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Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Location of gene on chromosome

Recently i got to know about how location of gene is shown on chromosome for example-CFTR gene's location is designated as 7q31.2 Which means that it is present on 7th chromosome on the long arm(q), ...
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Query regarding KEGG KGML pathway files

With respect to the the Wnt pathway in KEGG, the KGML file of this pathway has description of each interaction between a pair of genes. These interactions are designated in the form: ...
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Are there disadvantages to using Rhizobium rhizogenes for genetic transformation?

Rhizobium rhizogenes causes hairy roots, which are transgentic. Are the transgentic roots able to eventually grow normal roots or will they always be hairy in the transgenic organism? After ...
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Does recombination slow mutation accumulation in sexual populations? Is there any evidence?

Mullers Ratchet is the process by which asexual organisms would accumulate mutations without bound. It is claimed that sexual organisms would slow this mutation accumulation through recombination. Is ...
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Why aren't “Water Giraffes” a thing?

If we assume that the Brachiosaurus and the modern Giraffe with their long necks both came to be by the need to reach higher-situated vegetable nutrition (which is a somewhat controversial assumption ...
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primer blast for BSP methylation

How can I blast my BSP(Bisulfite sequencing) primers? I designed in this way that C nucleotide converted to T and my primers just sit on the converted DNA! I blast it with Bisearch but I don't know ...
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51 views

What promoter is required for expression of a human protein Y in bacteria?

This is the actual question. It's from an entrance test for a research institute: A scientist wants to express human protein Y in bacteria. For effective expression of this protein he should use (A) ...
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1answer
16 views

Is there a biological explanation for a 0.5 difference in allele size with PCR product?

CONTEXT I am currently working on a set of diversity, this diversity in interspecific (within the same genus). I am using SSR markers, the primers were designed on one species and are working really ...
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What is Phytogenetics?

What is Phytogenetics? I have searched google without finding a definition. Is it even a defined term? I found it in a reference relating to genetic engineering.
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1answer
242 views

Genotypes of gametes produced by an F1 individual?

I have an urgent question as I have an exam tomorrow. I was skimming some past exam papers and one question came up which has me completely confused. A cross was made between a pure breeding ...
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pcr troubleshoot for toxoplasma with GRA6

I did pcr for Toxoplasma genotyping with GRA6 gene. my primer sequences were forward 5-GTAGCGTGCTTGTTGGCGAC-3 reverse 5-TACAAGACATAGAGTGCCCC-3. PCR was done in a 25μl reaction mixture. I used 10pmol ...
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How are innate reflexive thoughts passed down?

Human babies seem to know how to swim. They also have other innate behavior such as sucking thumbs, nipples, etc. and having a tight grip (to hold on to the mother). It seems that humans are not the ...
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1answer
51 views

difference between trisomy and partial trisomy

Trisomy is having 3 chromosomes but then what is partial trisomy ?. I was reading about Patau syndrome and it is called trisomy 13 ( because instead of usual 2 chromosomes,it has 3 chromosomes). it ...
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Centromere mapping with unordered tetrads

Is it possible to map a gene to the centromere using unordered tetrad analysis? I know that it's possible in ordered tetrad analysis by taking half of the second division segregation frequency but I ...
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why hens determine the sex of the chick?

So, I have an exercise where I have to correct the second part of the sentence. It goes like this: In hens, the sex of the chicken is determined by hen, because the hen is the heterogametic ...
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1answer
24 views

Phylogeny: Hybridization between different species sharing same genus?

I am doing a cross-breeding project with Capsicum chinense x Capsicum baccatum. I'm planning to breed them until 6-8 gen. My question: What will the completed breed be classified as? Would it be a ...
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Does cellular/organism death happen to enable evolution? [duplicate]

On the topic of whether we could conceivably understand death and extend human lifespans significantly - I'm wondering if any smart folks can point me to where my thinking regarding death may be wonky....
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How does one identify a seed's species & variety?

How does one identify a seed's species & variety, could it be done by some means of DNA or by use of a microscope? Say for example, I had a pumpkin seed, I knew that it was a "small sugar pumpkin"...
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Does gen editing have any technical cross-species limits?

A surviving GMO put aside, how far could you go in cross-species gen editing? Is it possible for example to introduce plant genes to human DNA and vice versa? Question: from where is gen editing ...
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2answers
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Why the genome is divided into several chromosomes and not just a single big chromosome?

In many eukaryote species, there are several chromosomes. In humans, for example, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes. Why are there several chromosomes and not just a join of all chromosomes into a ...
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1answer
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On what basis is each chromosome given a number? [duplicate]

On what basis is each chromosome given a number? There appears to me to be no visible ordering between each pair. Is there any reason other than differentiation?
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1answer
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Can the environment affect genes and adaptation in offspring?

I recently read several articles that believe that environment can affect gene expression and this change will transfer down to the children. Some theorists believe that random mutations are more rare ...
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2answers
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For long term survival of a species in a harsh environment which is more important-mutation or evolution?

The environment is the ultimate cause of population stabilization. Considering the environment to turn harsh for the survival of a species.How to adapt better to this change-by evolution or by ...
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Who/where has the advocado genome been sequenced?

I have read several places that the genome of the advocado has been sequenced in mexico but i am not sure at what university or persons involved.
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Why don't cells double gene expression after S-Phase?

In the cell cycle (G1-S-G2-M), all of the DNA is replicated during the S or Synthesis stage. The cell may then spend some considerable time in the G2 phase before splitting in the M phase. Since there ...
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How to perform TUNEL Assay for yeast?

