Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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1 answer
78 views

What is "Correlation of growth" according to Darwin and was he correct about it according to modern science?

What are the views that modern biologist have on Correlation of growth? I need some clarification on statement that I'm gonna mention below as well that is it reason to that as mentioned here: "...
1 vote
2 answers
3k views

Overcoming Inbreeding Depression

When inbreeding depression occurs, a genetically unrelated individual is mated with the animal to introduce genetic variability and remove homozygosity. In this case either outbreeding or ...
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Is there any evidence that physical appearance and temperament are coinherited together in humans?

Recently my wife and I had our second child, and I've noticed a trend with the two. Our first looks a lot like me, similar facial features and head shape, and along with it he also seems to hold many ...
4 votes
2 answers
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Does Telomere length shortening with age actually cause our cells to age and stop functioning properly?

The human telomere, a simple repeating sequence of six bases, TTAGGG located at the ends of chromosomes (Moyzis et al, 1988) protect them from degeneration, reconstruction, fusion, and loss. It is ...
1 vote
1 answer
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What is the difference between ‘classical’ and ‘non-classical’ pathogen resistance genes in plants?

I have stumbled across a mention of classical resistance genes against pests in plants, however the classification seems a bit vague. What would be classified as classical resistance genes and what as ...
0 votes
1 answer
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How many genes of an individual are homozygous?

We have 20000 to 25000 protein-coding genes. Considering an individual, how many of his\her protein-coding genes are homozygous? I am looking for an estimation of gene homozygosity ratio in human ...
3 votes
1 answer
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Recombination Data Set

So I was looking over some genetics question and came across this data set. In Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, there is a dominant gene b+ for grey body color and another dominant gene c+ for ...
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0 answers
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How many chromosomes does drosophila have?

I've been told that drosophila has 8 chromosomes (2n). In genic balance theory, why has drosophila been shown to have more autosome pairs than the usual number.
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Can features of modified plasmids be divided into prokaryotic features and eukaryotic features?

Here's what I understand and please correct me if I am wrong: Plasmids modified for gene therapy or genetic engineering should contain factors for certain functions in prokaryotic cells. For example, ...
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1 answer
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Disease-causing allele frequency and modern medicine

I was thinking about what the impact modern medicine might have on human evolution based on a couple assumptions. If we assume that: modern medicine has massively cushioned the selection pressure ...
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124 views

Can we study expression of human SRY gene from every person DNA blood tests?

Is it possible to study expression of human SRY gene from person DNA blood tests? Not just to see if this person has/hasn't got the SRY gene, but also to see if this person has a functional SRY gene, ...
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0 answers
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DNA from Egyptian Mummies Evolution vs Human of Today

Comment: I ask my biological questions from the point of view of mathematical proportions. I am not a biologist. Are there significant differences in DNA from Egyptian Mummies vs. those available from ...
3 votes
3 answers
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What exactly is extreme heterozygosity and how does it work?

What does the concept of "extreme heterozygosity" mean? I first encountered this concept in "The Drunken Botanist". They describe that when planting a seed from, say, a 'red ...
2 votes
0 answers
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How can drone bees be born from unfertilized eggs?

I am learning about Drone bees and I keep reading that they are born from unfertilized eggs. Now here is my question: if eggs are gametes and therefore reproductive cells, how can they turn into a new ...
1 vote
1 answer
82 views

Incomplete dominance with gain-of-function allele

Can someone cite an example of incomplete dominance with gain-of-function mutation?
2 votes
0 answers
39 views

What forms a mutation hotspot?

From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recombination_hotspot#:~:text=Recombination%20hotspots%20are%20regions%20in,that%20of%20the%20surrounding%20region. I understand that hotspots may arise when certain ...
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0 answers
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What would happen if the central dogma was reversed and protein was able to translate to RNA? [duplicate]

During one of my interviews, I have been asked this question. Can somebody please help me with this?
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Could someone please help me understand the outputs for HapFlk [migrated]

Could someone please explain the output file for HapFlk? My input file was a ped file which has three different populations. Two with same number of snps by imputation and third one is an outgroup ...
3 votes
1 answer
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How is a haploblock defined with only one SNP location?

