Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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898 views

“Immortal Genes” common to all organisms?

Author Sean B. Carroll mentions that there are about 500 genes common to all organisms. They have to do with the essential DNA machinery and so forth. What are these genes? Where can I read more about ...
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1answer
623 views

Why do we use DNA sequencing methods such as shotgun?

I am learning about DNA cloning for the first time. What I understand is that, in order to clone DNA, we break-up the original gene into shreds. Then try to piece it back together. Why exactly do we ...
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1answer
108 views

Interbreedability between current humans and his ancestors

I want to know the first point of time in the past when genomes have diverged so far from modern human genomes so that they both (human and ancestors) are not interbreeadable anymore and can be seen ...
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2answers
121 views

Heterozygosity under genetic drift

The wright-Fisher model of genetic drift is: $$p_{ij} = \binom{2N}{j}\left(\frac{i}{2N}\right)^j \left(1- \frac{i}{2N}\right)^{2N-j} $$ ,where $\binom{2N}{j}$ is a binomial coefficient. From this ...
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1answer
355 views

Are genes uniformly dispersed throughout the genome?

I think that telomeres and centromeres are regions with a very low gene content (= regions that contain few genes). To the exception of telomeres and centromeres, are genes uniformly distributed ...
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449 views

What´s the origin of junk DNA?

Most eukaryotes posses a certain amount of junk DNA in their cell nuclei. What is (are) the origin(s) of this junk DNA, And is it realy junk (superfluous)?
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1answer
199 views

How C. Elegans is used for siliencing genes

The experiment that is using C. Elegans to silence the Genes. I have a question about Why and how C. Elegans can use the DNA plasmid that is generated with the gene of interest in the bacteria by ...
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3answers
431 views

Abbreviations for molecules: What are CheW, CheA, CheY?

I've encountered the abbreviations such as "CheW" and "CheA" for certain organic molecules. For example: Proteins associating with the Tar complex include the autophosphorylating protein kinase ...
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1answer
969 views

Is the fixation rate always equal to the mutation rate for neutral alleles?

Background A classical result of population genetic is that the rate of fixation of netreual alleles is the mutation rate $\mu$. The reason is that each generation $PN_e\mu$ mutations enter the ...
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1answer
1k views

How do catenanes form when DNA replicates?

So I am taking a course in DNA replication and repair. And we are talking about catenanes forming when DNA replicates (two circles of dsDNA interlinked) How is this possible?
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Is the DNA different in each type of cell? What DNA is passed to offspring?

Our body contains many different types of cells and each of those cells have their own DNA (correct me if wrong) like skin cells their own DNA that makes them skin cells instead of muscle cells. So ...
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413 views

Definitions of robustness and canalization

The concepts of robustness and canalization are fashionable today in the biology literature. However, I am not sure of their definitions and I am not sure either that all authors actually use the same ...
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Strand representation in the DNA version of the Genetic Code

A Wikipedia entry entitled DNA Codon Table states that the codons presented in the table are on the ‘sense strand of the DNA’. But what is the purpose of this, if the sense strand doesn’t code for ...
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1answer
308 views

Is there a possibility that medicine will affect the efficiency of natural selection?

I mean, saving sick people means that they possibly can propagate something that nature does not allow. I know that there is already something that operate at genetical level producing alteration, i.e....
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112 views

What determines sex in birds?

Is there production of TDF in birds? If so which gene produces it?
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862 views

Help reading chromatogram

A genetic variation is found in this chromatogram: It says that the "reference sequence" is the top line and that I can use the general genetic code to find the reading frame. I can see that there ...
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357 views

Are there more descriptive ways of naming genes and gene interactions?

I couldn't help but notice just how non-descriptive the gene names that modern genetics is using. Currently I'm reading "The new science of Evo Devo" by Sean B. Carroll and here are some examples of ...
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1answer
329 views

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless?

How are oranges in the US or anywhere made seedless? Please explain the broad principles and not the technicalities.
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94 views

Determining whether X chromosome from sperm or egg

Is there any way of determining which X chromosome a female inherited from her father and which from her mom ?
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1answer
170 views

How usable is the Human Metabolic Model to predict biomass?

In order to use the Human Metabolic Model for Flux Balance Analysis of specific cancer cell lines, we would like to know what sort of flux values have been determined for the Human Metabolic Model. ...
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266 views

What separates gene loci?

Introns are sections of noncoding DNA that separate exons within a gene locus. However, between different gene loci, I also would assume there to be noncoding regions of DNA. What are these regions ...
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Are domesticated animals really “more intelligent,” or is that a myth/misunderstanding?

Often do I hear people speaking of how the domestic house cats are more friendly, less ferocious, less savage-like, and smarter and/or than their distinct but equivalent feline-species friends, like ...
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1answer
78 views

How much of my ancestry will match with my brother?

Recently, my brother (full sibling) got his ancestry checked from MyHeritageDNA. They have a similar service like 23 and me and I've found out that both companies are offering the basic service almost ...
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2answers
262 views

Infer gene frequency within a species over time

I was reading Karlsson et al. (2014) and I came into this: A selected variant that increases rapidly in frequency in the past ~250,000 years can be detected as an unusual reduction in genetic ...
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2answers
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Probability of carrier for recessive trait given parents are carriers and sister affected

I'm trying to understand more about inheritance of an autosomal recessive trait that runs in my girlfriend's family. How could I start looking at this? My girlfriend's sister, C, is affected with a ...
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1answer
1k views

G>T transversion VS. T>G transversion?

So I'm reading about how mutations in DNA can be caused by oxidative damage. An example of a product of oxidative damage is given: 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine My textbook says that this product ...
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1answer
221 views

Is marriage with half-cousin's daughter more risky than marriage with others?

