Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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170 views

Why are two forward and reverse priming sites depicted here? what do they do?

This question is in regard to the baculovirus expression system. (source: amsbio.com) Why do we need to generate primers for the polyhedrin promoter and the baculovirus? Primers are needed to ...
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Why do ladybugs have a different number of points on their backs

Everytime I see a ladybug I ask myself this question. Why does every ladybug have a different amount of points on its back? Is it because of its age? Or because of its genes? Is it inheritable?
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Is DNA actually like source code repository?

So after reading articles like "People Use Just 8.2% of Their DNA" etc., and thinking a bit... I got this idea: What if DNA is actually like a software source code repository? You know, it has "...
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Why are some genes dominant over others? What is the mechanism behind it?

If I have a brown eye gene which encodes the protein that is responsible for the brown color and have a blue eye gene as well, what is the reason that my eye color is brown? How does one gene maintain ...
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What are primary reasons for the failure to localise/anchor sequences in genome assemblies?

My question concerns the incorporation of individual sequence reads into chromosomes during gene sequencing projects, especially those with larger genomes such as Drosophila melanogaster or Homo ...
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Are these cats calico?

Calico cats are cats that have 3 fur colors and are always female or males two X chromosomes. I've seen many cats that will have 2 fur colors (one of them is usually white) and another, third, color ...
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Absorbance anomaly

The standard concentration for absorbance of 1 for ssDNA is 33 ug/ml, while for RNA it is 40 ug/ml. I can't find the reason for the difference in this value for these two macro-molecules. My professor ...
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Intein Splicing

Currently I am trying to read and understand this paper on intein splicing. https://sci-hub.tw/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22001202 However, I'm a little confused with Figure 4. Why do the ...
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Control of protein by DNA sequence with respect to RNA polymerase

I want to know how can a particular base sequence like the TATA box in the -10 region of a gene is able to regulate a protein's function like RNA polymerase? What kind of interaction really occurs?Is ...
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How close genetically is the most human-like chimpanzee to the most chimp-like human?

I understand that: Chimpanzees are the closest species to humans genetically. Only 1%-6% of their genes are different. Within any species there is genetic diversity, i.e. no two individuals have the ...
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What is the gene for height?

Height doesn't seem to be linked to sex, which is surprising. I have seen ways to predict children's height and it involves taking the average of both parents height. Upon my search, I did not find ...
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How to download different kinds of data from NCBI eutils?

I have been researching NCBI eutils and wish to get some 'big data' from it. I know that I can construct queries to query one of (I think) 8 databases, like this: ...
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What's the benefit of the average human body temperature?

Why would the body choose a resting temperature of 36.1c to 37.2c? It seems a very inefficient mechanism of survival considering the typical ambient temperatures on Earth. If there is a benefit to ...
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Have humans finished evolving?

I thought that massive changes among organisms are over long periods of time. This is caused by, to my knowledge: Evolutionary pressure Natural/artificial selection Mutations Genetic drift Will ...
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Maximum recombination frequency [duplicate]

During the process of crossing over, Why is the maximum possible recombination frequency between two genes equal to 50% and not more than that?
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The space of all human DNAs [closed]

This is both a math and biology question but I think it makes more sense for a biologist to answer it. My question is: what can be said, if anything, about the space of all possible human DNAs (for a ...
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What's the difference between shotgun sequencing and clone based sequencing?

In a lecture during my undergraduate degree we were introduced to the race to complete the human genome. Celera were competing with Sanger and collaborators to sequence the human genome. Celera ...
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What is the difference between silent and synonymous mutations?

Several sources all caution that silent mutations and synonymous substitutions are not the same thing and should not be confused. But they seem to draw different actual distinctions between the terms: ...
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Why can't this be 1st meiotic division non-disjunction as well?

The child has gotten 2 "sick" chromosomes from his dad and 1 healthy from his mom, leaving it with trisomy 13. I can see how this can happen in the second meiotic division of the father but I can ...
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Is Chargaff's rule really applicable?

Chargaff's rules states that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio (base Pair Rule) of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to ...
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Did cats evolve from monkeys ? or vice versa?

Did cats evolve from monkeys? or vice versa? How similar are the genes of cats and monkeys? What is the proof that they are related or that they are not related? Most monkeys climb in trees and ...
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Is Wikipedia a good source of taxonomy? [duplicate]

I have been quite interested in biology lately,and I would like to know whether it is a good choice to look up taxonomic information there.
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What is the smallest number of amino acids required for life?

Is there any hypothesis on the minimum number of amino acids required for life?
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Genetic linkage greater than 50 centimorgans

Classically, the linkage between two loci can be measured in centimorgans (cM), which represents the percent chance that these two loci will recombine an odd number of times (generating a recombinant ...
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1answer
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Possible combinations in the Meiosis' Telophase 1

As you might already know Meiosis is the process in eukaryotic, sexually-reproducing animals that reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell before reproduction $^{[1]}$ One of the reasons why ...
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Why does size decrease across the sequence of human chromosomes?

