Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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What percentage of the genetic variance is explained by the 'n'- most important loci?

Introduction Standard models in population genetics look up at the evolution of few loci which impact fitness. The variance in fitness is determined by the genetic variance and the environmental ...
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Genetic expression in interspecific hybrids

Referring to interspecific hybrids, I have the following two questions:- Quoting from wikipedia:- The offspring of an interspecific cross are very often sterile; thus, hybrid sterility prevents ...
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277 views

How to estimate heritability from breeding data

I have a lot of plant-breeding data (tens of thousands of results) that are composed of phenotypes of parents and offspring. The plants however went trough years of selection and it is not balanced. ...
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127 views

Y Chromosome in Ovary Cancer Data

I have been analyzing TCGA Ovary Cancer data. In Somatic Mutation data, there is data of mutations in all the chromosomes (1-22 and X), but amazingly, I have found one (just one) row of Y Chromosome ...
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Inheritance percentiles

I am aware that the average DNA contribution from each grandparent is 25%, while the possible range is 0%-50%. I found a source citing 18%-32% as the "normal" range but this was undefined. I assume ...
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At what rate do chromosomal rearrangements occur?

How often do chromosomal rearrangements occur? I am interested about these kind of chromosomal rearrangements that are passed on to the descendants, i.e. germ line chromosomal rearrangements. The ...
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109 views

effect of background selection on promoter regions compared to distant enhancers?

Has anyone looked at the effect of background selection on the levels of conservation of promoter regions compared to distant enhancers? Do promoter regions have a higher conservation due to ...
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ABO allele frequencies: Why use the EM algorithm?

In textbooks and lecture notes and slides posted online, determining allele frequencies using blood type information (ABO), under the assumption of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, is accomplished using ...
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Mechanism behind Philadelphia chromosome translocation?

I was reading up on causative factors of leukemia on medicinenet and I came across the following statement: ...an exchange between chromosomes 9 and 22 leads to what is known as the Philadelphia ...
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Isn't heritability more important to genic capture than just genetic variance?

Rowe & Houle (1996) give two criteria for the selection of costly female choice: Condition dependence of sexually selected traits High genetic variance in condition Regarding heritability, ...
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177 views

Eye color genetics

I am trying to find a model to link the phenotype eye color to its genotypes. I know that there exists a simple model from Davenport, which explains {brown,blue} eyes. Further, there is an extended ...
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1answer
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Why are Chromosome Territories important?

Chromosomes occupy discrete regions of the nucleus, referred to as 'Chromosome Territories'. This spatial organization is emerging as a crucial aspect of gene regulation and genome stability in health ...
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What does “dissection-based microscopy” mean as described here, and how can it give genetic information?

The Phys.org article 'DNA microscopy' offers entirely new way to image cells references the new Open Access paper in Cell DNA Microscopy: Optics-free Spatio-genetic Imaging by a Stand-Alone Chemical ...
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Regulation of LBD33 genes Arabidopsis. If LBD 33 gene is up-regulated by auxin then why does expression decrease when increasing auxin concentration?

I have a question regarding the regulation of lateral boundary domain genes in Arabidopsis (specifically LBD33). I am an undergraduate student trying to understand the results of a lab where I measure ...
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62 views

Could we breed a dog to the size of a thumb?

We've gotten from a wolf to a small breed such as a chihuahua. So the question is: can we go even further and have a dog as small as a thumb (adult dog)? If not, what are the factors that limit the ...
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110 views

How does the new discovery that mitochondrial dna is inherited from both parents change population genetics and other dates?

This new study seem to have pretty much proven that mtDNA is inherited from both parents. I assume that this would lead to most age estimates of ancient human ...
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Offspring of parents with different number of chromosomes

Many papers report that dog-whelks (Nucella lapillus) show a distinct chromosomal polymorphism between populations of 2n = 24 up to 2n = 36. Could somebody please tell me how many chromosomes the F1 ...
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47 views

Relationship between inbreeding and sterility in humans

In general, inbred individuals tend to be at increased risk of sterility as shown in cows (Gonzales-Recio, 2007) or in leghorns (Nordskog and Cheng, 1988) for examples. I only have very quickly looked ...
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51 views

How are animal patterns encoded in the dna?

After seeing the patterns on the feathers of a argusianus argus pheasant (shown below), I am curious where is the information that encodes a pattern for a particular bird, and what form is this ...
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Why are animal mitochondrial genomes so conserved and small in comparison to those of plants?

Background Levings and Brown (1989): Higher plant mitochondrial genomes are much larger and more complex than those of other organisms. They vary in size from about 200 kb in Brassica species ...
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23 views

Condition for a genetically modified group of cell to remain and to spread?

I was wondering: when a treatment modifies a group of gene (like in gene therapy), what makes a group of cell remains? I mean, when a cell divide itself to create new ones, if a cell was initially ...
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40 views

Number of hair cycles in humans

I've seen several websites claim the amount of hair cycles a follicle will go through is predetermined at around 25-30 complete cycles. Is there any genetic evidence to validate this claim? How can ...
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80 views

How many generations apart can a DNA test for blood relations be valid?

Suppose an American suspects he is a descendant of George Washington and he has a strand of hair of George Washington. Can a DNA test be done to prove that he is indeed a true descendant of the great ...
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140 views

Difference between Classic Satellite DNA and Microsatellites/Minisatellites

I am very new to this community and have a basic question about repetitive DNA sequences. How is different (classic) satellite DNA from microsatellites/minisatellites? All textbooks give concrete ...
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question about fast/slow muscle twitch fibers

Here are my questions (I have several) 1) Are the fast twitch muscle fibers dominant or recessive as opposed to the slow? 2) Are people of mixed race/greatest genetic diversity in their background, ...
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77 views

Is Phenylalanine hydroxylase gene biallelic?

