Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Double and single stripe in snake [closed]

[![genetics question][1]][1] See image below [1]: https://i.stack.imgur.com/7RBb2.png
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The Perfect Predator? [closed]

I’m not a biology major or even studying it in any way so I apologize if this makes no sense. I’m curious, if say the Jurassic Park team came up to you and asked you to genetically engineer the ...
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3 primers to know if Homozygous, Heterozygous or WT

In this imaginary experiment, I am using T-DNA to make an insertional mutagenesis that will get randomly inserted into the DNA where it might get inserted within a gene, disrupting it. In order to get ...
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Why is the number of cells virtually a constant?

Going back to highschool, I learnt about mitosis: in order to renew their cells, eucaryots' cells divide themselves into two copies. But my course didn't cover what moderate the replication. By ...
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Bowhead whale lifespan — can they be sure about the maximum?

I was very intrigued when it was established that this species can live over 200 years. I recently read articles in which the very specific maximum age of 268 years (iirc) is their max lifespan based ...
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Cystic Fibrosis Genetic Risk Determination

Let's say Jane has Cystic Fibrosis and we know her brother doesn't. What are the chances of her brother's future child having CF? (The chances of Cystic Fibrosis in the general population can be taken ...
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gene mutation occurs on two strands of DNA or just one strand?

Suppose we have one strand with 3'-AAA-5' and the other strand is 5'-TTT-3'. So when point mutation occurs, does it happen to two strands at the same time? e.g. 3'-AAA-5' becomes 3'-AGA-5' and 5'-TTT-...
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Standard notation for crossings (female, male)

Is there any standard for the notation of a crossing (hybrid) which tells me which part is the mother and which is the father? Example StrainA: egg cell ...
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Can autosomal inheritance follow the rules of linked inheritance?

Sex-linked inheritance occurs, as the name implies, on sex chromosomes, mostly the X chromosomes. Sex-linked inheritance is particularly interesting due to the fact that the set of possible final ...
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How could I make my fish gold?

I'm doing research on how the pigmentation of fish. I want to know how could you change it with the help of genetic modification. I have some Silver Dollar fish (Metynnis argenteus) and I want to make ...
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Questions regarding transformation in bacterial cells

First off, in transformation the donor DNA aligns itself with the complementary bases in the recipient DNA. Now a "perfect" alignment of the donor DNA ( Sorry if my terminologies are ...
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Inheritance of FEVR (Genetic Disease)

If a woman has FEVR and is affected by the disease, what are the chances of her passing the disease to future generations. I read somewhere from a credible source like NIH(I couldn't find the link ...
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Can Taq polymerase be stored with PCR primers?

I don't think it's possible for TAQ to be stored with the primers, but I'm not sure. This storage wouldn't be long-term (a few days, or a week at most). Thoughts?
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Why does the DNA of Bacillus subtilis not contain DNA families of 20-37 members?

I am reading the book "Molecular biology of the Cell, 6th edition" and in chapter one page 18 the following figure is included I am presuming this figure represents all genes within the ...
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How to figure out frequency of genotypes in generation n+1 AFTER figuring out the recombinants?

I have something that I want to make sure that it makes sense. I am not an expert on population genetics For example: I have population at generation 1 individuals : (A,A,B,D) I know that there was 1 ...
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What is neutral theory of evolution?

The question is not about the very basics, but more about where the line separating the neutral theory from the rest of population genetics lies. One often reads/hears claims that "the findings ...
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In theory, would it be possible to genetically engineer an adult to experience more pleasure or (physical) pain?

(Not sure if this is too close to be acceptable, but this is similar to a question I asked in the neuroscience/psychology stack exchange, but with a focus on the genetic aspect. Might be best to check ...
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Should I consider one or two DNA chains to find how many nucleotides are in a gene?

I am trying to solve an exercise. How many nucleotides does a gene contain if information about 287 amino acids is encoded in it? What is the molecular mass and length of this gene? AFAIK, I have to ...
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Why does this study about genetic likelihood of COVID hospitalization not associate risk to base pairs?

In the study "Genetic mechanisms of critical illness in Covid-19", (free to download) the authors share their findings on which genomes seem to be associated with an increased likelihood of ...
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Can one derive COVID-19 risk from a cheap consumer genetic test like 23andme?

Studies have found genes associated with a significantly higher risk of severe COVID-19, some of them claiming it to be 1.6 times the general risk. They mention genes at markers such as rs35044562, ...
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Can the mutation rate vary for individuals of the same species, growing in similar environments?

Suppose we consider several populations who originally inherited their genome from the same ancestor, and that we put for a few thousands generations in similar environments. Could the mutation rate ...
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How do ribosomes know not to translate non-coding RNA?

I'm unclear as to the molecular mechanism whereby mRNA is translated into proteins, but non-coding RNA is not similarly translated. How do ribosomes know not to translate non-coding RNA?
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What is meant by 'genes overlapping inherited structural variants'?

I am reading a journal paper about genes that are related to autism, and I have come across the following statement: To assess commonality of biological function among rare risk alleles, we compared ...
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What is the difference between a paralog and an isoform?

I am reading a journal paper about the protein kinase GSK3 and I have come across the following statement: Although commonly referred to as isoforms, GSK3α and GSK3β are actually paralogs, homologous ...
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Sextuplet corn (Zea mays with branched ear)

In 2019 I planted some sweet corn next to some Hopi blue flint type corn. Of course my mistake was apparent once I started to see the ears. The closer the two types were to each other, the more they ...
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What does 21q21.1-q21.2 mean?

