Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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DIY Biohacking?

I am a computer programmer, and while writing code is great for solving certain problems, programs easily become obsolete, and I want my input to humanity knowledge-base to be permanent. It might be a ...
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Research on chicken that cannot feel pain

In was having a conversation about the ethics of vegetarianism, and if it is right to cause pain to other animals. It is then that I stumbled upon the question, that if, just the way chicken and many ...
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Why does polyploidy occur during failure of cytokinesis and not during failure of karyokinesis?

Polyploidy is increase by a whole set of chormosomes, Cytokinesis is the process of splitting the cell cytoplasm and polyploidy is the splitting of the nuclear mass. Now I ask why polyploidy occurs ...
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Will a less favorable allele's frequency go to 0?

For example, a pond is dark in color. There are two alleles. The dark color allele is dominant over the light color one. Let's assume that the relative fitness of both the homozygous dominant and ...
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Monophyly, paraphyly and polyphyly in humans

A monophyletic group is a group or organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor. Three examples: 1. Rosales (an angiosperm order) (it includes roses, hemp, apples, pears, elms, ...
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How does the age of a parent affect the chances of occurrence of certain genetically transmitted diseases?

Do genetically transmitted age-related diseases (like hypertension, arthritis etc.)have the probability of occurring at an earlier(younger) age in the offspring if they are born at a later age to ...
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What does “genetic correlations” mean as opposed to just correlations?

I'm reading the paper "Large-scale GWAS reveals insights into the genetic architecture of same-sex sexual behavior". In Fig. 4 shows "Genetic correlations of same-sex sexual behavior with various ...
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Is this formula describing the loss of unfixed genes from a population accurate?

In the 1954 science fiction novel Search the Sky by Frederick Pohl and Cyril M. Kornbluth, a formula is featured that "quantitatively describes the loss of unfixed genes from a population". $$L_T=L_0 ...
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What are an internal and external exons?

I read the book: Essential Genetics and Genomics It has a table summarizing the properties of the "typical" human gene: It has a gene feature Size of internal exon,...
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GEN file format, SNPs and alleles

I have a few questions I can't seem to get a straight answer to, regarding the .gen file format and also biology in general. The ...
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What is the instructional language of DNA?

DNA carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses (Wikipedia). Is it already know how ATCG's sequences ...
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Blood and hair follicles from 25 people put on the Moon; enough to regenerate a human population?

Discussion on the question Why were blood and hair follicles from 25 people put on the Moon? calls into question whether this is a stunt or might have any basis in science. There's two parts to my ...
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What is enrichment score?

I was studying a paper and in that paper, there was mention of Enrichment score. Can someone please explain to me what is enrichment score. More score is good or bad. Here is the text from the paper. ...
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How quickly does recombination shuffle chromosomes?

For each pair of homologous chromosomes, one was inherited from the father and one from the mother. If there were no recombination in meiosis, one could then say that one of the chromosomes was ...
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Understanding ancestry testing mathematically

Forgive me if this question has been asked here before, because it is something which should be very easy to find, but I can't seem to find an answer no matter where I search. The question is simply ...
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Are there “old” neuron types in the neocortex?

"Old" may mean a neuron type that appeared early in the tree of life, and it may mean – going together – that it comes early in the lineage tree of neuronal cells, rooted in the fertilized ...
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Do mitochondrial haplotypes affect our physical or mental characteristics?

There are some studies that haplotypes may affect our intelligence or physical features. But do mitochondrial haplotypes have even close to as big a role to play as our genes in determining some of ...
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Is genetic equivalence a universal truism or are there exceptions?

Someone who I have been discussing scientific topics for some time came around to the notion that, on a biological level, the seed of a plant is not the same organism as the mature stage of the plant. ...
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What is the developmental and health outcome of an XY individual with an SRY addition on their X chromosome?

I know that "XX male" syndrome occurs through various means, including the addition of an SRY gene in one of the X chromosomes. The developmental and health outcomes of such individuals can be ...
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Is the promoter region of a gene transcribed?

If the RNA polymerase attaches to the promoter region of the gene, would it form the initial mRNA portion soon after attachment by reading the promoter region? Or should it slide across the DNA then ...
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Why is inbreeding depression universal?

I've seen variations of the statement "inbreeding depression is universal" ad nauseam, but I can't seem to find an explanation as to why it is considered universal. Could somebody clarify or point me ...
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47 views

How does an antisense RNA molecule restore protein function in CF patients?

I am researching a treatment for cystic fibrosis (CF) called Eluforsen and I am trying to understand the mechanism by which an RNA molecule can restore proper protein function. In many research ...
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Do haplotypes have a role to play in the aggression of a human?

there are a couple research papers that connect haplotypes and aggressiveness in canines. Our genes, for example the MAOA gene in the X-chromosome, have also been shown to affect aggression. But can ...
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Why don't retroviruses kill more?

A retrovirus produces thousands of copies in days. If there are 10e12 cells in the body then it will infect all in four days. It would kill all animals in a few days after that. Why don't ...
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Advantages of pain sensation?

The hazards of congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) are well-known. This question is about the obverse: what selective advantage, if any, does the normal sensation of pain confer? I'm thinking of ...
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Breeder's equation and equivalent expressions for narrow-sense heritability

I am trying to model the phenotype of a trait as $X = G + E$, where $G$ and $E$ are the genetic and environmental effects. (I'll ignore the distinction between broad-sense and narrow-sense ...
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How is the exogenous DNA protected from degradation during bacterial transformation?

