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Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Could we breed a dog to the size of a thumb?

We've gotten from a wolf to a small breed such as a chihuahua. So the question is: can we go even further and have a dog as small as a thumb (adult dog)? If not, what are the factors that limit the ...
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Genetics, sickle cell anemia

Sickle cell anemia is autosomal recessive. Then Why is it an example of codominant alleles? I thought a person with sickle cell trait is heterozygous because one of his/her alleles is recessive and ...
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1answer
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How to identify whether something is in linkage disequilibrium?

If the following loci indicated the presence of an SNP in flu strains, is Locus 2 and Locus 3, which are located 10 bp apart in linkage disequilibrium? "When alleles and molecular markers are ...
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When gene editing are both chromosomes in a pair changed?

Sorry for the possibly confused question, my knowledge of genetics is limited to medical training only but I have a question. Are gene editing techniques such as CRISPR used on both of the ...
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What do the signs +/+ +/- mean in this image?

I don't understand what this graph is supposed to explain, especially what the signs +/+ or -/- mean. I just know it characterises some rats.
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How can seedless fruits not be GMO?

Biology is the closest I could find to botany on SE. Grafting can not occur naturally and so if a fruit does not have seeds there is no way it could reproduce in nature. That logic makes complete ...
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1answer
29 views

How Would I Isolate and Amplify a Viral Enzyme? [closed]

what procedures would I use to isolate and amplify integrase? If I am trying to study the integrase enzyme which is found in HIV how would I 1) destroy the viral capsule to release its contents. 2) ...
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Why don't rates of cancer increase generation to generation?

As cells divide, they accumulate mutations that can sometimes cause cancer. Gametes have to divide like any other cell, and thus generation to generation mutations should accumulate in people's ...
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Is it possible in modern biology to make any person's identical twin (or genetical clone) using his DNA?

I was told by a Biotech professor (who came in our college for a guest lecture) that Bio Technology has now become so advanced that if we want to make an identical twin (or Genetical DNA Twin) of a ...
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25 views

Finding intensity of selection against dominant homozygotes

I was looking at some Olympiad questions and came across the following: If the frequency of a completely recessive allele is $0.2$ and it remains unchanged from generation to generation due to ...
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1answer
694 views

Why don't restriction endonucleases digest transformed plasmids?

In the textbook that I'm using, it explains that bacteria does not digest its own chromosomal DNA because the sites that would be cut by its own endonuclease are methylated. Is there a similar ...
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Which enzyme is Nick Lane referring to?

In Life Ascending the author, Nick Lane, refers to an enzyme in his introduction: '' It concerns an enzyme (a protein that catalyses a chemical reaction) that is so central to life that it is found ...
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How is a specific fragment isolated for PCR amplification?

For background I am interested in studying engineering applications of a specific protein, which is not commercially available. My end goal is to express the gene for the protein in bacterial cells, ...
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4answers
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Why are males more likely than females to have autism spectrum disorder?

The male to female ratio in autism spectrum disorder is around 4:1. However it seems ASD is not a simple X-linked disorder. Then how is it possible males are more susceptible than females, if the ...
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1answer
48 views

How does further hybridization affect fertility?

Numeruous scientific sites state that hybrids (like mules) are infertile. On the other hand, ligers are known to mate with both tigers and lions and still have viable offspring. So my question is: if ...
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Does a mutation in the sense strand of a particular gene affect the polypeptide formed?

Recently, I came across this picture which represents the DNA sense strand of a gene. The ‘Altered’ picture shows a (frameshift) mutation in the nucleotide sequence in which a T base is deleted. The ...
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3answers
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Strand representation in the DNA version of the Genetic Code

A Wikipedia entry entitled DNA Codon Table states that the codons presented in the table are on the ‘sense strand of the DNA’. But what is the purpose of this, if the sense strand doesn’t code for ...
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What determines the colors and patterns of a clam shell?

Earlier this week I was looking at some bivalve shells that had ornate patterns which ranged in color from a light orange-pink to a deep orange-red. Here is an image I found online that seems to be of ...
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1answer
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How do these triplets code for these proteins?

I am slightly confused by the diagram above. The first codon of the unaltered DNA is AAG. During transcription, isn't this coverted to UUC (mRNA). So doesn't UUC code for phe and not Lys? Likewise, ...
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Are STOP codons impacted by base insertion or deletion mutation?

I am learning about base insertion and deletion mutations. An example in my textbook is given below. GUU CCA CAU AUC. So if there is an insertion (of guanine): GUU GCC ACA UAU C_ _ (there will be a ...
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1answer
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What is omicron squared in genetics?

Saw this equation in the conext of epidemiological genetics: I have never seen it before and I don't know what variable it represents. Help?
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What percent of genetic disease are preventable? [closed]

I like to know what percentage of genetic disease are preventable before birth? Also, when we can detect all of them? I heard in a TV show a doctor said about 5 years later we can prevent all genetic ...
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Could you save a species if there were only two remaining? [closed]

Let's say an endangered species had only two left (male and female) and they produced 4 children (two male, and 2 female), and those produced? Wouldn't the incest slowly degraded their genes? (...
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2answers
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What are the differences in the two possible methods to calculate the Hardy-Weinberg Equation?

