Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Could Cyanobacteria farms help dilute pollutants in the atmosphere

If I understand correctly, roughly ~2.8 billion years ago cyanobacteria started pumping large amounts of oxygen into the atmosphere. Using modern industrial processes could this be emulated by ...
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How does post-transcriptional editing work?

Since exons in vertebrate genomes are generally separated from each other by introns, and since indiscriminate translation would produce non-functional proteins, vertebrate genomes have mechanisms for ...
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62 views

Does natural selection still increase biological complexity?

I recently read The Selfish Gene by Richard Dawkins, which I found very interesting. In one of the last chapters, he gives multiple possible explanations to the question "Why did natural selection ...
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Examples of Genetic/DNA Redundancy in Humans and “Junk DNA”

Upon thinking of a separate concept in computer science I found myself pondering the idea of redundant DNA. I am also quite aware of the concept of "junk" DNA which does not code for anything(as far ...
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Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium for SNPs

I have a SNP stats file structure, which contains all information about genotypes and imputed SNP/INDEL imputation qualities, allele frequencies and minor allele assignment. ...
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Does a low yield of RNA effect the results of subsequent experiments?

I am extracting RNA from brain tissue and I am getting a concentration of 500 ng/µL when measured with a nanodrop. I dilute the pellet in 20 µL of water. When my colleague does the same protocol ...
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113 views

How many generations are required for a specific neutral mutation to reach fixation?

In population genetics, the term “time to fixation” is defined as the time it takes for a specific mutation to appear in a population, plus the time required for this mutation to spread throughout ...
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1answer
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What are the disadvantages of myelin

The myelination of axons has plenty of advantages. It increases signal speed in axons, and thereby reduces reaction times. This is, of course, very good for the survival of the animal in question. ...
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More efficient method of calculation genotype or phenotype ratios rather than doing a trihybrid punnett square or forked-line method?

Is there any other more efficient method of predicting ratios of offspring phenotypes or genotypes than doing a trihybrid Punnett square or forked-line diagram? Or are those two methods really the ...
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How to calculate percentage of DNA that ancestors contributed?

In David Reich's book "Who we are and how we got here" there is a graph explaining that more we go back in our ancestors generations, the least we have chances to have any DNA inherited from one of ...
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Can men with Klinefelter syndrome produce chromosomally normal sperm?

Individuals with Klinefelter syndrome are XXY. Even though sperm counts are low some individuals can generate enough to be used in IVF and have offspring. Does this mean that when sperm are formed, ...
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Why do individuals vary in the number of SNPs for a given gene ( e.g. FOXO3A )?

Individual #1, sequenced by 23andMe and then inputed into Promethease for SNP data has the following SNP output: 1) rs1935949(C;T) 2) rs2802292(G;T) 3) rs13217795(C;T) 4) rs13220810(C;T) 5) rs2764264(...
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lifespan of Nautilus compared to other cephalopods

Most cephalopods live uncharacteristically short lifes compared to other creatures of their size and intelligence. The octopuses with the longest lifespan for example, the giant pacific octopus, only ...
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62 views

Evolution of hunting behavior of parasitoid wasps

Wasps in the genus Pepsis lay their eggs in a specific region on a species of tarantula and their larvae eat the tarantula organs in a specific sequence to keep it alive as long as possible. How ...
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62 views

What are the implications/predictions of the selfish gene theory?

Are there any testable predictions or implications of the selfish gene theory? Or it is just interesting interpretation of the observations/experimental data? If this theory is not falsifiable and ...
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Genes where both a disabling mutation and copy number amplification cause different genetic diseases

I'm trying to make a list of such genes, because they must be tightly regulated. MeCP2 is one - it causes Rett Syndrome with a disabling mutation, but causes MeCP2 duplication syndrome if its copy ...
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Is the following hypothesis novel on genetic relatedness of people who communicate frequently?

People who communicate frequently (offline or) online ( or write below the same posts frequently) are closer genetically from the average poster in the specific forums that they do it. Furthermore the ...
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Why do articles talking about the largest study on genetic links to homosexuality claim “There is No Gay Gene”

In spite of later clarifying: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-02585-6 In one, they evaluated more than one million SNPs and looked at whether people who had more SNPs in common with each ...
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1answer
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What is indirect vs direction selection of genes?

As the title suggests, what is the direct and indirect selection of genes. Couldn't find a straightforward answer. Is it the same as direct and indirect fitness?
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Which sample type is more proper for whole genome sequencing in AML patients? Peripheral blood or bone marrow?

I intend to perform whole genome sequencing in AML patients in order to find genomic abnormalities, particularly translocation and gene fusions. However, I am not sure whether it is better to obtain ...
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Frameshift Mutation

With regards to LMNA frameshift mutations further downstream in the tail region, specifically (p.Arg455Gln fs*5) which has yet to be found/recorded in any medical literature...Does anyone have any ...
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Can Huntington's Disease be homozygous dominant?

Can Huntington's Disease be homozygous dominant? I am not sure whether the individual who is homozygous dominant for Huntington's Disease will survive into adulthood, or die when they are infants or ...
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How do mutations of viruses lead to drug resistance?

For instance, after starting zidovudine monotherapy against HIV, resistance develops against the drug because of a point mutation in the RNA transcriptase enzyme to which the drug binds. So how does ...
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1answer
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Gene APOA2 SNP rs5082 alleles are A or G, but papers describe it with CC and TT?

rs5082 is a SNP in the APOA2 gene. It is associated with obesity and heart disease risk. According to this article the alleles can be A or G https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/snp/rs5082#frequency_tab Why ...
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Quantifying the Genetic Basis of Complex Diseases

In general, there are 2 types of diseases for which we understand "causality" very well: Infectious disease, where there is some etiological agent that causes the disease and Monogenic genetic ...
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PCR markers for C57B6

Do you know any primers that can be used to genotype mice and check if they are still C57B6? I'm concerned about genetic drift in my colony. I bought a breeding pair 3 years ago and expanded. I wanna ...
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Parthenogenesis vs. Fertilization. Is a polar body different from an egg?

