Questions tagged [genetics]

Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics.

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Estimate mutation rate in UVC treated cells

I am wondering how to get a coarse estimate of the number of mutation I obtain doing UVC treatment on eukaryotic cells (microalgae) starting from information such as the survival rate, genome size, ...
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Microarray experiment validation meaning

I have a quick question: what does microarray experiment validation mean ? I was reading a paper in which they say that the data of the experiment show that the 3 genes radB, dp1 and dp2 are co-...
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Recombination Data Set

So I was looking over some genetics question and came across this data set. In Fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, there is a dominant gene b+ for grey body color and another dominant gene c+ for ...
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What does an allele frequency of 0 mean in gnomAD v3?

There is a single nucleotide variant: 18-47394-G-A (GRCh38) with an allele count and allele frequency of 0. As I understand it, this means that there are no alleles in the population with this variant,...
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What new information does PheWAS add beyond GWAS?

I am trying to understand Phenome-Wide Association Study (PheWAS). If I understand correctly, PheWAS appears to be just the reverse of GWAS (finding gene-trait associations using traits instead of ...
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Do single oligo sgRNAs for CRISPR require a modified CAS9?

I am attempting to use CRISPR to insert a tag into a gene. The way we have done this in the past is to use separate crRNA (with a sequence to interact with the tracr) and the universal Tracr sequence ...
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Empirical Measurements of Barr Body Ratio

'Both X-chromosomes in a female have an equal chance of becomes a Barr body in each cell.' Every source I can find on Barr bodies claims this and I can think of no reason for why it may be wrong. What ...
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The Proofreading Function of Coronavirus Polymerases

I have heard that the Coronavirus family have a proofreading and editing function in their polymerase enzymes which can recognize and excise mutations. This is obviously disastrous for the population ...
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How to build SEG in your personal environment?

I'm trying to implement SEG (Wootton & Federhen,1993) in my MATLAB and Python environment. From this oriinal article I cannot figure out what I need to build my script. Are there any related ...
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Why is the 5′ end of DNA a monophosphate?

According to my textbook: While the 5′ end of a DNA strand is typically a monophosphate, the 5′ end of an RNA molecule is typically a triphosphate. Source: Biology: How Life Works, 3rd Edition How ...
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Pre-Mendelian genetics

In the 18th century, Joseph Gottlieb Kölreuter concluded from his plant experiments that in some hybrid generations the characteristics of grandmother generation, grandfather species and F1 generation ...
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How do the CFTR alleles interact within an individual with Cystic Fibrosis when mutations of different classes are present?

So mutations in CF are classified by the severity of the impact on the production of the CFTR. But an individual may have two different CFTR mutations. I assume that the least severe mutation of the ...
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Why is cannibalism not an evolutionary stable situation?

In the 'the selfish gene' Dawkins writes (page 109): "The reason lions do not hunt lions is that it would not be an ESS (evolutionary stable situation) for them to do so. A cannibal strategy would be ...
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Cell division in primordial eucaryotes

The evolution of eucaryotic cells is usually described as an event wherein one procaryote engulfed another probably smaller procaryote and rather than the engulfed procaryote being taken apart the two ...
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If there is such known “Mitochondrial Eve”, does it means that all the mitochondrial dna in everyone's body is same?

P.S. I know not that much, just some basics, but this question really interested me :)
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genetics question

In mice, the waltzing allele (w) that causes the mouse to run in circles due to an inner ear defect is recessive to the non-waltzing allele (W). If a heterozygous mouse mated with a waltzing mouse, a)...
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my way of solving the biology question

Pure-breeding tall and pure-breeding short pea plants in the P generation were crossed as shown below. Based on the diagram below, one can assume that a)short plant height is the dominant trait. b)...
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About genomic imprinting

In the context of genomic imprinting, how does a human cell "know" whether a chromosome is paternal or maternal(out of a homologous pair), in order to silence genes?
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What does this mean?

The phenotypic ratio of dihybrid cross 9:3:3:1 can be derived as a combination series 3 yellow: 1 green, with 3 round :1 wrinkled. This derivation can be writtenbas follows: (3 round :1 wrinkled) (...
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Tips on sexing of a pet Green Anole? (Besides length)

So I'm looking into lizard breeding (Mainly Leopard Geckos and Anoles) I catch wild ones and also buy them around, but some of them are very close in size and length. I have some males that I know ...
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Term for a phenotype “restricted to a few cells”

Is there a term for a phenotype that is defined or restricted to a single cell/a few cells/a small patch of tissue? As opposed to defined by the whole organism. Eg. morphology of macrophages (...
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Modeling the production of mRNA

I have the following example of how an equation for the production of mRNA in a particular organism could look like: Consider the following equation for the production of mRNA for a gene Y. Gene Y ...
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What factors make iSCNT less effective than SCNT?

When comparing the efficiency of SCNT vs iSCNT, specifically what percent of transfers that generate a living animal; it appears that genetic distance between the receiving cytoplasm and the donor ...
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Research on chicken that cannot feel pain

In was having a conversation about the ethics of vegetarianism, and if it is right to cause pain to other animals. It is then that I stumbled upon the question, that if, just the way chicken and many ...
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Why does polyploidy occur during failure of cytokinesis and not during failure of karyokinesis?

Polyploidy is increase by a whole set of chormosomes, Cytokinesis is the process of splitting the cell cytoplasm and polyploidy is the splitting of the nuclear mass. Now I ask why polyploidy occurs ...
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Will a less favorable allele's frequency go to 0?

