Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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How much can you improve performance by selective breeding?

How much can you improve performance by selective breeding? I am curious of all kinds of performance, physical as well as cognitive, but I guess the latter is harder to answer so to make the question ...
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1answer
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Why/How do Cyanobacteria Produce Toxins?

I've been doing some research on the versatility of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria, particularly of the genus Anabaena, and I often run into safety hazards and have to add extra steps to my procedures ...
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What causes the overactivity of keratin production and expression in the cells of the nail bed/ nail matrix after some traumata?

What is the cellular mechanism of traumatic(sterile) onychodystrophy(hypertrophy)? I.e one hits his toenail and has it removed twice( once after the first trauma and then again 3 years after the first ...
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How exactly does DNA polymerase III detect a mismatched base?

How exactly does DNA polymerase III detect a mismatched base? I know how it removes it, via exonuclease activity, but how does it 'detect' it molecularly in the first place?
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Breakdown of functional human genome by organ/What fraction of the functional human genome is devoted specifically to brain functioning?

Of course, there won't be a precise known answer to the question, as it is not even known precisely what percentage of the genome is functional in the first place - but I am still looking for research....
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Probabilities in calculating the kinship coefficient

I've been reading up to try to understand how the kinship coefficient (or coefficient of coancestry) is calculated. https://brainder.org/2015/06/13/genetic-resemblance-between-relatives/ this is the ...
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32 views

Are there “old” neuron types in the neocortex?

"Old" may mean a neuron type that appeared early in the tree of life, and it may mean – going together – that it comes early in the lineage tree of neuronal cells, rooted in the fertilized ...
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What is the developmental and health outcome of an XY individual with an SRY addition on their X chromosome?

I know that "XX male" syndrome occurs through various means, including the addition of an SRY gene in one of the X chromosomes. The developmental and health outcomes of such individuals can be ...
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Expected $\mu$ and $\sigma^2$ for a phenotypic trait, given heritability h and known parental phenotypic measures?

Say a measurable phenotypic trait has mean $\mu =0$, variance $\sigma^2 = 1$, and heritability $h$, meaning that h*100% of the variation in the population is caused by genetic variation and (1-h)*100% ...
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33 views

Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium for SNPs

I have a SNP stats file structure, which contains all information about genotypes and imputed SNP/INDEL imputation qualities, allele frequencies and minor allele assignment. ...
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More efficient method of calculation genotype or phenotype ratios rather than doing a trihybrid punnett square or forked-line method?

Is there any other more efficient method of predicting ratios of offspring phenotypes or genotypes than doing a trihybrid Punnett square or forked-line diagram? Or are those two methods really the ...
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33 views

Effect of myelination on inteligence in cephalopods

Cephalopods are known for their unique intelligence compared to other invertebrates. The number of neurons of cephalopods is of the order $5*10^8$, similar to dogs. Humans have about $10^{11}$ ...
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1answer
23 views

Analysis of post transplantation lineage tags

I'm having some trouble understanding some bits of a study, mostly about the Sleeping Beauty system and TARIS model, from this paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4408613/ I ...
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42 views

How can we say that a gene is spacio-temporally regulated?

Gene expression is depending on the space and time of the cell. How can we distinguish the function of a gene without a chance of changing its expression? And also how is it possible to find the exact ...
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chromosome 19 and recombination

Im doing a project with structural variation created by recombination within the human genome during spermatogenesis, where im especially examining intrachromatid homolog recombination. I find that ...
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Linkage terminology in drosophila

Consider two linked loci that are 50+ map units apart. I perform a test cross between a female that is heterozygous at both loci to a male that is homozygous recessive. In this case, the phenotypic ...
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19 views

How does chromosome doubling occur?

Sterile hybrid with genome AB undergoes doubling of chromosome set to form fertile tetraploid with genome AABB. But since A and B is not homologous, synapsis cannot occur at prophase I, so there is ...
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34 views

Is presence of air necessary for silica gel to absorb moisture?