The following graph shows a decrease in the number of base pairs per chromosome across the sequential set of human chromosomes: Is this because chromosomes were originally numbered by their size on ...
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How can the number of genes increase through evolution?

I am aware of the basics of evolutionary theory, however I don't understand how mutations can add genes over time. Am I correct in thinking that creatures within the same species who mutate to have ...
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What is the instructional language of DNA?

DNA carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses (Wikipedia). Is it already know how ATCG's sequences ...
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Can genes change as we age?

Let's say you're a 23-year-old man who impregnates a woman. Will your genes be the same if you were to impregnate another woman at age 35? Will your genes in those 12 years have changed/mutated/become ...
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Why do most animals never seem to evolve over millenia?

People often say, including those with extensive knowledge in biology, that a certain species of animal will evolve in one way or another: From changing environments. Mutations. Possibly even genetic ...
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Does one parent transmit more DNA to the offspring than the other one?

Does one parent transmit more DNA to the offspring than the other one? Or do both parents always transmit the same amount of genetic material to their offspring? In other words, can a baby be ...
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Why is a heritability coefficient not an index of how “genetic” something is?

On his blog, Eric Turkheimer writes: [T]aken as a number, a unit of analysis, heritability coefficients are funny things to aggregate on such a massive level. What exactly are we supposed to ...
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How does DNA still work after recombination?

If you take two computer programs and randomly swapped pieces from each of them. The result is not going to work. It will just be garbage. If you take two novels and randomly swapped chapters the ...
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1answer
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How much of my ancestry will match with my brother?

Recently, my brother (full sibling) got his ancestry checked from MyHeritageDNA. They have a similar service like 23 and me and I've found out that both companies are offering the basic service almost ...
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Could we detect GMO foods if there were no samples to compare with?

In my understanding, there’s nothing “special” in how a GMO product is composed inside compared to a “natural” product. I mean, still, same principles apply to both: some DNA that controls protein ...
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Do men and women have the same number of genes?

As far as I know, humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, each one which contains a particular amount of genes. But in the "last" pair, men have a XY pair chromosome, and women have a XX pair chromosome. ...
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How can a chromosome translocation in somatic cells lead to disease?

Looking at this picture... (source: nih.gov) ...I get the impression that the part of chromosome is attached to other chromosome, but it is not mutated. When we assume that all genes in the ...
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659 views

Microsatellites and Minisatellites: Which of these form the basis of DNA fingerprinting?

I'm in a fix. Prepare yourself for a long read We've just learned about minisatellites and microsatellites at class (okay, by "learned", I mean we were told their definitions and essentially ...
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Repopullation after a mass extinction [duplicate]

Is it possible to restart the whole human species with less than 10 individual. let say that the whole human species was wipe out of the surface of the earth by a catastrophe only 8 different couple ...
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1answer
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What is the difference between Regulatory Gene and Modifier Gene?

If both controls the expression of another gene by physically or genetically interacting with the target gene, which attributes make "Regulatory gene" different from "Modifier gene" or vice-versa?
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The Viceroy Evolution Paradox [duplicate]

The viceroy butterfly generates a toxin compound which make it distasteful to predators. Biologists agree that the viceroy must have developed this trait as a passive defence mechanism to prevent ...
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what is the difference between homozygous and heterozygous duplication?

In a genetic test result it's written homozygous duplication or heterozygous duplication Does it mean four copies of the ...
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Interpretation of genetic results

Result of genetic testing indicated: c.341del, p.Thr114Lysfs*37. The c.341del probably means:deletion at the cDNA 341 nucleotide. Buy what does the second part:p.Thr114Lysfs*37 ?
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Solving Hardy Weinberg problems

I really fail to understand Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and can't find an easy enough source of information. Can you help me to understand Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? My goal is to be able to solve ...
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Evolution of Wheat

In the evolution of wheat, there are two instances of chromosomal doubling, when Emmer wheat Triticum turgidum was formed from Einkorn wheat, and when Triticum aestivum was formed from Emmer wheat. ...
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Does the law of independent assortment apply to homologous chromosomes or alleles, or both?

My textbook is giving me two definitions 1st def: "random orientation of homologous chromosomes at the metaphase plate in meiosis 1." 2nd def: "alleles for one gene separate into gametes ...
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Why is Turner syndrome a problem?

Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder where one of the X chromosomes is missing. For more details visit the Wikipedia page I don't understand why missing one X chromosome would be harmful. In ...
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Which is the reference 16S rRNA?

Recently, I've stumbled upon a fact, which hasn't bothered me for many years. The fact is that all universal 16S primers are written as "[FR][0-9]+" (in regex notation), that is they have a position ...
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Minor Allele Frequency (MAF) higher than 0.5? [closed]

I have a set of data in PLINK format (*.bed, *.bim and *.fam files). There are around 2000 individuals in my dataset. I used PLINK to calculate allele frequencies in the population: ...
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Is evolution theory falsifiable by whether mutations result in a loss or gain of genetic information? [closed]

If I understand the theory correctly, evolution revolves around the process of adaptation of a being to its environment which results in the increment of survival and reproduction chances for that ...