For example, a pond is dark in color. There are two alleles. The dark color allele is dominant over the light color one. Let's assume that the relative fitness of both the homozygous dominant and ...
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How quickly does recombination shuffle chromosomes?

For each pair of homologous chromosomes, one was inherited from the father and one from the mother. If there were no recombination in meiosis, one could then say that one of the chromosomes was ...
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Do haplotypes have a role to play in the aggression of a human?

there are a couple research papers that connect haplotypes and aggressiveness in canines. Our genes, for example the MAOA gene in the X-chromosome, have also been shown to affect aggression. But can ...
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What is the probability that a gamete will only contain father's chromosomes

As it is depicted in most textbooks, cross-over does not occur between the two "outer" sister chromatids. By independent assortment during Meiosis I, there is 1/2^23 chance that all father's ...
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Could Cyanobacteria farms help dilute pollutants in the atmosphere

If I understand correctly, roughly ~2.8 billion years ago cyanobacteria started pumping large amounts of oxygen into the atmosphere. Using modern industrial processes could this be emulated by ...
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Can men with Klinefelter syndrome produce chromosomally normal sperm?

Individuals with Klinefelter syndrome are XXY. Even though sperm counts are low some individuals can generate enough to be used in IVF and have offspring. Does this mean that when sperm are formed, ...
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Why do individuals vary in the number of SNPs for a given gene ( e.g. FOXO3A )?

Individual #1, sequenced by 23andMe and then inputed into Promethease for SNP data has the following SNP output: 1) rs1935949(C;T) 2) rs2802292(G;T) 3) rs13217795(C;T) 4) rs13220810(C;T) 5) rs2764264(...
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Genes where both a disabling mutation and copy number amplification cause different genetic diseases

I'm trying to make a list of such genes, because they must be tightly regulated. MeCP2 is one - it causes Rett Syndrome with a disabling mutation, but causes MeCP2 duplication syndrome if its copy ...
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Which sample type is more proper for whole genome sequencing in AML patients? Peripheral blood or bone marrow?

I intend to perform whole genome sequencing in AML patients in order to find genomic abnormalities, particularly translocation and gene fusions. However, I am not sure whether it is better to obtain ...
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Parthenogenesis vs. Fertilization. Is a polar body different from an egg?

In Parthenogenesis that happens by automixis "the replication of an egg by meiosis and the transformation of the haploid egg to a diploid cell occur by fusion with a polar body." =https://www....
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Way to analyze the functional relevance of human mutation in vivo

In the literature I „found“ a pointmutation in the protein coding sequence of an enzyme subunit to be a risk factor for a certain disease. It is not known whether the mutation leads to loss or gain ...
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Study on Introns?

I am curious whether there has been a study done on the effects of removing introns. Specifically, what happens if you genetically edit a eukaryote genome to no longer contain introns? Or maybe just a ...
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Brain evolution in the age of the caesarian

I have just been reading an account of the evolution of human intelligence in Matthew Syed’s recent book on diversity, called “Rebel Minds”. He is not the originator of this idea, but he suggests ...
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How much DNA (or genes) do homo-sapiens and ursus arctos (brown bear) share?

How much DNA (or genes) do homo-sapiens and ursus arctos (brown bear) share? There are articles online that indicate that humans share xxx% of DNA with Chimpanzees, bananas, and other assorted ...
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Linker DNA and Genetic Expression

So I was reading on linker DNA, and the textbook only describes it in terms of structure. I was wondering if linker DNA can ever contain genes, and if it can, whether it will always be expressed or ...
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Is there any evidence that genes which are associated with physically adjacent structures are located near each other within the genome?

I am not sure if there are individual genes for, say, fingers and if so, would such genes be near the genes that affect hand growth? If not "near" in the Euclidean sense, could there be a different ...
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What causes cellular differentiation?

Each cell in our body contains identical dna. And, yet some cells become liver cells, some become brain cells etc. How this happens , when all of them has same dna? Is it because of epigenetic control ...
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Easy Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium [duplicate]

Hi My friend and I get 2 different answers to this question. I would like to know how to calculate the value of q. My friend says that 500/1500=q because there are 500 recessive alleles in the ...
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Number of DNA strands per chromosome

As I was reading Griffith's Introduction to genetic analysis this evidence was provided for single DNA makes single chromosome. Eventually geneticists demonstrated directly that certain chromosomes ...
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Why can't a genetically sound human stay alive for an indefinite amount of time given all the ideal conditions? [duplicate]

I have read that even if we can control our food and lifestyle and keep things as ideal as possible, there are other factors beyond our control like effects from neutrinos passing through our body ...
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What's the difference between reaction norms and phenotypic plasticity?

I'm trying to understand better these two concepts, but I cannot see a clear difference yet. Reaction norm: "set of phenotypes that can be produced by an individual genotype when exposed to different ...
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N value in a GWAS?

Just like the title says. I am reading about a GWAS but I don't know much about them. I understood most of it but I couldn't figure out what the "n" value was.
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Understanding genetic similarity in humans [duplicate]

I was reading "Blueprint" by Robert Plomin (online preview on webpage) and got stuck when I got to these two sentences in the prologue: "We are the same as every other human being for more than 99 ...
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x-linked recessive inheritance and correlation for males

I was inspired by a discussion in this thread. Wikipedia lists a number of disorders linked to recessive genes on the x-chromosome. One typical example is red-green color blindness. Now wikipedia says ...
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Maximum recombination frequency [duplicate]

During the process of crossing over, Why is the maximum possible recombination frequency between two genes equal to 50% and not more than that?

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