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Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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How does DNA code for the actual *shape* of individual body parts/areas (NOT segments or Hox genes)?

Just to save the trouble - I am not asking for general information on how DNA codes for proteins and definitely not how Hox genes work. I have a very good understanding of the evolutionary process and ...
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Offspring of parents with different number of chromosomes

Many papers report that dog-whelks (Nucella lapillus) show a distinct chromosomal polymorphism between populations of 2n = 24 up to 2n = 36. Could somebody please tell me how many chromosomes the F1 ...
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Does the male and female always split evenly the genetic material given to their offspring?

Are there animals known to have a different percentage of splitting of genetic material, like the male give 75% and the female just 25%. I know that drone bees have only genetic material from their ...
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Fertilization of the human egg- where does our centrosome come from?

Is there a centrosome in a human egg cell? Is the reason why the egg cell remains paused before meiosis 2 because there isn't a centrosome, and it only divides when the sperm fertilizes it thus it can ...
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Can I get 1% of my one of my great great grandparents genes?

I basically took a 23andme test and found out genetically I was 1% African. The weird part though is that family records shows that my father's mother's grandmother was African, making me 1/16 African....
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How much of my ancestry will match with my brother?

Recently, my brother (full sibling) got his ancestry checked from MyHeritageDNA. They have a similar service like 23 and me and I've found out that both companies are offering the basic service almost ...
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Will our biological bodies be changed after we’ve occupied and settled Mars? [closed]

I had this question in mind for very long time, and I could not find a clear answer on the Internet, so I was hoping that you might know the answer. If we will bring life to planet Mars and a few ...
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How related do life forms need to be to produce hybrids?

Specifically, I'm asking about infertile hybrids like ligers, mules, camas, etc. How closely related do animals need to be?
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Can Tajima's D and other population genetic tools be used to copare Arabidopsis ecotypes?

I am currently investigating 2 genes in Arabidopsis taliana that are a product of a recent duplication even (observable from synteny and phylogenetic analysis). In addition to the molecular and ...
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Is the allopolyploid cotton a fixed heterozygote?

I have been reading some scientific papers (with dubious comprehension of the material) about cotton. They say cotton is a allopolyploid and that it is thought to result from a genome doubling of a ...
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1answer
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Codons at for transcription vs translation [closed]

Why are start and stop codons present at translation level but not at transcription level? And how will I obtain a protein at transcription level? Thanks in advance
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Honeybee relatedness: workers and nephews

This is my first question on this site. If anyone could help me get to the bottom of it, I would be very grateful. I am currently working on a lecture on kinship in animals. It goes without saying, ...
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2answers
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Is it possible that there are two people in the world who belong to a different species? [duplicate]

There're over 7 billion people in the world and every one of them is different from everyone else. Is it possible that there are two people so different that they belong to different species (in the ...
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1answer
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Why is DNA polymerase added at the end of PCR reaction?

PCR reaction is used to amplify DNA fragment. Each reaction requires a DNA template, buffer, dNTP mix and a unique pair of primers, one ''forward'' primer and one ''reverse'' primer. The DNA ...
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Is gut bacteria Succinivibrionaceae's low methanogenesis understood well enough for GM of cattle gut bacteria to be considered?

After watching the Periodic Table of Videos episode linked in this question I watched the episode Wallabies and Methane where Sir Poliakoff says (a bit after 02:00):...
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1answer
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How exactly does heterozygous sickle trait help patients survive malaria

Heterozygous sickle cell anaemia trait is known to increase the survival rate of carriers to malaria attacks. How does a recessive gene not expressed in the phenotype allow for such an advantage? Is ...
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1answer
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Are modern gene-editing techniques capable of creating genetically-superior versions of humans? [closed]

Can we alter the DNA in, say, a small-framed, low muscle mass male to those of elite bodybuilders? Can we alter the DNA sequence that stops balding and hair loss? How about the genes responsible for ...
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Relationship between inbreeding and sterility in humans

In general, inbred individuals tend to be at increased risk of sterility as shown in cows (Gonzales-Recio, 2007) or in leghorns (Nordskog and Cheng, 1988) for examples. I only have very quickly looked ...
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Fluoroquinolone mitochondrial and genomic DNA adduct

What could be possible consequences of covalent bond mitochondrial and genomic DNA adduct by Fluoroquinolones, our study was done by Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Study NFP. All 50+ participates who took ...
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1answer
28 views

How do you write genotypic and phenotypic ratios?

