Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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How do mutations with very little fitness benefit get fixed?

I have one little issue with evolutionary theory that I have not been able to understand. Suppose genetic mutations happen from generation to generation. Nevertheless, from one generation to the next ...
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Does low gravity exposure to early stages of human fetus have potential to unloc unused genetic information from earlier stages of evolution?

The title seems quite self explanatory but let me elaborate. New mutations do take a very long time and many generations to occure in the genetic code. But our genetic code already holds all the ...
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Difference between crossover rate and recombination rate?

I am not a biology student and therefore, need clarification if crossover rate and recombination rate are the same thing. So if the text says 'recombination rate per base pair per generation' or '...
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DNA of identical twins

I read an article which says that identical twins have 100% similarity between their DNA, but they have different fingerprints. Does that mean the DNA is different in the fingers? What body features ...
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Convergence compared to genetic distance

Is there an information (preferably in the form of a chart, though anything will do) comparing convergent evolution to how closely related the 2 species are on the tree of life. My searches for ...
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1answer
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Size constraints on CRISPR guide RNA

I had a quick questions on the size limitations of a CRISPR guide. More specifically on the shorter end. Can I make a guide that is say 7-10bp and still have an active complex? I transfect using an ...
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1answer
57 views

What does “PDPN+ cells” means?

Are they podoplanin positive cells (cells that tested positive for podoplanin)? "...though it has been shown that podoplanin (PDPN+) cells analogous to mouse FRCs are found in human secondary ...
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Could we breed a dog to the size of a thumb?

We've gotten from a wolf to a small breed such as a chihuahua. So the question is: can we go even further and have a dog as small as a thumb (adult dog)? If not, what are the factors that limit the ...
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50 views

Is the lac operon repressed in the presence of both glucose and lactose?

In the presence of both sugars (glucose and lactose) will there be repression of the lac operon completely? I know that more glucose means less cAMP --> less CAP --> less positive regulation, and ...
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375 views

Double stranded RNA Single stranded DNA

I have seen in textbooks referring to ds RNA and ssDNA. How a RNA can be double stranded and likewise how a DNA can single stranded and if they do exist why are there names not interchanged?
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Genetics, sickle cell anemia

Sickle cell anemia is autosomal recessive. Then Why is it an example of codominant alleles? I thought a person with sickle cell trait is heterozygous because one of his/her alleles is recessive and ...
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207 views

How can a child be blood type AB, if both of the parents are blood type A?

Basically, both of my parents are blood type A (both are confirmed and it's also certain both of them are my biological parents). I recently found out my blood type is AB. How is this possible? I ...
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1answer
35 views

How to identify whether something is in linkage disequilibrium?

If the following loci indicated the presence of an SNP in flu strains, is Locus 2 and Locus 3, which are located 10 bp apart in linkage disequilibrium? "When alleles and molecular markers are ...
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71 views

What is the genetic background for fast metabolism?

I am wondering if it is possible that people with very fast metabolism have some genetic mutation. There are people who can eat a lot while others would definitely get fat with such a diet. In other ...
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Why don't rates of cancer increase generation to generation?

As cells divide, they accumulate mutations that can sometimes cause cancer. Gametes have to divide like any other cell, and thus generation to generation mutations should accumulate in people's ...
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357 views

How can seedless fruits not be GMO?

Biology is the closest I could find to botany on SE. Grafting can not occur naturally and so if a fruit does not have seeds there is no way it could reproduce in nature. That logic makes complete ...
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Is it possible in modern biology to make any person's identical twin (or genetical clone) using his DNA?

I was told by a Biotech professor (who came in our college for a guest lecture) that Bio Technology has now become so advanced that if we want to make an identical twin (or Genetical DNA Twin) of a ...
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Finding intensity of selection against dominant homozygotes

I was looking at some Olympiad questions and came across the following: If the frequency of a completely recessive allele is $0.2$ and it remains unchanged from generation to generation due to ...
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1answer
31 views

When gene editing are both chromosomes in a pair changed?

Sorry for the possibly confused question, my knowledge of genetics is limited to medical training only but I have a question. Are gene editing techniques such as CRISPR used on both of the ...
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Which enzyme is Nick Lane referring to?

In Life Ascending the author, Nick Lane, refers to an enzyme in his introduction: '' It concerns an enzyme (a protein that catalyses a chemical reaction) that is so central to life that it is found ...
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75 views

How is a specific fragment isolated for PCR amplification?

For background I am interested in studying engineering applications of a specific protein, which is not commercially available. My end goal is to express the gene for the protein in bacterial cells, ...
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52 views

How does further hybridization affect fertility?

Numeruous scientific sites state that hybrids (like mules) are infertile. On the other hand, ligers are known to mate with both tigers and lions and still have viable offspring. So my question is: if ...
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86 views

Does a mutation in the sense strand of a particular gene affect the polypeptide formed?

Recently, I came across this picture which represents the DNA sense strand of a gene. The ‘Altered’ picture shows a (frameshift) mutation in the nucleotide sequence in which a T base is deleted. The ...
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Balancing selection vs introgression?

Balancing selection can maintain polymorphisms in natural populations for extended periods of evolutionary time. However, in this paper, Dannemann et al. 2016 identify three archaic haplotypes in the ...
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1answer
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Are there examples of Apis mellifera of different colors?

