Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Do 0.2 vs 0.5 ml epitubes require different PCR machines, incubators, etc?

Eppendorf themselves and many other companies list on their website two above mentioned sizes of "PCR tubes". As I understand 0.2 ml is by far more widespread and "standard" for ...
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2 votes
1 answer
27 views

Gametes produced after single and double cross overs

A female genotype, shown as abc / +++ produces 100 meiotic tetrads. Among these, 68 showed no cross over (NCO) events; 20 showed single crossover (SCO1) between a and b; 10 showed single crossover ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What is the importance of radiation hybrid (RH) mapping in terms of genes?

I'm currently reading about radiation hybrid mapping with a TSP (traveling salesman problem) application in order to find an ordering of the genetic markers (i'm a mathematics student) and was ...
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-2 votes
1 answer
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How would it be possible to engineer cows to have more offspring?

Cows usually only give birth to one calf per year and only several in their lifetime. What would we have to genetically alter so they can have more offspring, more frequently. I read that their is a ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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Question about using Mendelian inheritance to reverse-guess the parent genotype

I would like some help with a question about Mendelian inheritance, based on the following information (I assume this is autosomal and not sex linked): -- Start of information -- "As flatfish (...
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-3 votes
1 answer
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Can a baby have a combination of traits transferred by the parents? [closed]

like: B=black color. b=white color. e.g.: one parent has genotype for skin color as (BB) and the other parent has genotype for the same trait as (bb). can the child have the skin color which not too ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Rapid generation advancement in Maize breeding

Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the important crops and its acreage is increasing considerably especially in Asia and Africa. The common production system in tropical and subtropical climates is rain-...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Inheritance likelihood of SNVs vs InDels [closed]

Suppose you have identified a couple of variants in a tumour sample. One of them is a deletion and the other is an SNV in the same gene. You have a familial history of prostate cancer and other ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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How can I confirm that this pedigree is of a pseudodominant trait?

This is an example of an autosomal recessive trait masquerading as autosomal dominant. I carried out genetic analysis for each generation as if the trait was either recessive or dominant, and both ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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What does genetic diversity in one species have to do with survival rate when an epidemic spreads?

I was studying about genes, and soon remembered that the more diverse the genetics of one species, the less the chance of the species to go extinct from natural disaster. One instance was an epidemic ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Question about manifestation of an X linked disease (homework help)

I am doing some practice exams and came across this question. Perhaps the answer is a lot simpler than my reasoning, but after discussing it with others, I still disagree why the answer is clearly and ...
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Non- brown, blue,green eye colour genotypes and genes

In genetics, eye colours (brown, green and blue) are determined by bey2 and gey genes. But what about hazel, grey and amber and more? I read a webpage about hazel eye colour and saw that there is a ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Why does Falconer's formula for broad sense heritability subtract correlation values instead of r^2 values?

Falconer's formula for broad sense heritability is 2*(r_monozygotic - r_dizygotic). Mayhew and Meyer (2017) states: "Subtracting the DZ phenotypic correlation from the MZ phenotypic correlation ...
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0 votes
2 answers
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Are color-blind carriers partially colorblind?

Since color-blindness passes along an recessive gene in the X-chromosome, women are rarely affected, while men are affected more frequently. Women with one copy of the color-blindness gene are said to ...
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Could you recreate an organism having only its DNA? [duplicate]

Or in other words: does DNA carry all the information required to fully describe the specie or is some of that information "stored" in how are its living organisms bodies structured/shaped/...
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0 votes
1 answer
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How many people need to have the same mutation of a gene in order for that gene to be seen as a feasible candidate for a disease?

I am learning about genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and I know that they are used to see whether certain SNPs are associated with a disease of interest. From everything that I have watched and ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How can a minor allele frequency be >50% (reported in GNOMAD)?

I'm receiving a data set to start an analysis. My collaborators ran GATK to find variants from sequencing data, and GNOMAD calculated the minor allele frequencies - and then I'm receiving this MAF ...
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7 votes
2 answers
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How do geneticists determine if a gene mutation is pathogenic?