Since the PAH gene is biallelic, and there are many disease causing mutations, most PKU patients are compound heterozygotes. (paper) Compound heterozygosity in medical genetics is the condition ...
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Are epicanthic folds a dominant trait?

My state (Tripura) originally had a mostly mongoloid-feature-possessing population (ethnic group: Tripuri). Recently a large number of non-mongoloid people (ethnic group: Bengali) have migrated to ...
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Question about genetic recombination

I am having some difficulty understanding a few things about genetic recombination, in part because of confusion from different diagrams in books. First of all, I wanted to verify whether I have ...
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66 views

Why might the chirality of gastopods be dominantly dextral?

This wikipedia page on gastropods provides a definition of chirality, and briefly describes the genetic mechanisms behind why a shell is wound left (sinistral) or right (dextral) handed. It also ...
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Could trees be engineered to produce rainfall-nucleators?

Scientists are using genetic engineering to make trees produce more terpenes. Is it possible to genetically engineer trees to produce more hygroscopic volatile organic compounds? These trees could be ...
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114 views

What is the effective population size of a simple two deme metapopulation?

I am confused as to how to compute the effective population size $N_e$ of a theoretical structured population. Let's consider here a simple case study. Imagine a 2-deme metapopulation. Each deme is ...
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261 views

Population size and genetic drift - What are the evidences?

Wright-Fisher model From the Wright-Fisher model of genetic drift, the random sampling of allele from one generation to the next is taken from a binomial distribution with parameters $2N$ and $p$, ...
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114 views

Is $F_{ST}$ a probability and a correlation coefficient?

$F_{ST}$ is one of the most famous and most important statistics of all of evolutionary biology. Yet, many people misunderstand it or misuse the classical results from the literature on $F_{ST}$ (...
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Fur genetics - what are the causes of fur colour decision?

This Australian Shepherd puppy's father is a black-tri; mother is a blue merle. What would cause this dog to have so much white color? Are there any general explanations as to why this might happen ...
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How do sex biased genes evolve?

I am wondering how do genes become sex-biased? that is, how does a gene evolve expression which is regulated in a sex-specific manner (assuming no effect from sex-limited Y/W chromosomes). I ...
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67 views

Do genetic modifications exist to enhance the taste of tomatoes?

GM tomatoes seem less tasty. Has there been any research on GMOs with regard to taste? Can scientists introduce a gene to, let's say, tomatoes, which would enhance the flavour? If not, why?
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Problem involving selfing (inbreeding it with itself) a plant to generate purebred lines

I am working on a past exam problem where the first bit is as follows A plant is repeatably selfed to generate inbred lines. Let $\mathbb{P}(He|He)$ denote the probability that a heterozygous ...
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174 views

Modified Mendelian Ratios Problem

I'm studying modified Mendelian ratios. I've got a theoretical problem that I'm stumped on: A species of bird may have normal wings, or a mutation that causes frazzled wings. I do 15 identical ...
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263 views

Gibson assembly using NeBuilder

I am supposed to construct a plasmid that contains features from two other plasmids. My strategy is to generate three fragments form the two other plasmids. I was encouraged to try Gibson assembly, ...
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79 views

What are polytene bands, and why are they there?

Drosophila polytene chromosomes have been particularly useful in genetic research, as it made cytogenetic gene mapping possible with very little effort. This was primarily accomplished due to polytene ...
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2answers
2k views

Advantages of pain sensation?

The hazards of congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) are well-known. This question is about the obverse: what selective advantage, if any, does the normal sensation of pain confer? I'm thinking of ...
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What is the charge of (bacterial) ribosome?

Ribosomes are negatively charged and thus electrostaticaly repelled from DNA. However, I could not find a good reference that would allow me to estimate the magnitude of negative charge on a ribosome. ...
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What the “due to” means in the definition of heritability?

According to Wray and Visscher, heritability is formally defined as the proportion of phenotypic variation (VP) that is due to variation in genetic values (VG). My question is, what does “due to” ...
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58 views

Recombination due to crossover, outcome?

Garden peas normally have 7 pairs of chromosomes (n=7, 2n=14). Please calculate how many different types of gametes can be produced through the meiotic process if no crossover happens. If cross-over ...
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Need help to determine % difference between DNA-strand from two different haplotypes. Known nucleotide diversity and more

Backround: 229 DNA sequences 493 bp in length Haplotype diversity: 0.9956 Average number of nucleotide differences: 12.50544 Polymorphic sites: 145 Nucleotide diversity: 0.02426 Is it possible ...
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163 views

what is the difference between homozygous and heterozygous duplication?

In a genetic test result it's written homozygous duplication or heterozygous duplication Does it mean four copies of the ...
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65 views

What are the different types of SNPs?

When I search for this online I get answers such as substitutions, deletions, insertions etc. But I mean in the sense that I have been reading different terms infront of the word SNP such as: lead SNP,...
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53 views

Which enzyme is Nick Lane referring to?

In Life Ascending the author, Nick Lane, refers to an enzyme in his introduction: '' It concerns an enzyme (a protein that catalyses a chemical reaction) that is so central to life that it is found ...
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Does the male and female always split evenly the genetic material given to their offspring?

Are there animals known to have a different percentage of splitting of genetic material, like the male give 75% and the female just 25%. I know that drone bees have only genetic material from their ...
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Honeybee relatedness: workers and nephews

This is my first question on this site. If anyone could help me get to the bottom of it, I would be very grateful. I am currently working on a lecture on kinship in animals. It goes without saying, ...

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