Questions tagged [genomics]

The study of genomes, the entire set of genes in an organism.

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47 views

How do different genes on human genome express themselves?

It is said that human genome contains over twenty five thousand genes, How many of these (can) express themselves as an external or internal trait in human beings (for e.g. like eye-colors, hair ...
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What's the difference between the terms “gene map” and “genome”?

It seems some sites arbitrarily restrict "gene map" to only a single chromosome, but others don't. Supposing we don't restrict it to just a single chromosome, is it different from "genome"? Are these ...
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LacZ gene presence in E.coli strain with Blue-White Screening

I'm not quite familiar with the concept as described in the title. Lets say one wants to use an E.coli strain as a host for a pUC-vector and you want to use Blue-White Screening. What should be the ...
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31 views

What is a Singleton Variant

I'm reading a paper that on a population genetics study where they sequence a number of genomes. The study states that 101 Singleton Variants per individual where found. What does Singleton mean?
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Single-cell ATAC seq arrays

As part of a data analysis project, I encountered two kinds of single-cell assays for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (single-cell ATAC seq) methods. The first uses combinatorial ...
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Is mating between human and non-human primates theoretically possible?

I wonder if it is theoretically achievable to produce living offspring between a human and a non-human primate. Great apes have 24 pairs of chromosomes compared to our 23, however, it is known that a ...
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Consider gene is countable, can anyone give a concrete example of “a gene”?

gene is a countable noun but people always say genes, so what is A gene? for instance, Each chromosome contains many genes, so, which part of the chromosome of Escherichia coli could be ...
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Where to download confier (pine) or A. thaliana annotated reference RNA transcriptomes in full .gbk (GeneBank) format?

Where to download confier (pine) or A. thaliana annotated reference RNA transcriptomes in full .gbk (GeneBank) format?
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How are haplotype blocks different from genes?

According to Cardon et al. 2003, a haplotype block is A discrete chromosome region of high linkage disequilibrium and low haplotype diversity. It is expected that all pairs of polymorphisms ...
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difference between population genetics and genomics

I don't have a biological question therefore, this might be be quite basic. But I want to know does genomics entail population genetics or these are completely different fields?
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What is the cause of “imbalanced” linkage disequilibrium?

With perfect linkage disequilibrium ($D' = 1, R^2 = 1$), you might have the following table of counts for the alleles: B b A 100 0 a 0 100 With "...
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Understanding genetic similarity in humans [duplicate]

I was reading "Blueprint" by Robert Plomin (online preview on webpage) and got stuck when I got to these two sentences in the prologue: "We are the same as every other human being for more than 99 ...
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In marine DNA viral diversity studies, what would “paradigm of rampant mosaicism” refer to?

The recent paper in Cell Marine DNA Viral Macro- and Microdiversity from Pole to Pole describes the (huge) new Global Ocean Viromes 2.0 (GOV 2.0) dataset. In the Results and Discussion section, the ...
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How do researchers define the region a lead SNP encompasses?

As I understand it, a lead SNP captures the variance for all unmeasured SNPs in a region due to it's low p-value and high linkage disequilibrium. However, in different papers the region size differs (...
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What are primary reasons for the failure to localise/anchor sequences in genome assemblies?

My question concerns the incorporation of individual sequence reads into chromosomes during gene sequencing projects, especially those with larger genomes such as Drosophila melanogaster or Homo ...
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Is there any independent non-DNA based information system in the cell

The information in protein is not neccessarily independent of the genome as the information of amino-acid sequence comes directly from the genome. The process of post-translational modification may ...
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What exactly does the phrase “chimerical sharing” mean in this abstract?

The Gizmodo article Australian Siblings Are Semi-Identical Twins, Some of the Rarest Humans Ever links to the new paper in NEJM Molecular Support for Heterogonesis Resulting in Sesquizygotic Twinning ...
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Why don't all protein sequences taken from DNA get synthesized?

Why don't all protein sequences in DNA get synthesized? The genome, and subsequently extracted proteome, is much larger than the collection of proteins for which there is any other experimental ...
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Why more than one chromosome in an organism?

Why not one chromosome to house genome in organisms but multiple? Is it for epigenomic purposes?
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What are low-accumulating genotypes? [closed]

What are low-accumulating genotypes? And how does it differ from high-accumulating genotypes?
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Intelligence as measured by DNA tests

Suppose a person has an IQ of 130, as measured by a standard IQ test, when he is 18 years old. He then goes on to develop severe mental illness, which reduces his IQ to 100. After this, he takes a DNA-...
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Is it possible to deduce facts about a person's parents just by studying his/her genome?

As an example, suppose Anne had abusive parents. Is it theoretically possible to deduce this from her genome even if she didn't inherit this quality (of being an abusive parent)?
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Realistic Application of CRISPR in Human Disorders

Human trials recently began to use the genome editing technology CRISPR to treat sickle cell anemia using edited stem cells. Sickle cell anemia is caused by a single DNA Mutation, and is also a ...
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an umbrella term for homeolog and ohnolog?

Is there a word that refer to homologous chromosomes within a polyploid species? If I have AABB species, what is A to B? The words "homeolog" and "ohnolog" are reserved for the cases if the ...
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Why did scientists think humans had 100,000 genes (before the Human Genome Project)?