I am a biologist currently doing field work where I need to quickly dry leaf samples using silica gel crystals. I use the orange indicating kind that are 2-4mm in size. The setup is like this. I ...
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23 views

Species diversity in cheese and yoghurt?

There have been studies on the number of species on humans and in various other environments. I was wondering how many species including: viruses, bacteria, yeasts, and fungi inhabit ordinary farm ...
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How does a neutral allele change relative to a nearby allele under selection?

Suppose I'm looking at a gene being selected against (A) that's decreasing at a rate ($\Delta$P). If there's a nearby allele that is neutral (B) am I correct to assume that B will decrease with A at a ...
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15 views

How do researchers define the region a lead SNP encompasses?

As I understand it, a lead SNP captures the variance for all unmeasured SNPs in a region due to it's low p-value and high linkage disequilibrium. However, in different papers the region size differs (...
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25 views

Absorbance anomaly

The standard concentration for absorbance of 1 for ssDNA is 33 ug/ml, while for RNA it is 40 ug/ml. I can't find the reason for the difference in this value for these two macro-molecules. My professor ...
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Does the law of independent assortment apply to homologous chromosomes or alleles, or both?

My textbook is giving me two definitions 1st def: "random orientation of homologous chromosomes at the metaphase plate in meiosis 1." 2nd def: "alleles for one gene separate into gametes ...
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What genes in a plant determine whether a stem is erect or climbing?

I was randomly reading this Wiki article on Jasmine and this question crossed my mind after reading the following lines: Jasmine can be either deciduous (leaves falling in autumn) or evergreen (...
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28 views

Is bi-allelic gene expression random?

Supposing we have the genotypes “Aa”, “AA”, and “aa”... which are not mono-allelic (not imprinted and not X-inactivated). Does the dominance of the “A” allele over “a” allele affect which gene is ...
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Finding intensity of selection against dominant homozygotes

I was looking at some Olympiad questions and came across the following: If the frequency of a completely recessive allele is $0.2$ and it remains unchanged from generation to generation due to ...
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1answer
57 views

Balancing selection vs introgression?

Balancing selection can maintain polymorphisms in natural populations for extended periods of evolutionary time. However, in this paper, Dannemann et al. 2016 identify three archaic haplotypes in the ...
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131 views

How does DNA code for the actual *shape* of individual body parts/areas (NOT segments or Hox genes)?

Just to save the trouble - I am not asking for general information on how DNA codes for proteins and definitely not how Hox genes work. I have a very good understanding of the evolutionary process and ...
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24 views

How related do life forms need to be to produce hybrids?

Specifically, I'm asking about infertile hybrids like ligers, mules, camas, etc. How closely related do animals need to be?
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Can Tajima's D and other population genetic tools be used to copare Arabidopsis ecotypes?

I am currently investigating 2 genes in Arabidopsis taliana that are a product of a recent duplication even (observable from synteny and phylogenetic analysis). In addition to the molecular and ...
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33 views

Fluoroquinolone mitochondrial and genomic DNA adduct

What could be possible consequences of covalent bond mitochondrial and genomic DNA adduct by Fluoroquinolones, our study was done by Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Study NFP. All 50+ participates who took ...
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38 views

Does every protein encoding gene necessarily have a transcription factor?

For instance, transcription factor gene A is responsible for activating gene B that encodes protein 1. However, it is possible for genes like gene B to encode proteins without having transcription ...
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Monohybrid Recombinant Frequency? (three point Gene Linkage)

I am curious to know if it is completely impossible calculate recombinant frequency for monohybrids ( three point link, gene map etc.) Here is an example: Marker 1 xx= 25 xy=100 yy= 20 Marker 2 ...
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37 views

Measuring genetic distance: $F_{ST}$ vs. Nei's distance

As far as I'm aware, Nei's genetic distance is quite old compared to $F_{ST}$. However, I have recently read more papers that utilized Nei's genetic distance alongside with $F_{ST}$. As I'm not very ...
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31 views

Did the chromosomal fusion within humans affect phenotypical change compared to the separated chromosomes in the other apes?