If two homozygous recessive parents are crossed, I know that all of the offspring will be homozygous recessive as well. Would you write the genotypic ratio as 0:0:4 then and the phenotypic as 0:4? (...
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1answer
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Why is a hippo so big if it has round about the same genes as a mouse

My science teacher told us that all mammals have round about the same number of genes. This confuses me, since there are very big and very small mammals. Where do genes come from and why do animals ...
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Are androgenic-anabolic steroids a form of gene editing?

Is taking AAS a form of gene-editing? Steroids alter genes in some way since they allow people to build more muscle than what's naturally possible -- so they sort of "break" natural genetics somehow. ...
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Does every protein encoding gene necessarily have a transcription factor?

For instance, transcription factor gene A is responsible for activating gene B that encodes protein 1. However, it is possible for genes like gene B to encode proteins without having transcription ...
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2answers
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Hemoglobin question- how many alleles?

So I know that Hemoglobin is made of 2 alpha and 2 beta subunits. The alpha consists of 2 genes on chromosome 16, and the beta of 1 gene on chromosome 11. So why does Hemoglobin only have 4 alleles? ...
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1answer
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Does the deletion of Chromosome 20 cause immunity against prion disease?

I was reading recently about prion disease and it caught my attention that a normal prion protein is coded n chromosome 20, therefore, in order for an infectious prion protein to attack, there must be ...
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Agrobacterium tumefaciens risks vs effectiveness

Are there genes in Agrobacterium that are analogous to lacZ found in enteric bacteria, and if so what genes are they. Does A. tumefaciens have orthologs for starch and glucose use? How risky is ...
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How is sex determined for drosophilia flies?

I am confused on Drosophilia sex determination. Here is what I understand: The X chromosome has the sxl gene. Flies with 2 X chromosomes are able to produce ...
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Monohybrid Recombinant Frequency? (three point Gene Linkage)

I am curious to know if it is completely impossible calculate recombinant frequency for monohybrids ( three point link, gene map etc.) Here is an example: Marker 1 xx= 25 xy=100 yy= 20 Marker 2 ...
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3answers
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You need DNA to make RNA, and RNA to make DNA, so they had to come into existence at the same time?

A statement I recently read: 'Evolution is debunked and gives no basis for morality. Natural Selection throws away info, it does not add. You need DNA to make RNA, and RNA to make DNA, so they had to ...
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1answer
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Linkage between chromosomal loci and the Hardy-Weinberg principle

Referring to the Hardy-Weinberg principle, which is always stated with respect to a particular locus on the chromosome, if we observe that two different loci are either always together in Hardy-...
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3answers
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Why is the mechanism of inheritance for this disease autosomal dominant?

An unrelated couple has a daughter and a son with the same rare condition. Neither parent has any obvious signs of the condition, but the father's mother (paternal grandmother) and her brother have ...
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1answer
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Genotype -/- vs delta/delta

In https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2018.07.033, Pan et al. use the designation TMC1^delta/delta to describe a mouse strain lacking a functional TMC1 gene. What if any is the different between the ...
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Where does reverse transcriptase come from?

I can't figure out whether the viruses provide reverse transcriptase, or their RNA has the code for it, or the host cell normally contains it. Multiple sources just introduce the enzyme without ...
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1answer
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How many birds in this population would be expected to have either red or white feathers?