I am reading a journal paper about the association between NCAM2 and autism, and I have come across the following: We performed microarray analysis and identified a 1.6-Mb deletion of 21q21.1-q21.2, ...
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What is a proximal deletion breakpoint?

I am reading a journal paper about the relationship between NCAM2 and autism. I have come across the following statement in the paper: Based on analysis utilizing the UCSC Genome Browser (hg18, build ...
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What do they mean by “most single-gene traits are recessive.” How can a gene be recessive; isn’t it an allele which can be recessive or dominant?

Here’s the paragraph pg. 45 of “Principle of Neural Science”: “Although most single-gene traits are recessive, rearrangements that lead to duplication or deletion of multiple genes often have dominant ...
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What is a 21q21 deletion?

I am reading a journal paper about the relationship between the protein NCAM2 and autism, and I have come across the following statement: We report three patients affected with neurodevelopmental ...
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metaphors for explaining the role of DNA in the cell [closed]

Various metaphors are used to explain the central role of DNA in a cell to laypersons. These include blueprint, recipe, catalogue, instruction manual etc. I even heard someone describing DNA as a '...
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What is the impact of selection on orthologous and paralogous genes? How would this impact differ in different regions of protein coding genes?

Since paralogs increase the size of the genome and provide more opportunity for the evolution of novel characteristics, would they be more prone to selection?
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Can Cas13 edit DNA

Can Cas13 be used to edit DNA or is it only for RNA? I have tried looking at literature and my understanding is that it can only edit RNA.
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What does allelomorph mean?

Is there any difference between allele and allelomorph since most websites call them the same. If they are same then why two different term?
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Some related questions about DNA differences in a single organism

If you took a DNA sample from someone's brain and that same persons liver at more or less the same time, would that DNA - all else being equal (e.g. no mutations from radiation) - be exactly the same? ...
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Reproduction in animals

Humans have acquired knowledge about their environment through many observations. Today, humans have wide variety of resources to gain knowledge about reproduction in human beings and other ...
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Why is a solution of cesium chloride used in Meselson & Stahl's DNA replication experiment?

Centrifugation involves separating particles of different sizes, masses, density and etc. In the experiment, the DNA macromolecules are suspended in a solution of cesium chloride gradient and then ...
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When there is incomplete dominance of one allele, is one allele still considered recessive?

When you have incomplete dominance between two alleles of a gene (say, on two different tail lengths blending into an intermediate tail length or two rose colours blending together), can you still ...
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What does γ mean before a gene name?

I am reading the following paper and I have come across the following statement: It has been demonstrated that the phosphorylation of histone H2AX-Ser139 to form γH2AX. I am not sure what the γ ...
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Hardy-Weinberg principle

The following paragraph on Wikipedia about the Hardy-Weinberg principle is bothering me. It should be mentioned that the genotype frequencies after the first generation need not equal the genotype ...
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Question about probability of being a heterozygous carrier

A 26-year-old woman of Norwegian descent seeks genetic counseling. Her brother died at age eight of documented cystic fibrosis. Both of their parents are deceased. The woman undergoes DNA testing for ...
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How did Rna replicate according to Rna World Hypothesis?

I was studying Rna World Hypothesis in Khan Academy, and there is a line..... The RNA world hypothesis suggests that life on Earth began with a simple RNA molecule that could copy itself without help ...
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Question regarding genetic variance and heritability

According to early studies (performed by Wright) on guinea pig coat color, the total variance in a randomly mating strain was 0.573. The variance in an inbred strain was 0.340. From correlations ...
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Is there any evidence that humans isolated from each other genetically are less able to produce viable offspring?

I would guess that before a new species originates, members of subgroups might have difficulty in interbreeding. Is this possible?
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Why doesnt the SARS-Cov-2 affect other animals?

Why doesn't the coronavirus affect animals like dogs and cows? I know that the SARS-CoV-2 is a zoonotic virus i.e. it can affect both humans and other animals. I also know that the DNA composition ...
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Clarifying distinction between genetic recombination , translocation. and transposition

Having thought about the distinciton between these terms I have come up with the following definitions, are these correct? Translocation describes the relocation of a chromosomal segment to a ...
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Can Euchromatin convert into Heterochromatin?

I know that Heterochromatin can convert into Euchromatin but is the reverse possible? If yes, then How?
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what kind of dinucleotides can be considered important from a mutational point of view other than CpG islands?

CpG islands are regions with an high frequency of CpG (Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine) sites. The usual formal definition is that of a region with at least 200 bp, a GC percentage greater than 50% and an ...
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How does permanently modifying human DNA work? And how does it impact procreation?

So I read an article about a metabolic disease being treated with gene therapy, where they inserted corrective dna into the patient. https://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/dna-permanent-change-...
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if an SNP were edited using CRISPR What are the chances that, absent artificial selection, wild type alleles would reemerge?

I am researching a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) SNP RS324420 and FAAH out microdeletion that together lead to reduced pain sensitivity and reduced anxiety (Moreira et al 2008). The causative ...
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Why are parents of contrasting genotypes involved for a reciprocal cross? [closed]

In a reciprocal cross, we try to determine whether a trait is sex-linked Or not... One thing I couldn't understand was that, why are parents of contrasting genotypes involved? Does that mean that at ...

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