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Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Why are humans much more complicated than waterfleas though they have less genes?

Water fleas have about 30 000 genes, while humans have about 25 000 of those things. So why are humans so much more complicated? Has this to do with junk-DNA of which humans have relatively the most ...
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I wonder if somatic cells are necessarily non-sexual cells or not

Somatic cells are necessarily non-sexual cells or they are more than this? According to Wikipedia a somatic cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism, any cell other than than a ...
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DNA of identical twins

I read an article which says that identical twins have 100% similarity between their DNA, but they have different fingerprints. Does that mean the DNA is different in the fingers? What body features ...
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“Gold standard” GWAS methods for gene detection on common SNPs aggregated to genes/proteins

What are the recommended "state-of-the-art" computational methods for association studies on common SNPs that are aggregated to genes (burden analysis, gene set, etc.)? methods that work on GWAS ...
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Is bi-allelic gene expression random?

Supposing we have the genotypes “Aa”, “AA”, and “aa”... which are not mono-allelic (not imprinted and not X-inactivated). Does the dominance of the “A” allele over “a” allele affect which gene is ...
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Is the way that you laugh genetic?

I have noticed that my friend's laugh is semi-similar to his brother's and was wondering weather that was due to propinquity, genetics, a mix of both, or something else entirely.
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61 views

What is the most genetically complex organism?

I understand that new genomes are being sequenced ever day and these answers replace themselves often; although as of today, what has been proven to be the most genetically complex organism (Other ...
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What do the haploinsufficiency scores in the clinVar database represent?

I understand that haploinsufficiency occurs when one of the two copies of a gene is mutated to the point of being unusable, and the single copy remaining is unable to cope with the cell's demands for ...
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Are left-handed people more likely to be colorblind?

My friend, uncle, and I are left handed and also suffer from Protan colorblindness. Is it more likely for left-handed people to be colorblind? Disclaimer: I was originally Right handed and due to a ...
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1answer
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Gene frequency — database/site

Is there any free database when one can check the gene frequency in a healthy population? For example I would like to check it for genes like BIN1, CLU or CR1. On the English Wikipedia I found a gene ...
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Punnet square practice

Complete a mono-hybrid cross using the following information In guinea pigs, black fur is dominant to white fur. If you crossed two heterozygous guinea pigs what is the expected phenotypic ratio. ...
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Do genes play a role in the athleticism and shape of a person?

I am an Indian with a small thin stature with some deposition of fat around my belly.I was wondering if genes play a role in fat deposition in the body for Indian, Chinese, European or African people. ...
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Is there some genetic variance underlying music appreciation?

Is there any research done on the genetic variance for Music appreciation? If not, why is there no genetic variance for this trait?
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How does CRISPR/Cas9 compare to plasmid injection for editing new genes into cells?

I've heard that both of these techniques can be used to add new genes to cells, so I'm curious as to how they compare, e.g.: can plasmids be used in eukaryotes like CRISPR? are plasmids kept after ...
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Does recombination slow mutation accumulation in sexual populations? Is there any evidence?

Mullers Ratchet is the process by which asexual organisms would accumulate mutations without bound. It is claimed that sexual organisms would slow this mutation accumulation through recombination. Is ...
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1answer
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Are there examples of Apis mellifera of different colors?

Re: my previous species-identification question, What species is this gray bee? I'm still curious: Are there any recorded/reported cases of either albino Apis mellifera, or at least with ...
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How do mutations with very little fitness benefit get fixed?

I have one little issue with evolutionary theory that I have not been able to understand. Suppose genetic mutations happen from generation to generation. Nevertheless, from one generation to the next ...
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2answers
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Does low gravity exposure to early stages of human fetus have potential to unloc unused genetic information from earlier stages of evolution?

The title seems quite self explanatory but let me elaborate. New mutations do take a very long time and many generations to occure in the genetic code. But our genetic code already holds all the ...
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Is it possible that by mutation a human could see infrared or other 'colours'?

Incoming light reacts with the several types of cone cells in the eye. In humans, there are three types of cones sensitive to three different spectra, resulting in trichromatic color vision. Each ...
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Balancing selection vs introgression?

Balancing selection can maintain polymorphisms in natural populations for extended periods of evolutionary time. However, in this paper, Dannemann et al. 2016 identify three archaic haplotypes in the ...
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If mutations are random, why was there just one kind of finches on every Galapagos island?

When Darwin was observing the Galapagos finches he noticed that there was a different kind on each island. The biggest difference was in their beaks. Darwin concluded that the birds had evolved and ...
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I wonder if one of the biggest problems in dealing (treatement) with gene mutation, is when the protein encoded, is used inside the cell [on hold]

I wonder if one of the biggest problems in dealing (treatement) with gene mutation, is when the protein encoded, is used inside the cell, because, if the potein is secreted (for example: the Hormone) ...
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1answer
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Size constraints on CRISPR guide RNA

I had a quick questions on the size limitations of a CRISPR guide. More specifically on the shorter end. Can I make a guide that is say 7-10bp and still have an active complex? I transfect using an ...
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Difference between crossover rate and recombination rate?

I am not a biology student and therefore, need clarification if crossover rate and recombination rate are the same thing. So if the text says 'recombination rate per base pair per generation' or '...
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The human has 46 double chromosomes or simple chromosomes?

