNP output: 1) rs1935949(C;T) 2) rs2802292(G;T) 3) rs13217795(C;T) 4) rs13220810(C;T) 5) rs2764264(...
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1answer
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Quantifying the Genetic Basis of Complex Diseases

In general, there are 2 types of diseases for which we understand "causality" very well: Infectious disease, where there is some etiological agent that causes the disease and Monogenic genetic ...
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1answer
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What are the implications/predictions of the selfish gene theory?

Are there any testable predictions or implications of the selfish gene theory? Or it is just interesting interpretation of the observations/experimental data? If this theory is not falsifiable and ...
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27 views

Genes where both a disabling mutation and copy number amplification cause different genetic diseases

I'm trying to make a list of such genes, because they must be tightly regulated. MeCP2 is one - it causes Rett Syndrome with a disabling mutation, but causes MeCP2 duplication syndrome if its copy ...
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How do mutations of viruses lead to drug resistance?

For instance, after starting zidovudine monotherapy against HIV, resistance develops against the drug because of a point mutation in the RNA transcriptase enzyme to which the drug binds. So how does ...
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1answer
25 views

What is indirect vs direction selection of genes?

As the title suggests, what is the direct and indirect selection of genes. Couldn't find a straightforward answer. Is it the same as direct and indirect fitness?
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3answers
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What is a gene transcript, how is it different from an allele?

Within human genetics, My current understanding of a transcript for a particular gene is that it's the exact nucleotide sequence and position of a particular instance of said gene in some individual. ...
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2answers
142 views

Example of a virus becoming symbiotic with an organism

The human gut has an indispensably beneficial ecosystem of bacteria. What are the examples of a virus that becomes symbiotic with an organism, or even incorporates beneficially into the genome of the ...
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1answer
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Frameshift Mutation

With regards to LMNA frameshift mutations further downstream in the tail region, specifically (p.Arg455Gln fs*5) which has yet to be found/recorded in any medical literature...Does anyone have any ...
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Which sample type is more proper for whole genome sequencing in AML patients? Peripheral blood or bone marrow?

I intend to perform whole genome sequencing in AML patients in order to find genomic abnormalities, particularly translocation and gene fusions. However, I am not sure whether it is better to obtain ...
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1answer
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Can Huntington's Disease be homozygous dominant?

Can Huntington's Disease be homozygous dominant? I am not sure whether the individual who is homozygous dominant for Huntington's Disease will survive into adulthood, or die when they are infants or ...
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2answers
624 views

number of chromatids seen in karyotype

The karyotype is performed on a cell whose cycle has been stopped in metaphase or pro metaphase, using colchicine or by other means. In the textbooks I read that during the S phase each of the 46 ...
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1answer
91 views

Webtool to design guide RNA (gRNA) for use with CRISPR-AsCpf1?

My goals are to use a free webtool to: Identify guide RNAs (direct-repeat sequence followed by the targeting sequence) appropriate for use with AsCpf1 in order to target a specific segment of genomic ...
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1answer
41 views

PCR markers for C57B6

Do you know any primers that can be used to genotype mice and check if they are still C57B6? I'm concerned about genetic drift in my colony. I bought a breeding pair 3 years ago and expanded. I wanna ...
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1answer
65 views

Are there animal species where some females have greater amounts of male-associated qualities than average males?

In the human species, some women ( a meaningful, though not large percentage) are taller and stronger than the average man. Is a similar thing true in the animal kingdom? Are there some meaningful ...
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26 views

Parthenogenesis vs. Fertilization. Is a polar body different from an egg?

In Parthenogenesis that happens by automixis "the replication of an egg by meiosis and the transformation of the haploid egg to a diploid cell occur by fusion with a polar body." =https://www....
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Effect of myelination on inteligence in cephalopods

Cephalopods are known for their unique intelligence compared to other invertebrates. The number of neurons of cephalopods is of the order $5*10^8$, similar to dogs. Humans have about $10^{11}$ ...
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ELI5 what is true breeding?

In "Variation under Domestication", Darwin makes several references to the concept of true breeding: They believe that every race which breeds true, let the distinctive characters be ever so slight,...
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5k views

The human has 46 double chromosomes or simple chromosomes?

What I mean: does the human cell have 46 of these: or 46 of these: Thank you in advance.
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1answer
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What do the signs +/+ +/- mean in this image?

I don't understand what this graph is supposed to explain, especially what the signs +/+ or -/- mean. I just know it characterises some rats.
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How can we say that a gene is spacio-temporally regulated?

