Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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What does an allele frequency of 0 mean in gnomAD v3?

There is a single nucleotide variant: 18-47394-G-A (GRCh38) with an allele count and allele frequency of 0. As I understand it, this means that there are no alleles in the population with this variant,...
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What new information does PheWAS add beyond GWAS?

I am trying to understand Phenome-Wide Association Study (PheWAS). If I understand correctly, PheWAS appears to be just the reverse of GWAS (finding gene-trait associations using traits instead of ...
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Do single oligo sgRNAs for CRISPR require a modified CAS9?

I am attempting to use CRISPR to insert a tag into a gene. The way we have done this in the past is to use separate crRNA (with a sequence to interact with the tracr) and the universal Tracr sequence ...
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Empirical Measurements of Barr Body Ratio

'Both X-chromosomes in a female have an equal chance of becomes a Barr body in each cell.' Every source I can find on Barr bodies claims this and I can think of no reason for why it may be wrong. What ...
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Could DNA replication fail in the far future? [closed]

Assuming that all environmental conditions on Earth remain the same in distant future, the tendency of nature to increase entropy would cause the chemistry and the mechanism of DNA replication to ...
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Role of epigenetics in evolution and transmission of defects caused by drugs

In a documentary, they were saying that epigenetics changes caused by the environment in an individual can be transferred to the following generations. I have some questions on that: How many ...
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The Proofreading Function of Coronavirus Polymerases

I have heard that the Coronavirus family have a proofreading and editing function in their polymerase enzymes which can recognize and excise mutations. This is obviously disastrous for the population ...
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Alleles and Ploidy [closed]

I was recently studying inheritance and variation and came across a sentence: A diploid organism can show only two alleles How is this possible?
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How do genes determine facial features?

What is known about the genes responsible for inherited facial features — the family resemblances that are so recognizable? Take for example a particular shape of nose: which gene or genes make it ...
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Are probabilities of mutations symmetric?

For the premise of this quiestion let's assume that there is an allele A and an allele B. The allele A has a probability P to mutate into the allele B in the given timeframe. Is it also true that the ...
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Why are Chromosome Territories important?

Chromosomes occupy discrete regions of the nucleus, referred to as 'Chromosome Territories'. This spatial organization is emerging as a crucial aspect of gene regulation and genome stability in health ...
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Do identical twins have the same metabolism rate at birth? [closed]

Will monozygotic twins defecate at the same time if fed at the same time during the first weeks of life? They should have the same genetics (and epigenetics) since they are monozygotic and the same ...
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Rigorous definition of the kinship coefficient and proof of a recursion thereof

I am reading Section 5.2, Kinship and Inbreeding Coefficients, of Kenneth Lange, Mathematical and Statistical Methods for Genetic Analysis. There the kinship coefficient $\Phi_{i,j}$ is defined for ...
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Genotypes without Recombination

When given that the parent generation's genotypes are linked traits, how do you determine the genotypes of the F1 generation when no recombination has occurred. For example, given the parents BbNn ...
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Can the self correction mechanisms in cells imply that the DNA code to a degree is self modifying

There is an argument that proteins coded by 20 amino acids via the DNA program has so few successful protein formation that a search never can reach the complexity of it via natural selection and ...
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Evolution: Can the genotype frequencies change, but the allele frequencies remain constant?

If a population isn't evolving because it's in Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium, then I know that both genotype and allele frequencies must stay constant. My question is, can evolution still not occur ...
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How to build SEG in your personal environment?

I'm trying to implement SEG (Wootton & Federhen,1993) in my MATLAB and Python environment. From this oriinal article I cannot figure out what I need to build my script. Are there any related ...
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Limits of gene editing

I was reading some articles about CRISPR and the world of gene editing, but then a lot of questions for which I couldn't find any answer online came into my mind. Those are all about how far can we ...
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Different Mutations Leading to Same Allele?

Can different mutations lead to the same allele? In my genetics books, I always see alleles referenced as, eg. Aa where A = dominant and a = recessive, but are these strictly binary phenotypes? Since ...
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The significance of haplotype blocks

I looked up haplotype blocks in Google Scholar, and the results returned seemed to show that almost all the relevant articles were published between 2001 and 2009, with almost nothing since 2010. Why ...
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Why is the 5′ end of DNA a monophosphate?

According to my textbook: While the 5′ end of a DNA strand is typically a monophosphate, the 5′ end of an RNA molecule is typically a triphosphate. Source: Biology: How Life Works, 3rd Edition How ...
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Monozygotic vs Dizygotic heteropaternal superfecundation

Update: I had a wrong assumption. After triple checking, I now see that how ordinary monozygotic twins arise is 1 sperm and 1 ovum and then later the zygote splits up. (1.1. and that that phil and ...
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What is the word for a group of genes inherited together?

I know the words haplotype and haplogroup, as well as genetic linkage, but... I recently came across a new phrase describing genes which tend to be inherited as a group, and wrote it down, but now ...
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129 views

Is natural selection actually random?

In the Theory of Evolution, two main factors take place: One is random, which are the different mutations that organisms' DNA suffer. This process adds genetic variability to a given population. The ...
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Tree-pest coevolution

Many trees first reproduce decades after germination. Many pests of trees reproduce in under a year. It would seem that the pests have an advantage in the evolutionary arms-race, as they can evolve ...
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Can there be traits which aren't possible objects of selection, e.g. beneath a “threshold of genetic noise”?