I just read this article on the evolutionary divergence between humans and chimps, and how the most significant event was when the 24 number of chromosomes in chimps was reduced to 23 in humans due to ...
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Gene flow analysis with a single mitochondrial marker

I am currently studying a mud snail genus called Ecrobia. Several species of this genus occur in both the Mediterranean and Black seas. Therefore, I would like to investigate whether there is: ...
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Is there any data to explore the heterozygosity of the South African lion over the last 18 years?

Background: I need to find data on the heterozygosity of the south African lion over the last 18 years... and I'm struggling: so far I have found a single data point. Question: Where can I find ...
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Are there disadvantages to using Rhizobium rhizogenes for genetic transformation?

Rhizobium rhizogenes causes hairy roots, which are transgentic. Are the transgentic roots able to eventually grow normal roots or will they always be hairy in the transgenic organism? After ...
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DRD4 genes and their connections to Dopamine 2 subtype

I am trying to find out how the DRD4 gene correlates with the dopamine 2 family subtype receptor in the brain. Does a certain amount of methylation of DRD4 affect how much Dopamine is present in the ...
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22 views

Do some cells have more than 2n at some part of their cell cycle?

For example, do human cells reach 4n after s phase during interphase after replication of DNA?
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45 views

Which gene regulatory network is the largest in human?

What is the maximum number of nodes involved in any gene regulatory network and which network is it, provided its from human?
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Coefficient of relatedness for a locus on the Z chromosome

So i know that the ZW determination system is the equivalent for XY in birds. Moreover, I know that the coefficient of relatedness between siblings for the X chromosome is 0.5 so im guessing that the ...
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23 views

Overall, for the most part, which is more important--capturing prey or surviving predators or parasites?

For animals in nature, does selection intensity tend to be stronger upon abilities used against parasites or predators or abilities used against prey? Any empirical reports would be appreciated. I ...
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Is it possible to get a XYY genotype by the first meiotic non-disjunction?

I have read that the cause of XYY-Syndrome is a non-disjuction in the secondary non-disjunction in the meiosis. I was woundering if it is possible to get the XYY-Syndrom by the first meiotic non-...
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Chromosomally different D. melanogaster sperm

I know that D. melanogaster have 4 pairs of chromosomes and crossing over is absent in males. Denoting autosomes as Ai,j where i is chromosome no. and j are homologues (1 and 2) I am solving the total ...
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How can census population size be smaller than the effective population size in some species? is that possible?

The only way I can think this could happen is through a recent population bottleneck. Can it be possible though ?
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A reliable source of Cas9?

I live in Egypt, and I do want to perform CRISPR-Cas9 genome modification, but there are no reliable sources of Cas9. I can order some Cas9 online from the US, but not much. So... my question is, is ...
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Understanding the genotype written in terms of two genes

I have some doubt in understanding the following genotypes: HCV-Tg/AID(+/+), HCV-Tg/AID(-/-) and HCV-Tg/AID(+/-), where HCV-Tg stands for "Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) core proteins" and AID for the gene "...
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What percentage of a complete Denisovan genomes lives on in the union of the sets of overlapping pieces in extant humans

In studies like this one mapping out distributions around the world or the analysis described in this article (suggesting a contribution from a non-Denisovan but Denisovan-like unidentified hominin to ...
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How does one calculate Rx/a in population genetics?

The ratio of sex-linked to autosome mutation frequencies (R) is Rx/a =(2/3)(2+ α)/(1+ α) for X-linked genes and Ry/a = 2 α /(1+ α) for Y-linked genes. How does one calculate Rx/a, in order to find α?

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