Gene expression is depending on the space and time of the cell. How can we distinguish the function of a gene without a chance of changing its expression? And also how is it possible to find the exact ...
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229 views

What controls specific gene silencing during cell differentiation?

I am intrigued by the fact that all cells of our body use the same DNA. How do the cells differentiate during the post fertilisation divisions? I read about gene silencing, which can be an answer to ...
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2answers
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How does a drastic change to the genome persist and spread?

I just read the article on songbirds in the November, 2019 Scientific American. The article explains that songbirds have an extra chromosome, called GRC (germ-line restricted chromosome) that other ...
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2answers
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Why do telomere lengths not predict differences in life spans among species?

We read that ageing is related to cell death when we run out of telomeres at the end of our DNA molecules. Humans live roughly for 70 years - the traditional three-score years and ten. This compares ...
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1answer
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Do some genes follow Rock-Paper-Scissors model of dominance?

Assuming there are at least 3 alleles of the gene $G$ in total - $G_R$, $G_S$ and $G_P$ - is there any gene for which the following is true? $G_R$ is more dominant than $G_S$. $G_S$ is more dominant ...
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27 views

Way to analyze the functional relevance of human mutation in vivo

In the literature I „found“ a pointmutation in the protein coding sequence of an enzyme subunit to be a risk factor for a certain disease. It is not known whether the mutation leads to loss or gain ...
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Study on Introns?

I am curious whether there has been a study done on the effects of removing introns. Specifically, what happens if you genetically edit a eukaryote genome to no longer contain introns? Or maybe just a ...
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3answers
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Is evolution a means to an end?

In "The Red Queen", Matt Ridley frequently argues that evolution is a means to an end, without providing much explanation for such a big statement. Is this a fact in biology? Do species mutate their ...
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1answer
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Genetics and Heredogram - Proving the teacher is wrong

I want serious help here. I'm in first year of medical school and I jut had my second test in Genetics. One question of the test gave us a heredogram and asked us what was the most probable type of ...
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Brain evolution in the age of the caesarian

I have just been reading an account of the evolution of human intelligence in Matthew Syed’s recent book on diversity, called “Rebel Minds”. He is not the originator of this idea, but he suggests ...
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Rods and Cones functioning in Achromatopsia affected individual

When facing genetically caused Achromatopsia have the cones still been developed by the individual or does the latter completely lack them? I have looked for evidence both online and on some more ...
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2answers
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Genetically speaking, are dogs exactly similar to humans and chimps both?

Richard Dawkins mentions in his book The Greatest Show on Earth that dogs are exactly similar to both humans and chimps. Supposing that a cell contains the genetic similarity between 2 species, he ...
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Is it possible that by mutation a human could see infrared or other 'colours'?

Incoming light reacts with the several types of cone cells in the eye. In humans, there are three types of cones sensitive to three different spectra, resulting in trichromatic color vision. Each ...
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Identify which of the two columns A and B represent gene and chromosome

I am a bit confused on this question in my Textbook (STD 12) and have got all sorts of answers on searching it but I am still not able to comprehend it literally. Can someone answer this and explain ...
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What is the advantage of circular DNA in bacteria?

From what I understand, bacteria have circular DNA. What advantages does it have over linear strands like for eukaryotes? Do there exist bacteria with more than one ring of DNA?
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Which trait does the given Pedigree chart show? [closed]

I have a doubt in this pedigree chart , according to me it should be autosomal dominant. But the ans given is X linked recessive , in the case of X linked recessive one daughter should be carrier and ...
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How much DNA (or genes) do homo-sapiens and ursus arctos (brown bear) share?

How much DNA (or genes) do homo-sapiens and ursus arctos (brown bear) share? There are articles online that indicate that humans share xxx% of DNA with Chimpanzees, bananas, and other assorted ...
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2answers
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Do plants have distinctive DNA genomes from each other like humans do?

Can exact same species of plant have a distinct genome from others of same exact species growing nearby or in a different place/country etc. ? Can a leaf be traced to the the exact plant based on DNA ...
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1answer
184 views

What is the genetic reason that this flower has petals of two different colors?

I have two different varieties of the flower, portulaca: one is bright pink, the other is pure white with pink specks at the centre. Recently a flower bloomed which had 50% of the former and 50% of ...
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1answer
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Do conservation oriented genetic database exist?

Are there any projects for the creation of the international genetic database of all endangered species, so we, at least, have a chance to clone them in the future if our current conservational ...

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