Question: The red and white feather pattern of a bird is determined by a gene that has two alleles, band R and W,which show codominance. Some birds have completely red feathers (RR),some parrots ...
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4answers
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Are mutations a source of genetic variation?

Here is a question from the book SAT II Success Biology E/M (where the SAT is the exam taken by the American high school students): Which of the following statements is true about mutations? (A) ...
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1answer
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Why does this genetic pedigree show an autosomal dominant allele at one generation but not another?

Questions 186-188 of the GRE Biology Practice Test are prefaced with this genetic pedigree: Questions 186-188 refer to the following pedigree for the inheritance of a very rare human disease over ...
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Genetic analysis of one sibling relevant to other

My sister, my only sibling and I have literally no physical traits in common. Whatever trait I inherited from one parent she inherited from the other. We're thinking of using one of those genome ...
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1answer
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How to find which mutation in a protein is related to a disease?

I have the FGFR3 protein in UniProt and they ask me to find which of the following four mutations is related to a disease: N98F, P64K, T79S, or F384L. Where can I find such information? Thanks
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How can two biological sequences be anything but homologous?

If we consider homology between two nucleotide sequences as a yes/no answer to whether they have shared a common ancestral sequence, then given that all life share common ancestry and sequences are ...
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1answer
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Genes related to senses and their variation across animals

Animals often have very different numbers of active genes related to any sense. For instance, most fish or even aquatic mammals have very few olfactory receptor genes, whereas this is higher in ...
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1answer
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What does “novel, predicted deleterious, within autozygome” mean in genetics?

I am a medical student and just got involved with a genetic lab and research. I read a lot phrases like: "Although no mutations have been reported in this gene, we think this variant is interesting ...
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Mating patterns and genetic superiority

In peacocks and peahens, the peahens prefer mating with peacocks having a large and bright tail. But how is having a large tail an indicator of genetic "fitness" (in survival terms) ? If having a ...
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2answers
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What are the differences in the two possible methods to calculate the Hardy-Weinberg Equation?

I am more than flabbergasted by calculations of Hardy-Weinberg equilibria. The formula's theory assumes a binomal distribution of allele frequencies in a population, and hence allows the comparison of ...
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2answers
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why and how multi allele gets reported during variant calling in vcf?

This might be a very basic question for many here. With the basic understanding of inheritance, eventhough there is a possibility of multiple genotypes due to multi alleles, the resulting genotype can ...
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1answer
115 views

Do chromosomes line up as pairs in mitosis or meiosis?

Here is a question from the book SAT II Success Biology E/M (where the SAT is the exam taken by the American high school students): Homologous chromosomes line up in pairs in (A) metaphase of ...
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1answer
67 views

Is it theoretically possible to safely eliminate most viruses in the atmosphere, hence preemptively cure all the viral diseases? [closed]

Could we create a genetically modified virus or bacteria (with inability to mutate into something dangerous for animals) that would quickly spread all over the planet and selectively kill most of the ...
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1answer
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On which chromosomes were the traits studied by Mendel?

In his experiment with peas, Mendel mainly studied two traits : yellow/green colours and round/wrinkly shapes. I've heard that the pea genome is very large and its sequencing is a challenge. However, ...
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Basic questions about human genome project [closed]

The "human genome" was sequenced by the Human Genome Project around 2000. But I don't understand what was done and what its significance is. Questions: Wasn't a single person's genome sequenced? I....
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Is there logic in this sentence? “Authors discovered a gene as one of the genes evolved through natural selection”

From a news report: PhD candidate Daiki Sato and Professor Masakado Kawata have discovered SLC18A1 (VMAT1), which encodes vesicular monoamine transporter 1, as one of the genes evolved through ...
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1answer
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What is the meaning of Sequestered germline?

What is the meaning of Sequestered germline. I understand the meaning of Sequestered in English but what is its meaning in context of germline. For eg-" female germ cells are Sequestered early in ...