I am reading Impact of estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms and mRNA levels on obesity and lipolysis – a cohort study and am looking at Figure 1. I understand that haplotypes are associated with ...
0 votes
0 answers
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How many ancestors' DNA do we have per generation?

DNA can be recombined and it's pretty random which ancestor will donate how much DNA other than your parents which is an almost perfect 50/50 split. For example, my family have had DNA tests done and ...
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Biology (DNA electrophoresis with agarose)X

I'm researching a polymorphism using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and gel electrophoresis. After RFLP, I should see fragments at 141bp and 111bp, but I can not see in 2% agarose, ...
2 votes
1 answer
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What is meant by 'identical alleles'?

I read in my book that "two alleles are considered to be homozygous if they are identical". But at the same time I read the definition of allele to be: genes which code for a pair of ...
3 votes
4 answers
375 views

What does the gene name "lexA" stand for?

It is an important gene expressed in E. coli that represses the SOS response and also the expression of lambda lytic phase genes. UV light and damage to DNA is responsible for its breakdown and hence ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Non fluorescent DNA stain to visualize Drosophila polytene chromosomes

I am working on designing a lab for an undergrad genetics course which involves dissecting and visualising polytene chromosomes from Drosophila salivary glands. I need a non-fluorescent non-antibased ...
1 vote
1 answer
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Do the cells of any multicellular lifeforms discard their genetic material after differentiating?

There are many types of cells which will never again divide. Some of them may not need DNA to perform their function. Are there any cases where the DNA is discarded after a final differentiation?
0 votes
1 answer
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How to identify an unknown species from its genome sequence [closed]

I am currently using ILLUMINA PE DNA sequence data, which I trimmed (Trimmomatic), corrected (Rcorrector) and assembled (SPAdes). I am now interested in using the genetic sequences from my contigs to ...
0 votes
1 answer
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Orientation of operator and promoter in E.coli expression vector plasmids

I am a biochem student and this has almost made me pull my hair out, here is the image of the question I got wrong, and I am not sure if the question is wrong or I am, I think the operator is ...
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Are there any species whose cells do not copy the DNA that has been inactivated during cell differentiation?

According to this paper, the ATP cost of a having (not counting transcribing) a gene in a diploid eukaryote is about $5\times 10^3$ ATP per base pair, while the lifetime ATP usage of a mono-cellular ...
6 votes
2 answers
157 views

How are Genetic Circuits Modelled?

I've read a recent Nature Methods paper by Moon T.S. et al, in which a synthetic genetic circuit consisting of layered logic gates was created. For example, the paper, a circuit is modelled in Figure ...
0 votes
0 answers
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How does the total number of genes increase throughout the course of evolution?

Campbell Biology says: A typical prokaryotic cell has about 3,000 genes in its DNA, while a human cell has about 21,300 genes. If evolution depends on random mutations occurring in the genome, ...
0 votes
1 answer
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Difference between in cis/in trans and in phase/out of phase

Something I've never been quite clear on is the difference between in cis/in trans and in phase/out of phase (in the context of diploid organisms). My understanding is that the in cis/in trans ...
3 votes
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Targeted gene sequencing and specialist analysis compared to WGS and DYI searches

There seem to be a lot of "genetic consulting" services that focus on things like cancer, with a modus operandi of: Do targeted gene sequencing (usually on a few tumor suppressor genes ...
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Why is a genome of an organism only given in the 5' -> 3' direction?

If u look up a genome of a certain organism or virus, it's always given in the 5' to 3' direction. I understand that one can derive the other direction very easily by just constructing the ...
2 votes
0 answers
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What is the heredity model of the following heredity tree?

