Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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75 views

Rigorous definition of the kinship coefficient and proof of a recursion thereof

I am reading Section 5.2, Kinship and Inbreeding Coefficients, of Kenneth Lange, Mathematical and Statistical Methods for Genetic Analysis. There the kinship coefficient $\Phi_{i,j}$ is defined for ...
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1answer
110 views

Interbreedability between current humans and his ancestors

I want to know the first point of time in the past when genomes have diverged so far from modern human genomes so that they both (human and ancestors) are not interbreeadable anymore and can be seen ...
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121 views

Heterozygosity under genetic drift

The wright-Fisher model of genetic drift is: $$p_{ij} = \binom{2N}{j}\left(\frac{i}{2N}\right)^j \left(1- \frac{i}{2N}\right)^{2N-j} $$ ,where $\binom{2N}{j}$ is a binomial coefficient. From this ...
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414 views

Definitions of robustness and canalization

The concepts of robustness and canalization are fashionable today in the biology literature. However, I am not sure of their definitions and I am not sure either that all authors actually use the same ...
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630 views

Why do we use DNA sequencing methods such as shotgun?

I am learning about DNA cloning for the first time. What I understand is that, in order to clone DNA, we break-up the original gene into shreds. Then try to piece it back together. Why exactly do we ...
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Transcription factor binding site located in intron

I have noticed that some TF binding sites are located in the introns of the genes. I am puzzled about whether the TF only binds to DNA in the initiation stage of transcription and will detach during ...
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4answers
7k views

Is the DNA different in each type of cell? What DNA is passed to offspring?

Our body contains many different types of cells and each of those cells have their own DNA (correct me if wrong) like skin cells their own DNA that makes them skin cells instead of muscle cells. So ...
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2answers
928 views

“Immortal Genes” common to all organisms?

Author Sean B. Carroll mentions that there are about 500 genes common to all organisms. They have to do with the essential DNA machinery and so forth. What are these genes? Where can I read more about ...
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1answer
117 views

Is there a word for the assumption that a sufficiently complex and refined organ must be the result of natural selection on a large time scale?

Is there a term for the valid assumption that a sufficiently complex and refined organ must be the result of natural selection on a large time scale? Example: A biologist exists in a world where ...
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49 views

How much Open Access Data is there in genetics? [closed]

Type of data of interest I would like to consider Genetics data (SNP, microsatelites, whole genome sequencing, RFLP, ...) Genetic - phenotype data (disease-related data, QTL, etc...) Sequence ...
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2answers
451 views

What´s the origin of junk DNA?

Most eukaryotes posses a certain amount of junk DNA in their cell nuclei. What is (are) the origin(s) of this junk DNA, And is it realy junk (superfluous)?
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360 views

Are genes uniformly dispersed throughout the genome?

I think that telomeres and centromeres are regions with a very low gene content (= regions that contain few genes). To the exception of telomeres and centromeres, are genes uniformly distributed ...
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How do catenanes form when DNA replicates?

So I am taking a course in DNA replication and repair. And we are talking about catenanes forming when DNA replicates (two circles of dsDNA interlinked) How is this possible?
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388 views

Can a same gene stretch from one chromosome to another separate chromosome?

Can a gene continue on from one chromosome to another separate chromosome? For example, can part of an eye colour gene be on one chromosome and the rest of it be on the next chromosome?
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1answer
199 views

How C. Elegans is used for siliencing genes

The experiment that is using C. Elegans to silence the Genes. I have a question about Why and how C. Elegans can use the DNA plasmid that is generated with the gene of interest in the bacteria by ...
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440 views

Abbreviations for molecules: What are CheW, CheA, CheY?

I've encountered the abbreviations such as "CheW" and "CheA" for certain organic molecules. For example: Proteins associating with the Tar complex include the autophosphorylating protein kinase ...
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981 views

Is the fixation rate always equal to the mutation rate for neutral alleles?

Background A classical result of population genetic is that the rate of fixation of netreual alleles is the mutation rate $\mu$. The reason is that each generation $PN_e\mu$ mutations enter the ...
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128 views

Is the mutation rate in pseudogenes higher than in coding regions?

Coding genes are subject selective pressure that are not present for pseudogenes, that would suggest that pseudogenes have a higher mutation rate than coding regions. If so, how much higher?
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113 views

What determines sex in birds?

Is there production of TDF in birds? If so which gene produces it?
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78 views

How much of my ancestry will match with my brother?

Recently, my brother (full sibling) got his ancestry checked from MyHeritageDNA. They have a similar service like 23 and me and I've found out that both companies are offering the basic service almost ...
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1answer
225 views

Is marriage with half-cousin's daughter more risky than marriage with others?

I want to know is marriage with half-cousin's girl more risky than marriage with a non-family girl? Also I like to know if her parent are cousins(but from mother side), does it add more risk to this ...
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185 views

Strand representation in the DNA version of the Genetic Code

A Wikipedia entry entitled DNA Codon Table states that the codons presented in the table are on the ‘sense strand of the DNA’. But what is the purpose of this, if the sense strand doesn’t code for ...
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276 views

What separates gene loci?

Introns are sections of noncoding DNA that separate exons within a gene locus. However, between different gene loci, I also would assume there to be noncoding regions of DNA. What are these regions ...
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804 views

Introductory book in genetics? [duplicate]

I am working in the field of neuroscience with a background in computer science. I try to find new ways of analyzing brain imaging data (mostly MRI, EEG, MEG, fMRI) with modern machine learning ...
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2k views

What does it mean to clone a gene?

