Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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What is targeted gene disruption?

I am a bit confused about what targeted gene disruption means. I was reading this article in which they compare the Pyrococcus Furiosus genome with a genetically tractable strain P. Furiosus variant ...
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What is the relationship between a "main" strain genome and its variant genome in archaea?

I am going to analyze DNA sequencing data in order to try to extrapolate some information about the survival strategy of Pyrococcus Furiosus to gamma irradiation, as maybe you already know from all ...
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How can the recurrence risk ratio be calculated?

The recurrence risk ratio is calculated as follows: $$ \lambda_s = \frac{\text{risk of sibling}}{\text{risk in population}}$$ where the risk of sibling refers to the risk that a sibling has to get the ...
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Is there a term for non-DNA gene?

Initially, the term "gene" referred to abstract concept of inherited trait. Currently this term was hijacked with molecular genetics and means a continuous sequence of nucleotides. However, ...
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How to calculate the probability that a mutation occurred?

According to the internet, there is a 7% chance that two brown-eyed parents will have a green-eyed child. However, Dominance says that it is impossible for this to happen. Is the internet correct? If ...
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Can Monsanto's (in)famous hybrid seed crops be cloned/grafted? If not, is there a technical or legal reason?

I understand that the seeds of a crop made from modern-day super hybrids will not, usually, produce the same quality plants in the next generation. Therefore, farmers have to buy new hybrid seeds each ...
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How can we know which alleles are together on a chromosome?

This illustration says that if the two homozygotes pr+ pr+ vg+ vg+ and pr pr vg vg are crossed to produce a heterozygous offspring (pr+ pr vg+ vg), then: this cross gives us exactly what we need to ...
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What is the map unit between the genes?

While doing some biology I came across this question: The following tables present results of plant crosses involving two linked genes: S is a seed-color gene, and L is a plant-height gene. Each gene ...
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What is the probability of having a son with blood type O? [closed]

So I was solving some biology questions, and this question left me confused. The response is supposed to be 22% according to the answers, but all the methods that I used did not lead me to it. I ...
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Does gene isoform have different genetic location?

I would like to understand how a gene is assigned to a specific coordinate (e.g. NOC2L Chr1 879583(Start) 894679(End)). Next, let's say NOC2L gene has a few different isoforms, do those isoforms ...
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Novel bacterial strains of bacteria first isolated on the International Space Station, did the space environment lead to these genetic changes?

Question Methylobacterium ajmalii sp. nov., Isolated From the International Space Station (Bijlani et al. Frontiers in Microbiology, 12, p. 534, 2021) is a thorough analysis of "novel strains&...
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Genomic library preparation: Why does the restriction enzyme not cut into the gene?

I am currently trying to understand creating a genomic library more profoundly. In most textbooks I read (as well as wikipedia), they mentioned that the genomic library is created by isolating the DNA ...
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Can a strand not be synthesised in 5' -> 3' direction?

I've been solving some biology questions, and according to one of them ( I have the responses too) the following phrase is false: "Both strands are always synthesised in the 5' to 3' direction.&...
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Is it possible to use two forward primer and one reverse primer?

I have eGFP and the gene fragment i assembled by pcr.The next step is that i have to join my fragment fragment into 3'p end of the eGFP.I have three primers FP1 is forward primer for eGFP, FP2 has ...
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Inheritance simulator not working properly

I created a python program to simulate inheritance (a simplified version of it) to better understand how it works. A person is represented by a class that contains a chromosome property, a method for ...
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Is sonic hedgehog a gene or a protein or both?

Is sonic hedgehog a gene or a protein or both? I think sonic hedgehog is okay as a name for a chemical. Having said that, I am a little bit concerned about the way sonic hedgehog seems to mean the ...
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Direction of translation/transcription

Perhaps it would not be wrong to say that "translation/transcription goes in the direction of 3' to 5'" or "in the direction of 5' to 3'";that's because these statements are ...
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3 votes
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Is it possible to use PCR to test for Machado-Joseph disease?

Machado–Joseph disease (MJD) is a rare inherited neuromuscular disease that is caused by a mutation in the gene ATXN3. The protein encoded by this gene contains "CAG" repeats in the coding ...
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Does mitochondrial eve have to exist?

Suppose we took all living humans and found the set of their mothers, mothers' mothers, etc. and then traced down as far as possible. Is there a logical reason that this tree has to converge to one '...
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How do you determine "in which direction" DNA is shared between groups of people

In popular DNA ancestry tests you can read lines like "you have 2% neanderthal dna" or "you have 20% italian". How can you distinguish between a person having 20% italian vs ...
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Is CRISPR being utilized when scientists use the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit genes?

"CRISPR" and "Cas9" are different things. When a virus attacks a bacteria, the bacteria stores the viral code of the virus in CRISPR. And when the virus attacks again the Cas9 ...
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Can hunting of large specimens of a species make the size and weight of the species tend to be smaller?

Siberian tigers in the wild don't grow as much as they used to be in past (in the 1900s). Their average weight was measured 176 kg in 2005 study. But it was also said that those tigers observed in ...
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3 answers
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How likely is a lack of DNA match with a distant relative?

How likely is a lack of DNA match with a distant relative? I have recently gotten interested in ancestry research and have had a DNA analysis performed by a prominent commercial provider. I've been ...
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Impact of Terminator Efficiency in Genetic Constructs

I was looking at the iGEM Bioregistry of Terminator parts which offer varying degrees of termination efficiency. I am wondering why studies into combinatorial synthesis of genetic circuits for ...
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What is the life of cell-free genetic circuits?