During transformation, a bacterium can take up DNA from its environment. A small fraction of bacterial species are known to be naturally competent, meaning that they can engage in this sort of ...
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What is the charge of (bacterial) ribosome?

Ribosomes are negatively charged and thus electrostaticaly repelled from DNA. However, I could not find a good reference that would allow me to estimate the magnitude of negative charge on a ribosome. ...
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Does natural selection still increase biological complexity?

I recently read The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins, which I found very interesting. In one of the last chapters, he gives multiple possible explanations to the question "Why did natural selection ...
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Is the lac operon repressed in the presence of both glucose and lactose?

In the presence of both sugars (glucose and lactose) will there be repression of the lac operon completely? I know that more glucose means less cAMP --> less CAP --> less positive regulation, and ...
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Expected $\mu$ and $\sigma^2$ for a phenotypic trait, given heritability h and known parental phenotypic measures?

Say a measurable phenotypic trait has mean $\mu =0$, variance $\sigma^2 = 1$, and heritability $h$, meaning that h*100% of the variation in the population is caused by genetic variation and (1-h)*100% ...
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What is the probability that a gamete will only contain father's chromosomes

As it is depicted in most textbooks, cross-over does not occur between the two "outer" sister chromatids. By independent assortment during Meiosis I, there is 1/2^23 chance that all father's ...
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762 views

Question about different gametes that can be produced

I have a question from a past exam that asks the following: "For the organism of genotype AABbCcDDEe (homozygous for 2 genes, heterozygous for 3 genes), how many different types of gametes will be ...
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Could Cyanobacteria farms help dilute pollutants in the atmosphere

If I understand correctly, roughly ~2.8 billion years ago cyanobacteria started pumping large amounts of oxygen into the atmosphere. Using modern industrial processes could this be emulated by ...
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What is an operon?

What is an operon in a eukaryotic cell, and how does it regulate the expression of genes? I've already read Wikipedia, but it is not enough clear to me. Unfortunately my knowledge in genetics are very ...
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How many generations are required for a specific neutral mutation to reach fixation?

In population genetics, the term “time to fixation” is defined as the time it takes for a specific mutation to appear in a population, plus the time required for this mutation to spread throughout ...
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Why do men have nipples?

I'd be tempted to call nipples in men vestigial, but that suggests they have no modern function. They do have a function, of course, but only in women. So why do men (and all male mammals) have them?
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Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium for SNPs

I have a SNP stats file structure, which contains all information about genotypes and imputed SNP/INDEL imputation qualities, allele frequencies and minor allele assignment. ...
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Balancing selection vs introgression?

Balancing selection can maintain polymorphisms in natural populations for extended periods of evolutionary time. However, in this paper, Dannemann et al. 2016 identify three archaic haplotypes in the ...
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Gene APOA2 SNP rs5082 alleles are A or G, but papers describe it with CC and TT?

rs5082 is a SNP in the APOA2 gene. It is associated with obesity and heart disease risk. According to this article the alleles can be A or G https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/snp/rs5082#frequency_tab Why ...
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Examples of environmentally influenced gene-expression in humans?

In discussions of the relevant importance of genetic and environmental influences on the development of the individual, it's often stated that the genetic and environmental influences interact. An ...
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Why we need an egg cell donor and a surrogate mother in an organism cloning process?

Could a whole set of artificial organism-cloning process only be operated on the somatic nuclear donor ,which means for example ,can we extract the somatic nuclear from animal "A" and put it into the ...
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Fertilization of the human egg- where does our centrosome come from?

Is there a centrosome in a human egg cell? Is the reason why the egg cell remains paused before meiosis 2 because there isn't a centrosome, and it only divides when the sperm fertilizes it thus it can ...
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What are the disadvantages of myelin

The myelination of axons has plenty of advantages. It increases signal speed in axons, and thereby reduces reaction times. This is, of course, very good for the survival of the animal in question. ...
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x-linked recessive inheritance and correlation for males

I was inspired by a discussion in this thread. Wikipedia lists a number of disorders linked to recessive genes on the x-chromosome. One typical example is red-green color blindness. Now wikipedia says ...
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More efficient method of calculation genotype or phenotype ratios rather than doing a trihybrid punnett square or forked-line method?

Is there any other more efficient method of predicting ratios of offspring phenotypes or genotypes than doing a trihybrid Punnett square or forked-line diagram? Or are those two methods really the ...
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How to calculate percentage of DNA that ancestors contributed?

In David Reich's book "Who we are and how we got here" there is a graph explaining that more we go back in our ancestors generations, the least we have chances to have any DNA inherited from one of ...
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How does the colinearity of the HOX genes determine the body plan of an organism?

I was recently reading about colinearity in the HOX genes that give an organism its high-level body plan (where the order of the HOX genes on the chromosome follow the head-to-tail order of body ...
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Does gene editing have any technical cross-species limits?

How far could you go in cross-species gene editing? Is it possible for example to introduce plant genes into human DNA and vice versa? Question: How is gene editing limited by the "donor" and "...
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Can men with Klinefelter syndrome produce chromosomally normal sperm?

Individuals with Klinefelter syndrome are XXY. Even though sperm counts are low some individuals can generate enough to be used in IVF and have offspring. Does this mean that when sperm are formed, ...

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