What I mean: does the human cell have 46 of these: or 46 of these: Thank you in advance.
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1answer
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Fertilization of the human egg- where does our centrosome come from?

Is there a centrosome in a human egg cell? Is the reason why the egg cell remains paused before meiosis 2 because there isn't a centrosome, and it only divides when the sperm fertilizes it thus it can ...
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Convergence compared to genetic distance

Is there an information (preferably in the form of a chart, though anything will do) comparing convergent evolution to how closely related the 2 species are on the tree of life. My searches for ...
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1answer
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What does “PDPN+ cells” means?

Are they podoplanin positive cells (cells that tested positive for podoplanin)? "...though it has been shown that podoplanin (PDPN+) cells analogous to mouse FRCs are found in human secondary ...
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Double stranded RNA Single stranded DNA

I have seen in textbooks referring to ds RNA and ssDNA. How a RNA can be double stranded and likewise how a DNA can single stranded and if they do exist why are there names not interchanged?
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How can a child be blood type AB, if both of the parents are blood type A?

Basically, both of my parents are blood type A (both are confirmed and it's also certain both of them are my biological parents). I recently found out my blood type is AB. How is this possible? I ...
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1answer
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What is the genetic background for fast metabolism?

I am wondering if it is possible that people with very fast metabolism have some genetic mutation. There are people who can eat a lot while others would definitely get fat with such a diet. In other ...
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1answer
256 views

Drosophila grey / yellow

I am studying biology by myself via distance-learning. I have been trying to solve the following problem for a while now and hoped you could help me. As this is "homework" I would appreciate hints ...
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Could we breed a dog to the size of a thumb?

We've gotten from a wolf to a small breed such as a chihuahua. So the question is: can we go even further and have a dog as small as a thumb (adult dog)? If not, what are the factors that limit the ...
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1answer
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Is the lac operon repressed in the presence of both glucose and lactose?

In the presence of both sugars (glucose and lactose) will there be repression of the lac operon completely? I know that more glucose means less cAMP --> less CAP --> less positive regulation, and ...
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1answer
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Genetics, sickle cell anemia

Sickle cell anemia is autosomal recessive. Then Why is it an example of codominant alleles? I thought a person with sickle cell trait is heterozygous because one of his/her alleles is recessive and ...
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What is the expected amount of DNA shared by first cousins and the people between them in a family tree?

What is the expected amount of DNA that is shared by all of the people between first cousins, including the first cousins, in a family tree?
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1answer
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How to identify whether something is in linkage disequilibrium?

If the following loci indicated the presence of an SNP in flu strains, is Locus 2 and Locus 3, which are located 10 bp apart in linkage disequilibrium? "When alleles and molecular markers are ...
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1answer
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When gene editing are both chromosomes in a pair changed?

Sorry for the possibly confused question, my knowledge of genetics is limited to medical training only but I have a question. Are gene editing techniques such as CRISPR used on both of the ...
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1answer
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What do the signs +/+ +/- mean in this image?

I don't understand what this graph is supposed to explain, especially what the signs +/+ or -/- mean. I just know it characterises some rats.
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How can seedless fruits not be GMO?

Biology is the closest I could find to botany on SE. Grafting can not occur naturally and so if a fruit does not have seeds there is no way it could reproduce in nature. That logic makes complete ...
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1answer
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How Would I Isolate and Amplify a Viral Enzyme? [closed]

what procedures would I use to isolate and amplify integrase? If I am trying to study the integrase enzyme which is found in HIV how would I 1) destroy the viral capsule to release its contents. 2) ...
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Why don't rates of cancer increase generation to generation?

As cells divide, they accumulate mutations that can sometimes cause cancer. Gametes have to divide like any other cell, and thus generation to generation mutations should accumulate in people's ...
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Why are sex abnormalities more likely to survive than autosomal abnormalities?

I found that it is because of dosage compensation mechanism to counteract genetic imbalance between males and females , but i didn't understand it , please can you explain it
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2answers
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why and how multi allele gets reported during variant calling in vcf?

This might be a very basic question for many here. With the basic understanding of inheritance, eventhough there is a possibility of multiple genotypes due to multi alleles, the resulting genotype can ...
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3answers
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Problems with housekeeping genes

I have tried several housekeeping genes to analyze the relative expression of a cytokine for measure the inflammatory local response in mice ears, all the housekeeping genes I have tried are not ...
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2answers
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Is it possible in modern biology to make any person's identical twin (or genetical clone) using his DNA?

I was told by a Biotech professor (who came in our college for a guest lecture) that Bio Technology has now become so advanced that if we want to make an identical twin (or Genetical DNA Twin) of a ...
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RNA transcription [closed]

During RNA transcription the mRNA is spliced before becoming a mature mRNA. Describe the process of splicing. (5 marks)
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Finding intensity of selection against dominant homozygotes

I was looking at some Olympiad questions and came across the following: If the frequency of a completely recessive allele is $0.2$ and it remains unchanged from generation to generation due to ...
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Barr body Giemsa staining

Not all the female cheek cells show Barr Bodies when stained with Giemsa stain? Only 30 to 40% female cells show Barr Bodies. Why? Our Experiment: We washed mouth twice with listerine to reduce ...
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Parts of our bodies form during different critical periods. What keeps those parts locked after the period has closed?

Parts of our brains and bodies 'lock' after various critical periods. What keeps those body parts locked after the critical period closes? For example, our limbs stop growing at a certain length or ...