In Parthenogenesis that happens by automixis "the replication of an egg by meiosis and the transformation of the haploid egg to a diploid cell occur by fusion with a polar body." =https://www....
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Effect of myelination on inteligence in cephalopods

Cephalopods are known for their unique intelligence compared to other invertebrates. The number of neurons of cephalopods is of the order $5*10^8$, similar to dogs. Humans have about $10^{11}$ ...
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ELI5 what is true breeding?

In "Variation under Domestication", Darwin makes several references to the concept of true breeding: They believe that every race which breeds true, let the distinctive characters be ever so slight,...
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1answer
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Analysis of post transplantation lineage tags

I'm having some trouble understanding some bits of a study, mostly about the Sleeping Beauty system and TARIS model, from this paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4408613/ I ...
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62 views

Are there animal species where some females have greater amounts of male-associated qualities than average males?

In the human species, some women ( a meaningful, though not large percentage) are taller and stronger than the average man. Is a similar thing true in the animal kingdom? Are there some meaningful ...
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61 views

What is the substance that tumors release that stimulates growth of blood vessels but suppresses its release from other tumors?

I'm currently in high school and I am working on a cancer research project. My project consists of a cancer, and different ways to treat it. I have a set of benign tumor and I was thinking of ...
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How can we say that a gene is spacio-temporally regulated?

Gene expression is depending on the space and time of the cell. How can we distinguish the function of a gene without a chance of changing its expression? And also how is it possible to find the exact ...
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What controls specific gene silencing during cell differentiation?

I am intrigued by the fact that all cells of our body use the same DNA. How do the cells differentiate during the post fertilisation divisions? I read about gene silencing, which can be an answer to ...
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How does a drastic change to the genome persist and spread?

I just read the article on songbirds in the November, 2019 Scientific American. The article explains that songbirds have an extra chromosome, called GRC (germ-line restricted chromosome) that other ...
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How Incomplete dominance can be explained at molecular level?

What is exactly happening at the molecular level when two genes constitute incomplete dominance? Whether the protein formed from each of the genes constitute a new protein having a different function ...
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Way to analyze the functional relevance of human mutation in vivo

In the literature I „found“ a pointmutation in the protein coding sequence of an enzyme subunit to be a risk factor for a certain disease. It is not known whether the mutation leads to loss or gain ...
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Study on Introns?

I am curious whether there has been a study done on the effects of removing introns. Specifically, what happens if you genetically edit a eukaryote genome to no longer contain introns? Or maybe just a ...
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Genetics and Heredogram - Proving the teacher is wrong

I want serious help here. I'm in first year of medical school and I jut had my second test in Genetics. One question of the test gave us a heredogram and asked us what was the most probable type of ...
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Brain evolution in the age of the caesarian

I have just been reading an account of the evolution of human intelligence in Matthew Syed’s recent book on diversity, called “Rebel Minds”. He is not the originator of this idea, but he suggests ...
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Is evolution a means to an end?

In "The Red Queen", Matt Ridley frequently argues that evolution is a means to an end, without providing much explanation for such a big statement. Is this a fact in biology? Do species mutate their ...
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Do some genes follow Rock-Paper-Scissors model of dominance?

Assuming there are at least 3 alleles of the gene $G$ in total - $G_R$, $G_S$ and $G_P$ - is there any gene for which the following is true? $G_R$ is more dominant than $G_S$. $G_S$ is more dominant ...
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Rods and Cones functioning in Achromatopsia affected individual

When facing genetically caused Achromatopsia have the cones still been developed by the individual or does the latter completely lack them? I have looked for evidence both online and on some more ...
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Identify which of the two columns A and B represent gene and chromosome

I am a bit confused on this question in my Textbook (STD 12) and have got all sorts of answers on searching it but I am still not able to comprehend it literally. Can someone answer this and explain ...
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Why is sickle cell trait expressed in half of all cells rather than all cells containing half-sickled haemoglobin

If sickle cell trait is due to be heterozygous with respect to a single gene mutation on the haemoglobin β-globin chain, why is it the case that ~50% of RBCs are sickled rather than half of the ...
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Which trait does the given Pedigree chart show? [closed]

I have a doubt in this pedigree chart , according to me it should be autosomal dominant. But the ans given is X linked recessive , in the case of X linked recessive one daughter should be carrier and ...
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How much DNA (or genes) do homo-sapiens and ursus arctos (brown bear) share?

How much DNA (or genes) do homo-sapiens and ursus arctos (brown bear) share? There are articles online that indicate that humans share xxx% of DNA with Chimpanzees, bananas, and other assorted ...
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Is every flower on a plant unique?

I've noticed on my dahlia plants that sometimes there's a flower which looks completely different then the rest . Either color or structural. I dig these bulbs up each fall and keep inside to replant....
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What is the genetic reason that this flower has petals of two different colors?

I have two different varieties of the flower, portulaca: one is bright pink, the other is pure white with pink specks at the centre. Recently a flower bloomed which had 50% of the former and 50% of ...
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Can primers for PCR be duplicated?

Complete beginner question here, don't laugh: If I have some primers that have been synthesized, and I am close to running out of them, is there any way to duplicate them / amplify them / synthesize ...