Currently, I am working on yeast strain CEN PK and I want to carry out TUNEL Assay to detect the amount of damage upon treatment with some damaging agent. We have a kit in the name of TUNEL Assay Kit -...
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Lifelong Immunity Question Regarding Erysipelas And Scarlet fever

So my question is after you carry on Scarlet fever you develop lifetime immunity. But with Erysipelas you might develop recurrence type. What is the mechanism behind it? Both diseases are caused by ...
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1answer
54 views

Antibiotic resistance

I have a biological puzzle that's been perplexing me for years. Can you review my logic and tell me where I'm wrong or if I'm on to something. As I understand it, most, if not all genetic ...
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26 views

Relationship between enzyme kinetics and similar phenotype

Question: Can the same phenotype or trait observed from $AA$ and $Aa$ be explained by enzyme kinetics (of protein)? It is understood that a gene locus includes a long series of nucleotides of DNA on ...
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DRD4 genes and their connections to Dopamine 2 subtype

I am trying to find out how the DRD4 gene correlates with the dopamine 2 family subtype receptor in the brain. Does a certain amount of methylation of DRD4 affect how much Dopamine is present in the ...
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3answers
178 views

Names and abbreviations in biology

After one year in college, I am quite surprised with the number of different abbreviations used in biology for the same thing. I wonder if there are any rules for naming something new in biology, ...
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1answer
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How much generation of hamster's family it takes to get first bad mutations [closed]

So if I have two humsters and they start to reproduce themselfs then how much generations of hamster's family it takes to get first bad mutations? The info here does not help to find answer https://...
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Do some cells have more than 2n at some part of their cell cycle?

For example, do human cells reach 4n after s phase during interphase after replication of DNA?
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1answer
40 views

What genes are the muscles, nerves, bones and blood? [closed]

I have a question about genes. The question is that bones, muscles, nerves and blood are each made on which genes. Father or mother genes? Does the person take any of the characteristics of the mother ...
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1answer
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Why can a zygote develop into all different types of cell, whereas a differentiated cell cannot? [closed]

A cell formed by the fertilization between two gametes has all the DNA and can lead the development of a human person (or other animals in other species). But other cells in a human person has also ...
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Easy derivation of Kimura's approximation for the probability of fixation of a mutation

Kimura's approximation for the probability of fixation of a mutation under selection finds recurrent use in population genetics models till date. I am trying to understand the mathematical basis of ...
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1answer
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What are the types of interactions in biological network (protein networks)?

In the KGML files, the types of relations between genes or proteins are precisely activation, inhibition, expression, repression, indirect effect, state change, binding/association, dissociation, ...
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Which gene regulatory network is the largest in human?

What is the maximum number of nodes involved in any gene regulatory network and which network is it, provided its from human?
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1answer
40 views

Are longer and shorter DNA similarly charged?

A longer DNA molecule would have more phosphate groups, so it should have a greater negative charge, right? It was taught in my class that only terminal ends of DNA are charged and all the phosphates ...
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Coefficient of relatedness for a locus on the Z chromosome

So i know that the ZW determination system is the equivalent for XY in birds. Moreover, I know that the coefficient of relatedness between siblings for the X chromosome is 0.5 so im guessing that the ...
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1answer
80 views

Neutral genetic mutations in eukaryotic cells [closed]

Why are most mutations in eukaryotic cells neutral? i.e. have no effect on the phenotype.
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What determines the physical location of differentiated cells in an organism?

Exposition: As a little kid, I always thought of DNA as being a description of how to build an organism. For example a human DNA would have "Add two legs and two arms", a dogs DNA would have ...
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Overall, for the most part, which is more important--capturing prey or surviving predators or parasites?

For animals in nature, does selection intensity tend to be stronger upon abilities used against parasites or predators or abilities used against prey? Any empirical reports would be appreciated. I ...
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1answer
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If evolution is true, how do all organisms have varying amount of chromosomes? [duplicate]

I thought genetic mutation changes genes and therefore evolution happens, but it doesn't explain how chromosomes are created/removed if the first organism had a set amount and now all the organisms ...
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1answer
44 views

What are some good biological tests you can do to yourself? [closed]

I would like to do things like study my own blood and DNA. What kind of things can one do at the present time that are fairly simple. Or require minimal equipment like a microscope? Are there some ...
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Is it possible to get a XYY genotype by the first meiotic non-disjunction?

I have read that the cause of XYY-Syndrome is a non-disjuction in the secondary non-disjunction in the meiosis. I was woundering if it is possible to get the XYY-Syndrom by the first meiotic non-...
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For X-linked recessive diseases, why are only a third of alleles under selection pressure?

My professor wrote the following on one of his lecture slides: For X-linked recessive disease, only a third of the mutant alleles are under selection pressure, so if the disease incidence is stable, ...
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1answer
62 views

What does “Origin” mean in NCBI GenBank?

I'm having trouble determining what exactly is meant by the term "Origin" in this case. It is just before a 70 bp sequence that the page claims is a plasmid, but does not specify it to be what I ...
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When was it understood that a male haemophilia sufferer can't pass it on to his sons?

Haemophilia A and B are both X-chromosome mutations, so a sufferer necessarily inherits the disease from his mother. She won't have serious symptoms unless both of her X chromosomes have the mutation, ...
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Why are not both alleles knocked out at the same time in knock out mouse?

I was reading this little 'article' about homologous recombination and knockout mouse. According to this article you first remove embryonic stem cells from a gray-fur blastocyst, then insert the ...