I am more than flabbergasted by calculations of Hardy-Weinberg equilibria. The formula's theory assumes a binomal distribution of allele frequencies in a population, and hence allows the comparison of ...
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1answer
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Cloning a coding gene into a non-expression vector

Does it make any sense to clone a CODING gene into a NON-expression vector? doing this will only give us multiple copies of the gene, while we could run PCR instead (Let's say we know the gene ...
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1answer
118 views

Intelligence as measured by DNA tests

Suppose a person has an IQ of 130, as measured by a standard IQ test, when he is 18 years old. He then goes on to develop severe mental illness, which reduces his IQ to 100. After this, he takes a DNA-...
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1answer
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What is the population limit that makes consanguinity an issue?

A recent incident brought in the news one of the last uncontacted people - the Sentinelese: the Sentinelese appear to have consistently refused any interaction with the outside world. ...
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2answers
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I want to extract genes from genomes [closed]

I m a student at computer science and I'm working in a project called Plant Breeding and for moment I need to extract genes from a file with genomes. I know that the start sequence of a gene is ATG ...
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3answers
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Knockout and knockdown of gene

Out of curiosity, I got this question whether knocking out (deletion) of a gene on one side and knocking down (RNAi) of the same gene on the other side will affect the cell in a similar manner or not. ...
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1answer
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How it is possible that blood group shows that a person is not the son or daughter of their parents?

I see a family in which it has only one daughter. The blood group of the mother is AB positive and the father is B positive, but the blood group of the daughter is O negative. When she was young, ...
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1answer
813 views

Why is there Turner syndrome if one of the X chrosomes is inactivated anyway?

In females one of the two X chromosomes will condensate and turn into Barr bodies. So chromosome abnormality-free women will only have a single transcriptionally-active chromosome. Then why can ...
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How does the new discovery that mitochondrial dna is inherited from both parents change population genetics and other dates?

This new study seem to have pretty much proven that mtDNA is inherited from both parents. I assume that this would lead to most age estimates of ancient human ...
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1answer
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Can I get 1% of my one of my great great grandparents genes?

I basically took a 23andme test and found out genetically I was 1% African. The weird part though is that family records shows that my father's mother's grandmother was African, making me 1/16 African....
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What is the difference between “gene delivery” and “gene therapy”?

What is the specific difference between gene delivery and gene therapy? As far as I understand, gene delivery is the first step of gene therapy, but where does gene delivery end and gene therapy ...
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1answer
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How did genome duplication in jawed vertebrates allow gene specialization?

I am currently reading from Chapter 15 in Principles of Life, 2nd Edition: Many gene duplications affect only one or a few genes at a time, but in some cases entire genomes may be duplicated. When ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between “cistron” and “gene”?

I'm asking after reading the cognate wikipedia.en article on "cistron". I am still not sure about the difference between the two terms. To me it seems valid to picture a "cistron" as the genome wide ...
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Offspring of parents with different number of chromosomes

Many papers report that dog-whelks (Nucella lapillus) show a distinct chromosomal polymorphism between populations of 2n = 24 up to 2n = 36. Could somebody please tell me how many chromosomes the F1 ...
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Does the male and female always split evenly the genetic material given to their offspring?

Are there animals known to have a different percentage of splitting of genetic material, like the male give 75% and the female just 25%. I know that drone bees have only genetic material from their ...
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1answer
6k views

When do the spindle fibers attach to the chromosome

At what phase does this occur in mitosis (or even meiosis); some text books say prophase while others say metaphase.
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1answer
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Will our biological bodies be changed after we’ve occupied and settled Mars? [closed]

I had this question in mind for very long time, and I could not find a clear answer on the Internet, so I was hoping that you might know the answer. If we will bring life to planet Mars and a few ...
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1answer
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Understanding recombination scoring in family pedigrees

I am having some problems understanding recombination, and I am not sure what element I am missing here. This figure is an example from my text book. The pedigree belongs to a family with an autosomal ...
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How related do life forms need to be to produce hybrids?

Specifically, I'm asking about infertile hybrids like ligers, mules, camas, etc. How closely related do animals need to be?
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You need DNA to make RNA, and RNA to make DNA, so they had to come into existence at the same time?

A statement I recently read: 'Evolution is debunked and gives no basis for morality. Natural Selection throws away info, it does not add. You need DNA to make RNA, and RNA to make DNA, so they had to ...
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1answer
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Why is a hippo so big if it has round about the same genes as a mouse

My science teacher told us that all mammals have round about the same number of genes. This confuses me, since there are very big and very small mammals. Where do genes come from and why do animals ...
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Can Tajima's D and other population genetic tools be used to copare Arabidopsis ecotypes?

I am currently investigating 2 genes in Arabidopsis taliana that are a product of a recent duplication even (observable from synteny and phylogenetic analysis). In addition to the molecular and ...
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2answers
346 views

Will genetically modified food affect our health?

It's a popular public sentiment that - GM foods like tomatoes (flavr savr) will affect our health.. Is there any logical scientific explanation behind this?
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1answer
187 views

Why are the genomes of some trees so large?

For example, the current largest known genome belongs to a tree: http://motherboard.vice.com/read/the-largest-genome-ever-sequenced-belongs-to-a-tree I have heard that this could potentially be ...
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2answers
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Is it possible that there are two people in the world who belong to a different species? [duplicate]

There're over 7 billion people in the world and every one of them is different from everyone else. Is it possible that there are two people so different that they belong to different species (in the ...
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1answer
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Codons at for transcription vs translation [closed]

Why are start and stop codons present at translation level but not at transcription level? And how will I obtain a protein at transcription level? Thanks in advance
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Honeybee relatedness: workers and nephews

This is my first question on this site. If anyone could help me get to the bottom of it, I would be very grateful. I am currently working on a lecture on kinship in animals. It goes without saying, ...