One of the major results of the Human Genome Project (HGP) was that humans have far fewer separate genes than previously thought. From a 2004 article about the HGP: Francis S. Collins, director of ...
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Is transition more common than transversion during the evolution of duplicated genes?

Transitions are base mutations of purine to purine (A <-> G) or pyrimidine to pyrimidine (C <-> T). Transversions are purine to pyrimidine or vice versa (A <-> C, A <-> T, G <-> C, G &...
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Construct picture of person's face from DNA

Would it be possible to construct a picture of a person's face from his/her DNA?
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Why is GenBank growth slowing down?

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/statistics/ shows the growth of the GenBank database is slowing since WGS (Whole Genome Shotgun) emerged. Is this happening because sequencing centers are ...
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384 views

What's a structural RNAs?

In genbank (ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/archive/old_refseq/Fungi/Saccharomyces_cerevisiae_uid128/) there are an archive .frn (nucleotide sequences of structural RNAs in fasta format), and I ...
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What does “This variant falls on 11 transcripts in 3 genes” mean in the output from GnomAD?

The gnomAD browser provides information on variants of genes (in this link, for the SAMD11 gene.) The report on a particular variant, like this one, includes the information in the header that says ...
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Pyura DNA extraction

I'm am struggling with genomic DNA extraction from different samples of Pyura chilensis; the DNA is degraded as can be seen on the gel. We've always used GeneJET Genomic DNA purification Kit (by ...
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Can you do DNA seq with Microarray? [closed]

Is it possible to do the entire DNA sequencing with Microarray or would you have to use Sanger or NGS methods for that?
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filtering variant list according to target regions

I have a variant list in VCF file for a particular disease, I want to filter these variants according to exonic regions in a BED file using a Perl script. How I do this?
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What percentage of genome do slugs and scallops have in common?

We can know genetic distance of thousands of species. The OTT tree of life gives genetic distance for nearly all species. Is there a resource to compare the genomes of any sequenced animals to know ...
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What is a genome? [closed]

By genome do we mean a consensus sequence of DNA or a set of sequences that ideally captures all possible variations?
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How much DNA does a species lose after post-polyploidization genome downsizing?

After whole genome duplication, diploidization takes place, right? A lot of changings in gene organization and expression involving genetic and epigenetic mechanisms (translocations, transpositions, ...
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Gene copies vs. gene paralogs - what's the difference?

I'm trying to get into the theory and practice of gene copy number variation (CNV) analysis, but there is something basic confusing me, which I couldn't yet figure out. Sorry if this is a dumb/trivial ...
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tissue-specific expression of homolog genes

Two or more genes are homolog if thay have similar sequences. homolog sequences between species are called orthologs (caused by speciation events) and homolog sequences in an species are called ...
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Finding phylogenetic distance between sequences?

I'm working on a piece of software that does comparative genomic analysis; and I found out in homology methods for functional annotation, it's preferable to pick the high scoring homolog from a ...
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Why are animal mitochondrial genomes so conserved and small in comparison to those of plants?

Background Levings and Brown (1989): Higher plant mitochondrial genomes are much larger and more complex than those of other organisms. They vary in size from about 200 kb in Brassica species ...
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Definition of the different DNA regions

Reading from Oshima et al. (2016): We identified 3,868 noncoding mutations including 394 located <5 Kb downstream, 1,762 intergenic, 1,621 intronic, 81 <5 Kb upstream, 7 UTR 3′, 2 UTR 5′, and ...
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Characterising mechanisms responsible for generating structural variants

I have a high-quality set of structural variant breakpoints from tumour/normal WGS data, and I am interested in digging into the various mechanisms that might be involved in each event. There are ...
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What is the likelihood of a single human gene to the same gene from the other human?

The human genome comprises 3,234.83 Megabases and contains ~ 19,000 genes. It has been estimated that the genomes of humans are 99.9% identical. How likely is it that any single gene might vary from ...
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What is the difference between phylogroup and subclade? [closed]

Looking for clarification in terminology, examples would be greatly appreciated! Not sure how this is off-topic. It is a general question about the difference between biological concepts defined in ...
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Can PCR duplicates have complementary sequences?

It is common when analyzing paired-end whole-genome shotgun sequencing data to check for and eliminate PCR duplicates. The reasoning is that the probability of sampling a fragment of the genome of the ...
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What is meant by genomic imprinting being reversible?

I'm not trying to understand the underlying molecular processes, rather understand it conceptually. This is what it says in my coursebook: "The imprint, obtained during gametogenesis, is reversible:...
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Confirming exon shuffling in a gene

I'm trying to confirm that the sequence of a novel gene is derived by exon shuffling between several different genes. I have the promoter sequence, gene sequence, and mRNA (with defined exon/intro ...
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Can DNA methylation induce breast cancer? [closed]

What is the role of DNA methylation in breast cancer? DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule. In the September 2015 paper The Role of Methylation in Breast ...
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Biological meaning of read length

I have some FASTQ files in two datasets which are sequences from 16Srna region. The first dataset is amplicons form V4 region and the second is V3-V4 region. However all the reads are 250 nucleotides ...
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Open databases for copy number variations similar to TCGA

The Cancer Genome Atlas(TCGA) has open data for copy number variation(CNV) from at least 10k different cancer patients. They offer two types of data, CNV data from tumor and CNV data from normal ...