Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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What percentage of genome do slugs and scallops have in common?

We can know genetic distance of thousands of species. The OTT tree of life gives genetic distance for nearly all species. Is there a resource to compare the genomes of any sequenced animals to know ...
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how origin of koi carp is different from goldfish

where did koi-carp originate? how are they different from goldfish? Wikipedia say that goldfish originated by genetic mutation but what about koi-carps?
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Measure of relatedness between two animals

So I am aware there is such a thing as inbreeding coefficient which is a number allocated to an individual as a result of taking the average of it's parents' inbreeding coefficient. (Note that I am ...
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107 views

At what level of relation does inbreeding become dangerous?

Inbreeding within first cousins appears to have an established history of dangers, and anything closer than that relationship also. However, how distantly related do two individuals have to be for ...
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Indirect lineage sorting between human, gorilla and chimpanzee, does it exclude loci reversals (for example on chromosome 12?)

Insights into hominid evolution from the gorilla genome sequence looks at shared genes across human (H), gorilla (G) and chimpanzee (C), and that indirect lineage sorting led to 15% of the gorilla ...
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What impact do genetic engineering techniques have on seed breeders?

In research of seed breeding, I'm trying to understand the impact of genetic engineering techniques like CRISPR (This is the main one as I understand) on traditional seed breeders. Through searching ...
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What is the difference between average sperm epimutations and intersection sperm epimutations, in the context of the attached article?

The paper of interest is Manikkam et al. (2014). In research for a school Year 10 Science project, I came upon this article and the following two graphics. I don’t quite understand the difference ...
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118 views

Are exosomes useful as a transfection or delivery mechanism in gene editing?

The use of viruses as transfection or delivery agents for gene editing (CRISPR/cas9, etc) is well known. However, one problem with using viruses to deliver DNA into cells is the possibility of ...
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Multi-protein drug treatments

Apologies if this an obvious question - I am very new to this. I am, as of now, under the impression that multiple SNP variations interact to create multiple mutated proteins, which ultimately results ...
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119 views

Effect of UV radiation on retinoid (vitamin A) receptors in the skin

The retinoid receptors in the skin (face) can be disabled by UVA sun radiation as these study states : https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/03/990331063314.htm In this article it says the same :...
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In this poisson distribution in olfactory receptor (OR) pseudogenes neutral mutation rate, how is the mean used?

The 2005 paper A comparison of the human and chimpanzee olfactory receptor gene repertoires describes a poisson distribution, with a mean of 0.701 From that mean, how is the gene disruption rate of ...
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287 views

What are chromosome dimers and how do they relate to recombination?

I am reading the book Molecular Genetics of Bacteria 4th ed. and I don't fully understand the concept/visual representation of dimer chromosomes. Consider the following quote (pg 35): an odd number ...
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What is the genetic explanation for gall forming in erythrina by gall wasp?

http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/46220 Gall wasp layed egg in the stem of the erythrina variegata, the larva make gall, I like to know how the gall formation occurs in erythrina variegata
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Maximum parsimony tree - Am I right, or is the correction model right?

Alright. Monday we have a test, and now I was making a practise test. We have to make a maximum parsimony tree. We must do that monday again, so I want to know if I am thinking wrong, or if the ...
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Have researchers discovered how epigenetic information is passed down during cell division?

For example, how are histone code patterns passed down? This question was asked a few years ago in this thread: How are epigenetic marks transmitted during cell division? However, it has been a few ...
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Is human genome editing more complicated than mice genome editing?

A lot of genome editing trials are being done on mice and rats, but I often read that the step from mice- to human genome editing is complicated. What are precisely? I guess it has something to do ...
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156 views

Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Why does Familial Hypercholesterolemia shows autosomal dominant pattern? Let us take that there is mutation in LDL receptor gene, it is said that: The LDL receptor gene is located on the short arm ...
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454 views

Can the value of heritability be greater than 1?

Heritability defined as genetic variance divided by total variance seems to be bounded between 0 and 1. However, I see a way of calculating heritability on this page (http://www.radford.edu/~rsheehy/...
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College Genetics: Xist vs. transposon

I'm taking introduction to genetics and I'm trying to understand the following question: Lets say there is a male cat with blue ears, a single gene mutation called BLU. We try to obtain pure bred ...
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461 views

Understanding PAM and BLOSUM matrices

This question might be silly but I need some clarification. I'm slightly confused about if there are multiple PAM and BLOSUM matrices? Is there a different matrix for each sequence? My ...
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649 views

What is linkage strength?

Background If linkage strength between any two gene loci is 70%, what would be the amount of crossing over between these loci? (a) 15% (b)30% (c) 70% (d) none of these. My approach at ...
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363 views

Could a 3D Printed Plant Seed be Possible with Existing Technology?

The first genetically cloned animal was Dolly the sheep. As I understand it, this was possible because all that was needed was an embryo containing the cloned genetic material and a womb for that ...
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41 views

Enhanced Spectrum Chloroplasts

As far as I'm aware, chloroplasts produce energy through the use of photosynthesis which essentiall converts CO2 and Water into Glucose (I'm an engineer by trade so really wracking my brains to the ...
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273 views

Using Chi-squared analysis to confirm expected phenotypic ratios of offspring

In a recent question the original poster was faced with deciding which ratios to use in a Chi-squared analysis. They were supposed to decide on, "logically", what test-ratio to use. Example question: ...
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Transfering Odds Ratios to another SNP with high LD?

I have the Odds Ratios (OR) for a particular risk allele in a SNP (I'll call it SNP1). That SNP was unfortunately not genotyped in my data, but I don't want to throw it away. I have looked up the ...
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466 views

How do genes code for differences in arms and legs?