Can genetic circuits be tested in a cell-free environment? What would be their life if we keep them at room temperature? The circuits which are composed of DNA-based components are commonly referred ...
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Why is DNA replication not 100% accurate

I've been reading about DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and how this process improves DNA fidelity. However, I was wondering, what is stopping MMR from correcting all mistakes in the daughter DNA with 100% ...
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1 vote
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Why is male balding so common in comparison to female balding?

I have heard that over 30% of men will be bald by 30, and that 60% will be bald by 50. However, I hardly ever see a bald woman unless it is a story about a cancer survivor or someone going through ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Why is haemophilia unviable in later stages of life?

A sentence in my textbook is: The possibility of female being haemophilic is extremely rare because mother of such a female has to be at least carrier and the father should be haemophilic (unviable ...
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9 votes
1 answer
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What if target DNA doesn’t have restriction sites

All the examples on DNA cloning I have encountered have assumed that the target gene and vector both have compatible restriction sites at just the right locations (probably for ease of explanation). ...
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How would you use readthrough as part of a genetic circuit design?

Traditionally, in synthetic biology, researchers tried to avoid some transcription phenomena (like roadblocking of tandem promoters or readthrough of weak terminators) since they are not in line with ...
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Does parental conflict lead to genes combining important functions with functions only advantageous for one of the parents?

In a sitation of a mother-father conflict of interests, the mother might use epigenetics to turn off some genes only advantageous for the father's genes and not her own. I thought a logical father's ...
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What can you learn about someone's mother and father by examining their DNA?

Disclaimer: I ask this question from the position of having paid absolutely no attention throughout school/highschool science classes. I am incredibly ignorant, but I don't know how to find the answer ...
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How come the role of the Apis mellifera is determined by nutrition rather than chromosomes?

Prior to making my question I browsed on similiar question such as this one but it doesn't specifically addressed my doubt in the sense that it is related with a different species and on a concept not ...
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Can a trait be too successful? Wouldn't overwhelmingly successful traits limit variability, which is one of the requirements of NS? [closed]

Can a trait be too successful? Wouldn't an overwhelmingly successful trait soon limit the gene pool, and if so, how would the process of natural selection react to that? If an individual is born ...
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Why are almost all inborn errors of metabolism autosomal recessive? [closed]

Technically, the only inborn error of metabolism I know that is autosomal dominant is acute intermittent porphyria. Also, the only inborn of metabolism I know that is X-linked recessive is Lesch-Nyhan ...
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How do gene locations change during crossing over events?

Suppose you have two variants from the same species, which have slightly different chromosomes I's to each other. Genes may be in slightly different positions on the chromosome, and the lengths of the ...
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How long would you expect a designed plasmid to remain in a population of E. coli after transformation?

When transforming E. coli with a genetically-modified plasmid, how quickly/often is this plasmid "lost" because of mutation, or horizontal-transfer, or "dilution" over reproduction ...
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Are genetic crosses between asexual organisms possible?

To my knowledge (Please correct me if I am wrong), genetic basis is the key in defining species. When we encounter an unknown species, we can sequence it's genome and compare the genome with other ...
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Statistician confused about exact SNP data type

I'm from a statistical (not biological) background, and I'm very confused about what exactly is the "data" associated with a SNP. Below, I'll explain things as best I can--please correct me ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Can a cell receive multiple copies of an insert when using different MOIs?

I want to transduce a cell line with virus that carries a specific insert. When using different Multiplicity of Infection (MOI), I expect to get different percentage of transduced cells, but is it ...
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Are there any animals whose genome haven't been sequenced yet? [closed]

I referred to a few websites and it seems like almost every animal's genome has been sequenced. However, are there any animals that haven't yet been sequenced? If so, can you provide the list here or ...
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What is the correct nomenclature for expressing a genotype where a recombination event may occur?

Given an example punnett square: ...
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Confusion about how to compute probabilities for linked genes

I am confused about how to compute probabilities for linked genes. The problem that I am solving is this: P generation: AAbbddEEff X aaBBDDeeFF. If A and B are 40 centimorgan apart, what is the ...
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2 answers
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DNA mutations in humans are generally bad, but why to they make viruses stronger?

When I read about DNA mutations in humans, the mutations are generally bad. When I read about mutations in viruses such as the recent emerging strains of COVID-19, however, it seems to be good for the ...
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What are the effect of radioactivity on grey wolves in Chernobyl?

I am doing some research about the effects that radioactivity has and is having on grey wolves in Chernobyl and more particularly on their genetics, but maybe also looking at the populations in the ...
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When is it better for a gene to cause a biased sex ratio?

Because genes are selfish and want to maximise their transmission from generation to generation, if they can distort a population's sex ratio, isn't it always in their interest to cause a biased sex ...
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Using punnett squares to express sex/gene linkage and recombination frequency

I have been using punnett squares to visualize mating experiments. I am looking at a pairing which is known to have a crossover event occur. I know from empirically collected data the recombination ...
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34 votes
6 answers
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Why didn't Escobar's hippos introduced in a single event die out due to inbreeding

Today I read a BBC Report about how Pablo Escobar had once imported 4 hippos (1 male, 3 female) into his estate in Colombia for his private zoo. After his downfall, while other species were shipped ...
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Is the number of nucleoli in a nucleus fixed?

A nucleus can have multiple nucleoli. But are there any constraints on the number of nucleoli in a nucleus? Can cells of individuals of different species have a different number of nucleoli? Can ...
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Explanation of "differential transcript usage" (DTU)

This paper describes differential transcript usage as Differential transcript usage (DTU) is a special case of alternative splicing in which a gene’s relative transcript abundance (RTA) profile, the ...
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