I am analysing information about patients with neurodevelopmental disorders using the DECIPHER genomics database. I am looking for patients who have only a specific gene deleted and no other mutations ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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What does the 'y' mean in CHL1−/− / L1−/y double mutant mice?

I am reading a journal paper and I have come across the following statement: To investigate this, $CHL1^{−/−}$ / $L1^{−/y}$ double mutant mice were generated and analyzed for thalamocortical axon ...
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7 votes
3 answers
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How can SNPs be well-defined if chromosome lengths differ?

I don't have a background in biology, but is trying to learn more about genetics; I have watched many videos about SNPs and still feel confused about the concept of a single nucleotide polymorphism. ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Would it be possible to genetically modify a plant to produce usable antibodies? And if eaten would they be used?

I am thinking of a project where i would Gene edit a plants cells to produce anti bodies that humans could use. Does anyone know A. what genes to modify? B. Would the antibodies be usable after ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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Does Telomere length shortening with age actually cause our cells to age and stop functioning properly?

The human telomere, a simple repeating sequence of six bases, TTAGGG located at the ends of chromosomes (Moyzis et al, 1988) protect them from degeneration, reconstruction, fusion, and loss. It is ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Do bacteria duplicate the copied virus DNA to put into a Cas9 protein when fighting the virus off again?

When bacteria insert a part of invading virus DNA into its own genetic sequence, on the 2nd invasion does it duplicate that copied DNA again from wherever the bacteria placed it and put it into a Cas9 ...
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2 votes
2 answers
162 views

Why isn't speciation a negative feedback loop?

To rephrase my question more articulately: Speciation begins when two groups within a species starts to become reproductively isolated, and is complete when the two groups can't interbreed (for the ...
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2 votes
0 answers
53 views

How to interpret this statement on missing heritability

I'm currently studying a behavioral genetic course, but still, I feel that I'm lacking many basic concepts. A particular topic I don't understand is missing heritability. Here's an example regarding ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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What has a more negative impact: Having only a partial deletion of a specific gene or the having entire gene deleted?

I am looking through a genomics database to see whether patients who have intellectual disability have deletion of only a specific gene of interest and no other mutations (e.g. deletions or copy ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Phenotype of a possible gene mutation

I have noticed multiple cases where patients had similar body characteristics : decreased ability to gain weight (slim) they are capable of sleep only 6 hours or less with normal functioning (...
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Using the law of independent assortment, why can't heterozygous parents make identical twins?

In a case where two parents are heterozygous, why can't any pairs of their children be identical twins? As the question asks, I tried to explain this using the law of independent assortment, which ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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Why is the genetic code so heavily conserved?

Except some organisms, most organisms follow the same Genetic Code tRNAs, tRNA synthetases, ribosomes, etc. comprise the translational machinery for converting nucleotide codons to proteins. My ...
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0 votes
0 answers
34 views

How to use karyotype notation?

I'm looking at two karyotypes, one for a person with Klinefelter's Syndrome and another with Patau's. What is the karyotype notation for them? I don't understand what I looked up online. Any help is ...
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-1 votes
2 answers
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What is the latest consensus on the causes of sexuality?

In 2019, scientists concluded that there is no gay gene. Epigentic markers of homosexuality have been disproven. The Exotic becomes Erotic Theory is an ancient decrepit idea that holds no water. Yet, ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Why does Meiosis produce 4 daughter cells instead of 2? Won't splitting the initial diploid cell into two haploid cells be easier?

At first, I thought it was because of crossing-over, but when I thought more about it, that didn't seem reasonable. Why don't cells just do meiosis like this? (I know that we don't understand all the ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Could someone explain how chromosomes are counted here?