So to me it seems like arms and legs are pretty similar that they almost have the same blueprint. And if you change part of it like the number of digits, you will have 12 fingers and 12 toes. But at ...
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Microarray with n channels

Recently we've been learning about Microarrays, and the typical method seems to be to run a two channel microarray where your RNA from each cell is labelled with a different fluorescent marker, and ...
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Would a complete lack of heterozygotes in a population indicate the presence of a recessive allele?

This doesn't instantly make sense to me. Lets say you have 100 people from a subpopulation who were sequenced and aligned to a reference genome. For certain variants, people were either homozygous ...
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142 views

Chimera in bacteria

Would you please define me the chimera in bacteria? Some sequences are clustered as a chimera table in metagenomics analysis, I know OTU table is used for clustering bacteria based on 16S rRNA, but I ...
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RNA interference

If dsRNA is produced through a mutation (such as forming of a hairpin structure) in a particular gene and RNAi has become possible because of that, will an organism which is a heterozygote to this ...
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In induced pluripotency experiments, what happens to the cells that do not become pluripotent?

I am new to this topic, so forgive me if my question is naïve. In an induced pluripotency experiment a few transcription factors are overexpressed in somatic cells and as a result a small portion of ...
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How screeching affects the body?

Most times when I hear a screech (such as moving a sharp object on a chalkboard thereby causing such unpleasant noise), my body twitches. There are also other unpleasant sounds that causes the ...
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Interpretation of table on analysis of genetic diversity between groups

I am very confused about how to interpret Table 8.3 in Smith's Evolutionary Genetics. Is the GST in the table the same as the G,ST (with the comma), which is defined (pg. 156; Box 8.3) as "the ...
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Is it possible to both extract DNA sequences from plasmids and fuse them using primers for Gibson assembly?

Maybe I'm overcomplicating this, but I'm having some issues with a construct. So, I have three plasmids containing a total of eight DNA sequences that I need to fuse into one linear sequence. I plan ...
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How did researchers find out that it was only the maternal chromosome that underwent deletion in Angelman syndrome?

It is known that in Angelman syndrome, the chromosome 15 undergoes deletion in the maternal chromosome while in Prader-Willi it's in the paternal. I understand it can be detected by FISH or other ...
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Molecular Logic GATE

Currently either PET-Fluorophore or FRET is used as output of the molecular/DNA-based logic gate. Likewise, in a logic gate, lets say YES GATE, you provide an input to the logic gate and in return you ...
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Quantifying the number of fragments from RAD library

I have a series of single-end reads from a RAD library of 48 uniquely tagged individuals in fastaq format. The data comes from a small MiSeq run. I want to know the number of unique fragments per ...
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202 views

Is blunt end repair and A-tailing necessary when adaptors can be custom made?

I'm planning on creating a RADseq library, which naturally involves digesting genomic DNA following P1 adaptor ligation. I've read a few protocols that require any over-hangs resulting from ...
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“Genotype structure”?

What does a geneticist mean when they write "genotype structure", e.g. the sentence "...represents continuous allele frequencies for both tumor and normal samples, while leveraging the expected ...
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Is there a place or tool from which I can find or generate genome data for epistasis detection?

I am busy researching a school project for my honors in Electrical Engineering. The project is to create a deep neural network to detect epistasis. I have very little knowledge in the bioinformatics ...
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How does epigenetics affect the birth conditions via alcohol?

Recent study has shown that epigenetics can play role in male-caused infertility and it cites for example studies which showed an enhancing of silent genes when drinking alcohol. Since the study ...
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Mendelian genetics - How can we infer the number of genes in play in this scenario?

So this is a practice question I got from school but I kinda lost here. So the question is: In Drosophila , four new recessive mutations have been found all of which produce purple eye ...
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Why would worker bias sex-ratio toward workers?

This question prompts for explanation on a topic, an interpretation of this topic is given. A simplified question statement is also given at the end for those who do not wish to read. Topic In the ...
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Is there a way to identify a species of tree?

My family has been passing down seeds from a lemon tree for about 3 generations now, There is some controversy about its origin or species. The lemons look like tangerines and when cut the pulp is ...
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Construct a restriction map of a linear fragment of DNA using the following data?

I've attempted to do the single digests, and the double digests, but cannot complete the map.... I've attached what I've done so far DNA Sizes of Fragments (bp) uncut DNA 900 DNA cut with EcoRI ...
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Mosaic segregation in C. elegans

How can mosaic segregation be used in C. elegans? Can it tell us where a given gene is expressed, or needs to be expressed for worm survival?
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Can we study all the genes of one human being?

Considering the fact that a new-born child gets 23 chromosomes containing DNA and genes from each of his parents and then 23 chromosomes from those 46 chromosomes of the new-born child will be ...
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5-HTTLPR polymorphism and Depression

I am reading about the biology of depression and came across something I can't understand. Here is the thing: Lesch K-P, et al. (1996) say that people with short alleles of 5-HTTLPR are more prone to ...
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Hydrogen bonding and the blocking thereof in nucleic acids during nuclear processes

In transcription, RNA polymerase unwinds the DNA double helix and begins attaching RNA nucleotides to the template strand. In its wake, the DNA double helix closes back—this is only natural, seeing as ...
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What type of point mutation and chromosomal mutation cause Albinism in humans?

First of all, I know that OCA1 (Oculocutaneous Albinism Type 1) is autosomal recessive which means that both parents-who are unaffected-have to pass down one copy of a mutated gene in order to ...

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