Is it possible that there are traits that might not be possible objects of the selection because of highly sensitive dependence on genotypes? The context of my thought came when I was having a ...
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How do ribosomes interpret stop codons as selenocysteine and pyrrolysine?

How does the protein synthesising machinery determine that UGA and UAG in mRNA should be decoded as selenocysteine and pyrrolysine, respectively, in certain circumstances, rather than as stop codons?
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Pre-Mendelian genetics

In the 18th century, Joseph Gottlieb Kölreuter concluded from his plant experiments that in some hybrid generations the characteristics of grandmother generation, grandfather species and F1 generation ...
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How is knowledge about farming transfered between generations in farming ants

There are some varieties of ants capable of "agriculture", e.g. dairing ants farming aphids and leaf-cutting ants farming fungus. How is the knowledge about the techniques involved passed ...
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How do the CFTR alleles interact within an individual with Cystic Fibrosis when mutations of different classes are present?

So mutations in CF are classified by the severity of the impact on the production of the CFTR. But an individual may have two different CFTR mutations. I assume that the least severe mutation of the ...
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De novo mutation selectivity

I was recently reading about genetic diseases and came to understand that many of them are caused by de novo mutations in the prezygotic or early embryonic stages of the life cycle of the organism. ...
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Help Finding Specific BlaZ Gene Type Sequences on Genbank

I am doing an undergraduate research project that involves blaZ gene typing for different strain types of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria; for reference, here are some of papers on this topic that ...
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Would tattoos be considered a phenotype?

I'm trying to understand how broad the definition of "phenotype" is. If someone gets a tattoo, would that tattoo be considered part of their phenotype?
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Do viruses pickup new genetic sequences from the host cell?

Virus replication does not involve meiosis so the virus genome does not gain diversity from having two parents , so other than from mutation, do viruses obtain new genetic sequences from the host cell ...
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Why is cannibalism not an evolutionary stable situation?

In the 'the selfish gene' Dawkins writes (page 109): "The reason lions do not hunt lions is that it would not be an ESS (evolutionary stable situation) for them to do so. A cannibal strategy would be ...
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Cell division in primordial eucaryotes

The evolution of eucaryotic cells is usually described as an event wherein one procaryote engulfed another probably smaller procaryote and rather than the engulfed procaryote being taken apart the two ...
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How many of the four meiotic daughter chromosomes of a homologous pair can be recombinant via crossover?

In graphics I've seen, crossing over occurs between the "inner" two chromatids in a side-by-side arrangement of two duplicated chromosomes: This suggests that only two of the four meiotic daughter ...
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Why is selection less effective in small populations than in larger?

I can understand that the genetic drift has a higher impact on smaller populations, but what does it mean for the selection to be less effective in small populations than higher?
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Is this basic gene diagram correctly labeled?

I keep seeing this gene diagram, and I am not sure how to interpret it. I don't know what this diagram is called or where it was first depicted, but in the second picture, I have labeled it with what ...
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Are peppers on the same plant genetically identical?

I'm a hot pepper growing enthusiast and on one unknown super hot cross there is significant variation in pod size and shape. What causes significant variation of pod shape and size on the same plant? ...
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If there is such known “Mitochondrial Eve”, does it means that all the mitochondrial dna in everyone's body is same?

P.S. I know not that much, just some basics, but this question really interested me :)
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Can CRISPR be used in editing primary cells? How is the transfection efficiency?

Sometimes people wanna use primary cells to do gene-editing because the cells normally have more interesting characteristics, but can we really do so?
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genetics question

In mice, the waltzing allele (w) that causes the mouse to run in circles due to an inner ear defect is recessive to the non-waltzing allele (W). If a heterozygous mouse mated with a waltzing mouse, a)...
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my way of solving the biology question

Pure-breeding tall and pure-breeding short pea plants in the P generation were crossed as shown below. Based on the diagram below, one can assume that a)short plant height is the dominant trait. b)...
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232 views

Biological Calculations

(a) At the moment of fertilization a female egg is about 100μm in diameter. Assuming that each lipid molecule in the plasma membrane has a surface area of 10-14 cm2 , how many lipid molecules are ...
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Why is cognitive maturity related to organism lifespan in larger animals and mammals?

I am not a student of biology, so I should provide some context to me asking this rudimentary question. While doing a graduate-level course on Reinforcement Learning, the instructors focused on how we ...
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BLAST, using Smith-Waterman in the last step and S-score

In my bioinformatics course we studied the BLAST agorithm. After finding the HSP's and joining the HSPs together that are close enough and in a correct diagonal trend, we perform a next step: namely a ...
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About genomic imprinting

In the context of genomic imprinting, how does a human cell "know" whether a chromosome is paternal or maternal(out of a homologous pair), in order to silence genes?
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What does this mean? [closed]

The phenotypic ratio of dihybrid cross 9:3:3:1 can be derived as a combination series 3 yellow: 1 green, with 3 round :1 wrinkled. This derivation can be writtenbas follows: (3 round :1 wrinkled) (...
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Can amount of gene share in descendants be easily calculated? [closed]

I saw on the web an explanation on how to calculate amount of certain genes in a person. For instance: if your grandfather was French and your granny was an American then your father is 50 French and ...

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