Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Why would lethal genes evolve?

I've been reading through 'The Selfish Gene' by Dawkins. At a few places in the book he states that incest is damaging because it would give a very high chance of lethal recessive genes becoming ...
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Why do most animals never seem to evolve over millenia?

People often say, including those with extensive knowledge in biology, that a certain species of animal will evolve in one way or another: From changing environments. Mutations. Possibly even genetic ...
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Genetic effects on personality

It is said that genes are partly responsible for the choices we make in our life; our genes help to create our environment, and then that environment can influence our personality. So, beside genes, ...
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Turning publicly available genome data into proteins

I'm a computer scientist who is starting to dabble with biology. My eventual goal is to model different kinds of cells with a computer program. As of right now, I'm just trying to take some smaller ...
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1answer
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Lac operon: How can lactose enter the cell in the absence of lactose permease?

My textbook states that lactose permease...transports lactose into the cell and When lactose is added to the growth medium, the lactose molecules bind to the other site on the repressor protein ...
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(How) can a pink grasshopper exist?

I saw this foto on Reddit recently: Is this possible? How can a grasshopper become like this? Is this just natural genetic mutation?
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What's the benefit of the average human body temperature?

Why would the body choose a resting temperature of 36.1c to 37.2c? It seems a very inefficient mechanism of survival considering the typical ambient temperatures on Earth. If there is a benefit to ...
5
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1answer
289 views

How to turn teosinte into corn?

If I want to turn teosinte into corn, using ancient methods like the Native Americans did, then how much time it takes, and what do I have to do? For the sake of the question, let's assume that time ...
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1answer
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How do I calculate the change in allele frequency in a haploid population under selection?

From this book For simplicity, let us consider a haploid organism and assume that the frequencies of alleles $A_1$ and $A_2$ are given by $x$ and $y=1-x$, respectively. We also assume that the ...
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1answer
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Directed evolution: Point mutation vs Insertion-Deletion vs Shuffling

When attempting enzyme function improvement via Directed Evolution I can see three different strategies to generating variation for the gene sequence: Point mutations Insertion / Deletions Shuffling ...
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Why asexual reproduction?

When I took a course on genetics and evolution, I learned that recombination and sexual reproduction is advantageous compared to asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction allows more combinations of ...
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1answer
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What hair color will result in someone inheriting both blond and ginger genes?

Both the genes for blond hair and ginger hair are recessive, so they need both parents to give the same gene for it to take affect. What happens when a person has 1 copy of a recessive gene and ...
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1answer
202 views

What is cognate miRNA?

I understand what miRNA are, but I'm unsure of what cognate means. Looking at this post, it seems that a cognate miRNA is a known miRNA vs. a recently discovered/possible miRNA. Is this thinking on ...
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1answer
654 views

How could one calculate the gene flow between two populations?

Imagine there are two populations X and Y, and for each population you have the genotypes of each individual in that population (e.g. Aa, AA, aa, etc.), but for multiple loci (e.g. AABb). How could ...
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How do proteins and genes participate in learning?

I am a computer scientist that studies biology and bioinformatics. In the last weeks, I have been trying to study new research directions, and I would like to deepen my knowledge on the role and ...
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1answer
842 views

Macroevolution vs. microevolution

Where is the line usually drawn between macroevolution and microevolution? I thought that, although similar processes govern both, the line was at the species level, with macroevolution being changes ...
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1answer
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What are the exceptions to Mendel's laws?

What are the exceptions to the $-$ Law of dominance Law of independent assortment Law of segregation My knowledge: Exception of law of dominance: Incomplete dominance In incomplete dominance ...
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Is there selection against long proteins and long genes?

Background thought Titin and TTN Titin is the largest protein in the human genome with 33423 amino acids. Titin is coded by the gene TTN that must be at least $3 \cdot 33423 \approx 100kb$ long. ...
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How to find suitable qRTPCR reference gene for a inflammatory response experiment?

I have tried several housekeeping genes – Hprt, β-actin and GAPDH, to analyze the relative expression of a cytokine for measuring the inflammatory local response in mice ears. However, all ...
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1answer
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How does GC-content evolve?

Background GC-content refers to the frequency of base pairs that are either C or G in the genome, or in other words the number of GC base pairs divided by the addition of the number of GC base pairs ...
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Color vision across species

Is it true that color vision is sex-linked for all species with binary sexes? Is there an evolutionary significance to the fact that color vision is X-linked in humans? E.g., only female humans can be ...
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Do eukaryote cells contain DNA that isn't part of a chromosome or located in the mitochondria?

I specify eukaryote in the title, but I'm also interested if this question isn't applicable to eukaryote cells in general but is to humans. I was reading "RNA-seq: An assessment of technical ...
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1answer
90 views

Down syndrome in subsaharan populations

What is the rate of occurrences of Down syndrome in subsaharan African populations? Is it the same as in white European populations? An interesting hypothesis came to my mind: Could it be that Down ...
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3answers
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Effect of a doubling of the start codon in a gene

I am learning about frameshift mutations. Frameshifts can occur due to a nucleotide deletion. Suppose that due to a frameshift, because of a deletion somewhere upstream from the original start codon, ...
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1answer
787 views

Genetics and blue eyes

Blue eyes are a recessive trait in humans. I read an article recently which stated: People with blue eyes have a single, common ancestor, according to new research. A team of scientists has ...
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Is intelligence (or mental ability) genetically transferred (inherited characteristic) from the parent to the offspring or is it an acquired trait?