I have the following heredity tree: and I need to decide which heredity model it fits the most, with the least number of assumptions, from the following models: autosome dominant autosome recessive ...
0 votes
1 answer
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Inheritance of FEVR (Genetic Disease)

If a woman has FEVR and is affected by the disease, what are the chances of her passing the disease to future generations. I read somewhere from a credible source like NIH(I couldn't find the link ...
12 votes
1 answer
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Why are adenoviral vector vaccines safe in terms of insertion mutagenesis due to genome integration and E4 region's proteins effects?

Disclaimer: I'm neither a genetics professional nor an anti-vax fanatic, I just tried to compare COVID-19 vaccine types currently available on the market and got some questions that I'd like to answer ...
20 votes
3 answers
15k views

Why is DNA antiparallel? Can it be parallel?

My biology textbook mentions that DNA is antiparallel and it got me wondering - can DNA be parallel? What would happen if it was parallel? Could DNA still replicate correctly?
0 votes
0 answers
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Copy number deletion and high expression [duplicate]

I have a region that has significant CNV loss. But the expression for the genes in those regions is high compared to the expression found in the samples that don't have the regions lost. How can this ...
2 votes
1 answer
121 views

Are all genes capable of being switched on or off?

Are all genes capable of being switched on or off or only some genes? Are there some genes that permanently do not have the functionality that enables them to be switched on or off? Everything I have ...
1 vote
2 answers
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What is the difference between Haploinsufficient and Autosomal Dominant mutations

I have been reading a paper that classifies genes in different groups by the type of disease-causing mutations. The categories of mutations (alleles) it gives are: Haploinsufficient Autosomal ...
-1 votes
1 answer
963 views

Gene transfer between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria?

How does transfer of genetic material occur between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria?
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1 answer
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Analysis of post transplantation lineage tags

I'm having some trouble understanding some bits of a study, mostly about the Sleeping Beauty system and TARIS model, from this paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4408613/ I ...
1 vote
1 answer
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What does genetic diversity in one species have to do with survival rate when an epidemic spreads?

I was studying about genes, and soon remembered that the more diverse the genetics of one species, the less the chance of the species to go extinct from natural disaster. One instance was an epidemic ...
1 vote
0 answers
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How I can find the list of transcription factor proteins involved in transcription of a specific gene?

I want to get the list of transcription factor proteins involved in the transcription of the human SIRT1 gene. How can I access that?
2 votes
0 answers
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Apparant inconsistency in DNA topology theory in formation of origin of replication [duplicate]

I'm studying an introductory course in genetics and came across something I don't fully understand. I obviously used Google to find where I'm thinking wrong, but I still can't understand it. To ...
0 votes
0 answers
28 views

Biochemistry conventions in writing the coding/noncoding strand

I am taking a biochemistry lab class, we work with plasmids, ligating protein DNA sequences to clone the DNA and then performing analysis on the protein (a beta lactamase) is most of what we do during ...
1 vote
1 answer
119 views

Balancing selection vs introgression? [closed]

Balancing selection can maintain polymorphisms in natural populations for extended periods of evolutionary time. However, in this paper, Dannemann et al. 2016 identify three archaic haplotypes in the ...
0 votes
1 answer
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mendelian inheritance calculating probabilities help

In a recent exam our teacher gave us the following questions: Assume that D, E, F, G, H, and I are autosomal genes on different chromosomes. From the mating (parent A) DdeeFfGGHhIi x (parent B) ...
2 votes
2 answers
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Really having problem comprehending this Hardy-Weinberg example from biology textbook

Genetic equilibrium is a hypothetical state, but it is often used as a benchmark. Consider how the Hardy–Weinberg equations were used in early studies of an allele that causes hereditary ...
2 votes
1 answer
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Sickle cell anemia IS inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, but sickle cell trait IS NOT inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern?

It's all about the alleles of the hemoglobin beta gene. Sickle cell anemia is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means that both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. Those ...

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