I'm not sure how chromosomes are counted in this picture. I would reason that there would be 8 chromosomes in the diploid cell, but that doesn't seem to be the case. Could someone explain?
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-2 votes
1 answer
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Gene Sequencing [closed]

The human genome project took an effort of around 15 years, billions of dollars and thousands of scientists working together. So how is that the genetic sequencing of covid variants could be done at ...
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-4 votes
1 answer
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What is the probability for an offspring to inherit schizophrenia? [closed]

If an European male (i.e. white) is diagnosed with schizophrenia, but an European female (also white) 2-3 years younger than the male is healthy, what is the probability that their first child will: a)...
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9 votes
0 answers
166 views

The village of Twins — Mystery behind and Scope

With the presence of more than 200 twins, Kodinhi , a village situated in Malappuram District in Kerala , India , is popularly known as the "Village of Twins".This phenomenon of large ...
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3 votes
1 answer
135 views

Does DNA ligase have any role to play in replication on leading strand?

Actually I developed this doubt while solving some questions(they are poorly framed I suspect). According to my notes and my institute modules, 1 RNA primer is required on the leading strand as well ...
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0 votes
1 answer
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Method of determining base values of traits in isolated populations

Prelude: I came across a discussion about the correct formula for calculating the average IQ of offspring, which goes something like the following $$ 100 + \frac35 \left( \left(\text{father's IQ} + \...
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1 vote
2 answers
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What is the difference between Haploinsufficient and Autosomal Dominant mutations

I have been reading a paper that classifies genes in different groups by the type of disease-causing mutations. The categories of mutations (alleles) it gives are: Haploinsufficient Autosomal ...
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-1 votes
1 answer
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What is an example of a benign or beneficial de novo copy number variation?

Duplication events in particular. In any species. Have enough genomes been sequenced and studied to identify any? It is rather easy to find studies which identify them with diseases but have they ever ...
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0 votes
2 answers
93 views

Do ethnic groups differ in non-coding DNA?

There are services (23andme, AncestryDNA) that will associate an ethnic group to you from your spit. Could non-coding DNA in theory be useful for this goal i.e. are there statistically meaningful ...
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2 votes
1 answer
89 views

Are coding DNA and invariant DNA independent as subsets of the human genome?

Within the human genome we can identify the coding DNA and the invariant DNA i.e. the DNA that is shared by all humans. For example here the authors claim to identify a sequence that is shared not ...
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4 votes
1 answer
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How can a nucleotide falling *outside* a binding site affect a transcription factor's ability to bind to said site?

In this paper regarding a polymorphism within the AQP7 gene and its potential effects on one's metabolic profile, the authors use a luciferase assay to confirm that the alleles of this SNP have a ...
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3 votes
3 answers
110 views

New ORFs occurring in SARS-CoV-2 due to mutations

Are there examples of new ORFs in SARS-CoV-2 created by mutations? The ORFs should not be present in the reference virus, but they should occur in a lineage occurring in the wild (at best, being part ...
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4 votes
0 answers
84 views

Saving a Maize Landrace from Inbreeding Depression

I have 10 seeds of a rare corn landrace. I probably won't be able to acquire more and the cultigen's long term fate is unknown. So, I want to do my best to preserve it for future generations. Corn is ...
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0 votes
0 answers
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Are there traits exhibiting avoidance of the mean?

Sometimes if two organisms with an unusually large value of a continuous trait mate their offspring on average will not have a value as large as one might naively expect. Regression toward the mean is ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Can offspring be less genetically similar to the parent than more distant relatives?

I'd be interested in answers about any sexually reproducing species, but for simplicity I'm going to focus on humans in this question. If the parents are very genetically different (i.e. the number of ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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How is it determined whether a chromosome is maternal or paternal for imprinting?

For imprinting, how does the cell determine which chromosome is maternal and which is paternal? For example, in the parental imprinting of insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) on chr7 (autosome), how ...
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0 votes
0 answers
32 views

How strong can GC skew be?

How strong can GC skew be (in the positive or the negative direction)? What species is the current record holder?
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-1 votes
2 answers
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Heterozygous traits with advantages over homozygous traits

I used to believe that there are "good" alleles and "bad" alleles and having two "good" alleles could never be worse than having one "good" and one "bad&...
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