When I look up information related to the identification of disease genes, texts will often refer to the gene being "first cloned." What does "clone" mean in this context? Is it simply a synonym for ...
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344 views

Which texts are good for beginners to understand evolution on the genetic scope?

Are there good texts to study the evolution, how it works, and how mutations and changes lead to evolution of the organism ? And how does the information increase through the long time using ...
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263 views

Infer gene frequency within a species over time

I was reading Karlsson et al. (2014) and I came into this: A selected variant that increases rapidly in frequency in the past ~250,000 years can be detected as an unusual reduction in genetic ...
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Relationship of the DNA of a eukaryotic gene to the 5'-UTR of its mRNA

In eukaryote pre-mRNA I am having a little trouble grasping exactly what the 5 prime untranslated region is defined as. It seems that it could be defined as the difference in pre-mRNA between the ...
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310 views

Is there a possibility that medicine will affect the efficiency of natural selection?

I mean, saving sick people means that they possibly can propagate something that nature does not allow. I know that there is already something that operate at genetical level producing alteration, i.e....
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336 views

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless?

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless? Please explain the broad principles and not the technicalities.
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1k views

G>T transversion VS. T>G transversion?

So I'm reading about how mutations in DNA can be caused by oxidative damage. An example of a product of oxidative damage is given: 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine My textbook says that this product ...
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Are domesticated animals really “more intelligent,” or is that a myth/misunderstanding?

Often do I hear people speaking of how the domestic house cats are more friendly, less ferocious, less savage-like, and smarter and/or than their distinct but equivalent feline-species friends, like ...
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170 views

How usable is the Human Metabolic Model to predict biomass?

In order to use the Human Metabolic Model for Flux Balance Analysis of specific cancer cell lines, we would like to know what sort of flux values have been determined for the Human Metabolic Model. ...
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94 views

Determining whether X chromosome from sperm or egg

Is there any way of determining which X chromosome a female inherited from her father and which from her mom ?
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48 views

Are there multiple meanings to “clone” as in “clone a gene”?

I originally thought that cloning a gene meant to put it into bacteria and have them express it. But sometimes I see it used and it seems like it's just a synonym for "identify the sequence and/or ...
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2k views

How can Southern blotting be used to establish gene copy number?

I am reading a paper on a certain marine microorganism that can eat alkanes and therefore might be useful for cleaning up oil spills, etc. This sentence struck me as odd (although I am sure that the ...
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874 views

Help reading chromatogram

A genetic variation is found in this chromatogram: It says that the "reference sequence" is the top line and that I can use the general genetic code to find the reading frame. I can see that there ...
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2answers
1k views

Probability of carrier for recessive trait given parents are carriers and sister affected

I'm trying to understand more about inheritance of an autosomal recessive trait that runs in my girlfriend's family. How could I start looking at this? My girlfriend's sister, C, is affected with a ...
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578 views

Recombination frequencies

I have been learning about recombination frequencies, but an still getting a bit confused despite having gone over many of the links in Google regarding them. I was wondering if someone could verify ...
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4answers
357 views

Are there more descriptive ways of naming genes and gene interactions?

I couldn't help but notice just how non-descriptive the gene names that modern genetics is using. Currently I'm reading "The new science of Evo Devo" by Sean B. Carroll and here are some examples of ...
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1answer
685 views

Evolutionary elimination of recessive gene

As recessive gene is suppressed, why over millions of year of evolution have not wiped them away completely, why don't they just go extinct, as people with those genes go extinct?
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139 views

Is variation a result of Evolution?

We know that the DNA copying mechanism that replicates DNA during cellular division is not 100% accurate and the resultant errors are the source of variation in the members of a population. At the ...
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114 views

In marine DNA viral diversity studies, what would “paradigm of rampant mosaicism” refer to?

The recent paper in Cell Marine DNA Viral Macro- and Microdiversity from Pole to Pole describes the (huge) new Global Ocean Viromes 2.0 (GOV 2.0) dataset. In the Results and Discussion section, the ...
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1answer
4k views

Role of Fbx15 in ES cells and its use in assaying for iPS cells (Yamanaka paper and others)?

I am trying to understand the assay for iPS cells in the Takahashi & Yamanaka 2006 paper. They inserted a beta-geo cassette, which contains the neomycin resistance gene, into the Fbx15 gene. The ...
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1answer
2k views

What type of mutation causes Progeria?

I'm doing my High School biology final on Progeria, and am wondering what type of mutation causes this disease. I know that the LMNA gene codes for the "prelamin A" protein, and that protein contains ...
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288 views

Inbred mice has no severe phenotype outcome?

Why does 20 generation of inbred mouse have no particular strange phenotypes, but on the contrary, when on purposely inbreed dogs or tigers for specific phenotype cause severe deformation of the bone ...
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2answers
725 views

Explain allelic complementation at molecular level

I know that Allelic complementation is a phenomenon where two recessive loss-of-function allele generate a functional gene product by compensating each others' defect. But I don't get how do they ...
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459 views

How should one interpret heritability? Is it related to $R^2$?

From Wiki: Heritability estimates are often misinterpreted if it is not understood that they refer to the proportion of variation between individuals on a trait that is due to genetic factors. It ...
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1answer
236 views

Need of X or Y chromosome protein after meiosis

After meiosis each spermatid get either the X chromosome or the Y chromosome. I know that the 4 spermatids formed from 1 spermatogonia are connected by cytoplasm and so the proteins made by X or Y ...
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401 views

What is neutral genetic differentiation?

What is neutral genetic differentiation? Presumably it's a measure of the distance between organisms in terms of their genetics, but what does 'neutral' refer to?