I want to know is marriage with half-cousin's girl more risky than marriage with a non-family girl? Also I like to know if her parent are cousins(but from mother side), does it add more risk to this ...
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800 views

Introductory book in genetics? [duplicate]

I am working in the field of neuroscience with a background in computer science. I try to find new ways of analyzing brain imaging data (mostly MRI, EEG, MEG, fMRI) with modern machine learning ...
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1answer
48 views

Are there multiple meanings to “clone” as in “clone a gene”?

I originally thought that cloning a gene meant to put it into bacteria and have them express it. But sometimes I see it used and it seems like it's just a synonym for "identify the sequence and/or ...
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3answers
2k views

Relationship of the DNA of a eukaryotic gene to the 5'-UTR of its mRNA

In eukaryote pre-mRNA I am having a little trouble grasping exactly what the 5 prime untranslated region is defined as. It seems that it could be defined as the difference in pre-mRNA between the ...
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1answer
680 views

Evolutionary elimination of recessive gene

As recessive gene is suppressed, why over millions of year of evolution have not wiped them away completely, why don't they just go extinct, as people with those genes go extinct?
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124 views

Is the mutation rate in pseudogenes higher than in coding regions?

Coding genes are subject selective pressure that are not present for pseudogenes, that would suggest that pseudogenes have a higher mutation rate than coding regions. If so, how much higher?
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1answer
2k views

What does it mean to clone a gene?

When I look up information related to the identification of disease genes, texts will often refer to the gene being "first cloned." What does "clone" mean in this context? Is it simply a synonym for ...
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2answers
559 views

Recombination frequencies

I have been learning about recombination frequencies, but an still getting a bit confused despite having gone over many of the links in Google regarding them. I was wondering if someone could verify ...
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1answer
2k views

How can Southern blotting be used to establish gene copy number?

I am reading a paper on a certain marine microorganism that can eat alkanes and therefore might be useful for cleaning up oil spills, etc. This sentence struck me as odd (although I am sure that the ...
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2answers
343 views

Which texts are good for beginners to understand evolution on the genetic scope?

Are there good texts to study the evolution, how it works, and how mutations and changes lead to evolution of the organism ? And how does the information increase through the long time using ...
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1answer
3k views

Role of Fbx15 in ES cells and its use in assaying for iPS cells (Yamanaka paper and others)?

I am trying to understand the assay for iPS cells in the Takahashi & Yamanaka 2006 paper. They inserted a beta-geo cassette, which contains the neomycin resistance gene, into the Fbx15 gene. The ...
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1answer
2k views

What type of mutation causes Progeria?

I'm doing my High School biology final on Progeria, and am wondering what type of mutation causes this disease. I know that the LMNA gene codes for the "prelamin A" protein, and that protein contains ...
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1answer
60 views

What are good data on the Human Metabolic Model and where can I get them?

Trying to get a good SBML representation of the Human Metabolic Model for use in Flux Balance Analysis and drug targetting (i.e. gene knockout) simulations. What are good sources for these data? ...
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2answers
287 views

Inbred mice has no severe phenotype outcome?

Why does 20 generation of inbred mouse have no particular strange phenotypes, but on the contrary, when on purposely inbreed dogs or tigers for specific phenotype cause severe deformation of the bone ...
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1answer
447 views

What does min mean?

I read that "trp operon is located at 27 min on E.coli chromosome." What does "min" mean ?
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723 views

Explain allelic complementation at molecular level

I know that Allelic complementation is a phenomenon where two recessive loss-of-function allele generate a functional gene product by compensating each others' defect. But I don't get how do they ...
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1answer
233 views

Need of X or Y chromosome protein after meiosis

After meiosis each spermatid get either the X chromosome or the Y chromosome. I know that the 4 spermatids formed from 1 spermatogonia are connected by cytoplasm and so the proteins made by X or Y ...
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2answers
121 views

Neanderthal and Sapiens DNA [duplicate]

From WIKI: Modern humans and Neanderthals share 99.7% of their DNA and 1–4% of the DNA of living non-African humans are found by the Max Planck Institute to likely come from Neanderthals, a result ...
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1answer
2k views

Hardy-Weinberg applied to three alleles and stimation of allele frequencies

I have this equation: Corresponds to HW in equilibria with three alleles: $(p+q+r)^2=1$ Expanding the square results: $p^2+2pq+r^2+2pr+q^2+2qr = 1$ I need to separate homozygous and ...
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1answer
229 views

How do parents give their offspring a chromosome?

Whenever an organism sexually reproduces, it gives its offspring one chromosome from each of its pairs of chromosomes. My questions are Is this done randomly? Is it uniformly random? If so, what ...
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4answers
135 views

Is variation a result of Evolution?

We know that the DNA copying mechanism that replicates DNA during cellular division is not 100% accurate and the resultant errors are the source of variation in the members of a population. At the ...
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2answers
112 views

In marine DNA viral diversity studies, what would “paradigm of rampant mosaicism” refer to?

The recent paper in Cell Marine DNA Viral Macro- and Microdiversity from Pole to Pole describes the (huge) new Global Ocean Viromes 2.0 (GOV 2.0) dataset. In the Results and Discussion section, the ...
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0answers
455 views

How should one interpret heritability? Is it related to $R^2$?

From Wiki: Heritability estimates are often misinterpreted if it is not understood that they refer to the proportion of variation between individuals on a trait that is due to genetic factors. It ...
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1answer
283 views

Understanding a Chromosomal formula in a karytope analysis

I am reading a medical reporting results of a karyotype analysis. On it it is written: Chromosomal formula 46,XX,del(7)(q11q36)[12]/46,XX[13] I understand that 46 ...