Re: my previous species-identification question, What species is this gray bee? I'm still curious: Are there any recorded/reported cases of either albino Apis mellifera, or at least with ...
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Strand representation in the DNA version of the Genetic Code

A Wikipedia entry entitled DNA Codon Table states that the codons presented in the table are on the ‘sense strand of the DNA’. But what is the purpose of this, if the sense strand doesn’t code for ...
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1answer
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How do these triplets code for these proteins?

I am slightly confused by the diagram above. The first codon of the unaltered DNA is AAG. During transcription, isn't this coverted to UUC (mRNA). So doesn't UUC code for phe and not Lys? Likewise, ...
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Are STOP codons impacted by base insertion or deletion mutation?

I am learning about base insertion and deletion mutations. An example in my textbook is given below. GUU CCA CAU AUC. So if there is an insertion (of guanine): GUU GCC ACA UAU C_ _ (there will be a ...
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What is omicron squared in genetics?

Saw this equation in the conext of epidemiological genetics: I have never seen it before and I don't know what variable it represents. Help?
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What percent of genetic disease are preventable? [closed]

I like to know what percentage of genetic disease are preventable before birth? Also, when we can detect all of them? I heard in a TV show a doctor said about 5 years later we can prevent all genetic ...
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44 views

Gene frequency — database/site

Is there any free database when one can check the gene frequency in a healthy population? For example I would like to check it for genes like BIN1, CLU or CR1. On the English Wikipedia I found a gene ...
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25 views

Could you save a species if there were only two remaining? [closed]

Let's say an endangered species had only two left (male and female) and they produced 4 children (two male, and 2 female), and those produced? Wouldn't the incest slowly degraded their genes? (...
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25 views

Cloning a coding gene into a non-expression vector

Does it make any sense to clone a CODING gene into a NON-expression vector? doing this will only give us multiple copies of the gene, while we could run PCR instead (Let's say we know the gene ...
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Intelligence as measured by DNA tests

Suppose a person has an IQ of 130, as measured by a standard IQ test, when he is 18 years old. He then goes on to develop severe mental illness, which reduces his IQ to 100. After this, he takes a DNA-...
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I want to extract genes from genomes [closed]

I m a student at computer science and I'm working in a project called Plant Breeding and for moment I need to extract genes from a file with genomes. I know that the start sequence of a gene is ATG ...
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Why is Turner syndrome a problem?

Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder where one of the X chromosomes is missing. For more details visit the Wikipedia page I don't understand why missing one X chromosome would be harmful. In ...
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What is the population limit that makes consanguinity an issue?

A recent incident brought in the news one of the last uncontacted people - the Sentinelese: the Sentinelese appear to have consistently refused any interaction with the outside world. ...
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1answer
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How it is possible that blood group shows that a person is not the son or daughter of their parents?

I see a family in which it has only one daughter. The blood group of the mother is AB positive and the father is B positive, but the blood group of the daughter is O negative. When she was young, ...
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How does the new discovery that mitochondrial dna is inherited from both parents change population genetics and other dates?

This new study seem to have pretty much proven that mtDNA is inherited from both parents. I assume that this would lead to most age estimates of ancient human ...
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How Would I Isolate and Amplify a Viral Enzyme? [closed]

what procedures would I use to isolate and amplify integrase? If I am trying to study the integrase enzyme which is found in HIV how would I 1) destroy the viral capsule to release its contents. 2) ...
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Why is there Turner syndrome if one of the X chrosomes is inactivated anyway?

In females one of the two X chromosomes will condensate and turn into Barr bodies. So chromosome abnormality-free women will only have a single transcriptionally-active chromosome. Then why can ...
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How does DNA code for the actual *shape* of individual body parts/areas (NOT segments or Hox genes)?

Just to save the trouble - I am not asking for general information on how DNA codes for proteins and definitely not how Hox genes work. I have a very good understanding of the evolutionary process and ...
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Offspring of parents with different number of chromosomes

Many papers report that dog-whelks (Nucella lapillus) show a distinct chromosomal polymorphism between populations of 2n = 24 up to 2n = 36. Could somebody please tell me how many chromosomes the F1 ...
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Does the male and female always split evenly the genetic material given to their offspring?

Are there animals known to have a different percentage of splitting of genetic material, like the male give 75% and the female just 25%. I know that drone bees have only genetic material from their ...
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Fertilization of the human egg- where does our centrosome come from?

Is there a centrosome in a human egg cell? Is the reason why the egg cell remains paused before meiosis 2 because there isn't a centrosome, and it only divides when the sperm fertilizes it thus it can ...
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Can I get 1% of my one of my great great grandparents genes?

I basically took a 23andme test and found out genetically I was 1% African. The weird part though is that family records shows that my father's mother's grandmother was African, making me 1/16 African....
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How much of my ancestry will match with my brother?

Recently, my brother (full sibling) got his ancestry checked from MyHeritageDNA. They have a similar service like 23 and me and I've found out that both companies are offering the basic service almost ...
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Will our biological bodies be changed after we’ve occupied and settled Mars? [closed]

I had this question in mind for very long time, and I could not find a clear answer on the Internet, so I was hoping that you might know the answer. If we will bring life to planet Mars and a few ...
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How related do life forms need to be to produce hybrids?

Specifically, I'm asking about infertile hybrids like ligers, mules, camas, etc. How closely related do animals need to be?
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Can Tajima's D and other population genetic tools be used to copare Arabidopsis ecotypes?

I am currently investigating 2 genes in Arabidopsis taliana that are a product of a recent duplication even (observable from synteny and phylogenetic analysis). In addition to the molecular and ...