The question is simple- whether our mental ability i.e. ability to acquire and store knowledge and comprehend and analyse the stored bits, an inherited trait (i.e. genetically transmitted from the ...
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What is Mendelian Segregation and how is it related to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

I can't find the exact definition of Mendelian segregation. In addition, I am wondering how it is related to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
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Genetic pros or consequences of children born to parents of mixed nationalities?

I've gleaned a potentially flawed impression over time that a more diverse gene pool should, in theory, result in healthier progeny. Something about dominant genes promoted over recessive genes.. As ...
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3answers
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Can I figure out the identity of my grandparent from this information? [closed]

I know all my family up to my grandparents, with the exception of the grandfather on my mother's side. At the time my mother was conceived, my grandmother was having an affair so no one in my family ...
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1answer
815 views

Is protein production doubled if you have homozygous dominant genes as opposed to heterozygous genes?

At school we were taught in quite simplistic terms. We were told that there is a dominant and recessive type of every gene and that if the dominant gene was present, the protein is produced and if it ...
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1answer
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Hardy-Weinberg sex linked formula

The "big five" assumptions are the ones listed in the main text. However, the basic formulation of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium also relies on a few other assumptions; Allele and genotype frequencies ...
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Why can't we breed watermelons without any remaining seeds in the flesh?

Watermelon is just starting to come in season in the northeastern U.S., and having a seedless watermelon is convenient. The only downside is, the "seedless" almost always still have the immature, ...
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How many, and how severe, are known single gene polymorphisms for obesity?

A fairly recent meta-analysis of studies examining the association between adult obesity and polymorphisms of the FTO gene (Peng et al., 2011). The paper looked at 59 studies and concluded that, "FTO ...
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Within and Between Allelic Class Diversity

I am reading Charlesworth et al. 1997. They talk about diversity within and between allelic classes. Nucleotide diversities ($π$) at each neutral site were estimated from the mean of $2 \sum z_t (1-...
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What is an operon?

What is an operon in a eukaryotic cell, and how does it regulate the expression of genes? I've already read Wikipedia, but it is not enough clear to me. Unfortunately my knowledge in genetics are very ...
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1answer
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Understanding recombination scoring in family pedigrees

I am having some problems understanding recombination, and I am not sure what element I am missing here. This figure is an example from my text book. The pedigree belongs to a family with an autosomal ...
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Where does the term “cos site” come from?

The word cosmid is derived from cos sites of lambda phages. Why are cos sites called cos sites? What does this "cos" refer to?
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Examples of animals with different number of chromosomes that can interbreed?

When I was first started to write this question, I wanted to know how species evolve to have a different chromosomal arrangement, such as having two pairs of chromosomes instead of one? However, I ...
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The human has 46 double chromosomes or simple chromosomes?

What I mean: does the human cell have 46 of these: or 46 of these: Thank you in advance.
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How is it known that Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis interbred?

Many recent articles maintain that a small percentages of Neanderthal genes (up to 2%) are found in modern non-African people. (I believe that currently there is insufficient genetic material from ...
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1answer
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How is haemophilia dominant in human females?

In human females one X chromosome is inactivated forming a Barr Body. Then how is it that haemophilia is dominant? Suppose a female has one normal X chromosome and one chromosome with the haemophilia ...
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1answer
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What is the distinction between F' plasmid and R plasmid?

Is there a difference between an F' plasmid that has taken up a chromosomal gene that conveys antibiotic resistance, and an R plasmid? Is a bacterium containing an R plasmid and yet lacking an F+ ...
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How was the heritability of IQ tested?

I have read that IQ is highly heritable. How could this be tested? For honest testing, it seems to me that only children who were abandoned should have been tested, to exclude education effect. Was ...
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Isn't heritability more important to genic capture than just genetic variance?

Rowe & Houle (1996) give two criteria for the selection of costly female choice: Condition dependence of sexually selected traits High genetic variance in condition Regarding heritability, ...
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1answer
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Is HSV-vector-mediated miRNA expression in dorsal root ganglia stable?

My question is on the following article: "Reduction of voltage gated sodium channel protein in DRG by vector mediated miRNA reduces pain in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy" My question is, do ...
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What factors govern the variable age of onset in Huntington's Disease?

"Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative genetic disorder that affects muscle coordination and leads to cognitive decline and psychiatric problems." As we all know, this genetic disease ...
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Influence of temperature on transcription, protein binding and decay rates

I am the kind of biologist who doesn't know much about molecular genetics and about the dynamic of biochemical reactions. Question My question concerns the influence of temperature on the dynamic of ...
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Is the variance of a trait related to its rate of evolution?

Posed with a question that has me stuck: Is increased variance of a phenotypic trait in a population associated with slower evolution of that trait? I have to either 'disagree or agree' and argue ...
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What is 'independent assortment'?

What is the definition of 'independent assortment'. I tried researching this term but came back with two results: alleles assort themselves independently of different alleles the alignment of ...
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How much variation in mutation rate in there in the human genome?

In humans, the average mutation rate is estimated to be around $2.5 \cdot 10^{-8}$ (Nachman and Crowell, 2000). Of course this mutation varies from sequence to sequence. Can you please give some ...