Questions tagged [human-biology]

This tag is for questions about the general biological features of human beings (as opposed to the biology of non-humans).

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How many senses do humans have?

I recall learning that humans have 5 senses, but that may have been an over-simplification to focus on the most notable ones, or simply that no others were known about at the time. Wikipedia says: ...
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Why does closing someone's eyes not give them near-sightedness? [closed]

When we close our eyes aren't we technically looking a really close up piece of skin? our eyelids lol? If it's so close to our eyes why doesn't it give us bad vision? We know if screens or books or ...
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How do you determine “in which direction” DNA is shared between groups of people

In popular DNA ancestry tests you can read lines like "you have 2% neanderthal dna" or "you have 20% italian". How can you distinguish between a person having 20% italian vs ...
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What exactly is blood?

There is a scripture (Leviticus 17:11) in the bible that states: For the life of the flesh is in the blood and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls The blood (...
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why only Donor's antigen is seen during blood transfusion?

I am a high school student and I am a little confused that why only donor's antigen matters during blood transfusion? for e.g if the donor's blood is O- so it means that it will antibodies against all ...
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Why is the chordate nerve cord described as hollow when it appears to be solid?

My textbook says arthropods have a double, ventral, solid nerve cord. And chordates have a single, dorsal, hollow nerve cord. What is hollow exactly in a cord that looks like this?
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If excess sodium is bad for humans, why don't our bodies just remove it?

This is one of those questions where I realized two everyday facts don't connect for me. Excessive sodium in the diet is supposed to be bad for us. But surely our bodies have mechanisms for getting ...
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Can any gas other than nitrogen cause decompression sickness (the bends)?

I know that our bodies use most of the oxygen we breathe in during a dive but, wouldn't our tissues, under pressure, absorb more oxygen than we need? For instance, in normal circumstances, we don't ...
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How is the renal osmotic gradient maintained even though the blood osmolarity changes?

I am a high school student and I am a little confused in 2 things related to our urinary system: We know in our kidneys a countercurrent mechanism exists due to which there is a steep gradient of ...
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128 views

Do people need nitrogen from air for health?

Can people breath totally nitrogen-free atmosphere for a long time? I know, nitrogen is essential for life, and in big quantities, but maybe people can take it entirely from food, from proteins, etc?
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Is covid vaccine helpful for a covid patient?

I am not a biology student and this question came in my mind out of nowhere. I read somewhere that the vaccines contain some denatured or almost dead corona viruses and when these are injected in our ...
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Best book to read to understand human Genetics for a beginner?

I'm just a person who's interested in human genetics, genetic diseases and the human genome. I have some idea of genetics and humanity as a whole but it is not my profession. Just a hope
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Merzenichs' experiment suggesting neuroplasticity

Nicholas carr says in his book 'The Shallows' : Merzenich proceeds to the second stage of his experiment. Using a scalpel, he makes incisions in the hands of the animals, severing the sensory nerve. ...
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What exactly makes red meat (probably) unhealthy?

It seems generally agreed that (even fresh, unprocessed) red meat is at least somewhat bad for human health. But why exactly is this the case? It's difficult to find any attempt at an explanation, ...
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If a person touched an electric eel, would they sustain electrical burns as if they touched a high tension power line?

I've been wondering this, if an eel was continuously shocking someone, would they sustain electrical burns as if they touched a high tension power line due to the high voltage and amps?
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Effects of a constant magnetic field on the human body (especially blood circulation and ion channels)? [duplicate]

Recently, while searching for the safety of MRI, I read in several places that hemoglobin and iron in the blood are not significantly affected by magnetic fields, so MRI is safe. However, since the ...
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36 views

Do phagocytes need antibodies to be able to engulf pathogens (to function)?

I recently saw a question about monoclonal antibodies, that are specific to a certain virus, being split (into their constant and variable regions via an enzyme), and the question asked whether some ...
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Why is haemophilia unviable in later stages of life?

A sentence in my textbook is: The possibility of female being haemophilic is extremely rare because mother of such a female has to be at least carrier and the father should be haemophilic (unviable ...
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Quantitative comparison of rate of energy output when burning carbs compared to fat

I'm studying scientific models of endurance exercise such as the one in a paper by Rapoport (see references below, popularization here). If I'm understanding properly, fat burning is in some sense ...
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I hit an area of my elbow and had a burning sensation throughout my hand

I happened to bump the side of my right-hand elbow on a corner and suddenly felt a burning sensation on the right side of the hand elbow-up. Any theories that could describe what I recite?
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If massive animals live longer, why do humans with gigantism die younger?

What I mean is humans suffering from gigantism (type 1 neurofibromatosis, Marfan syndrome, X-linked dominant acro-gigantism, et cetera) rarely live more than 5 decades (50 years). The same can be said ...
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Is protein intake required for the formation of new myosatellite cells?

Hypertrophy of muscle fibers requires an adequate (significant, really) intake of protein, but what about just forming new myosatellite cells as a response to a stress applied to the muscle? Does that ...
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Check simple human fetus answers

Based on this image and questions, could someone please check my answers? Question 1: At which one of the following points will the blood passing the point be more oxygenated after birth than before ...
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Are there epigenetic effects in the regulation of human height?

Development of human average height Human average height has fluctuated significantly throughout history. For instance, in the last 100 years or so, it has increased sharply by about 10cm. OWID (Our ...
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The Relationship between Copper and Alzheimer's Disease

I've been reading up about the research concerning the etiological factors behind Alzheimer's and I came across two papers - "Studies on Copper induced stability changes in DNA fragment (GCA ATC ...
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How many cells need to be damaged before a human can feel it as pain?

I'm guessing the answer to this question is rather large. Skin cells die all the time, it seems, and that never registers as painful. But suppose you rupture or otherwise destroy a group of cells, say ...
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Can we decode memories?

Premise: I don't have a strong background in neuroscience or human biology, so I would ask you to answer like you would at a 5 years old child. I have done a couple of research on the web, as well as ...
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How does the shoulder joint stay in place?

I read that a human shoulder is a ball and socket joint, but when looking at a picture of a shoulder the socket part seemed way too small to hold the ball in place like a ball and socket joint. ...
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Which landmark paper first described the differentiation of T-cells?

T-cells are distinguished from B cells in part by their locus of differentiation/maturation (thymus). This is textbook knowledge, but I was wondering which particular person or people were responsible ...
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Why is gyrification advantageous?

Standard 'Explanation': I've seen countless neuroscience articles and experts explain that 'cortical gyrification is advantageous because it increases surface area which obviously increases your ...
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Why does high blood pressure not damage the body during exercise?

Exercise is commonly understood to lower blood pressure by making the heart stronger. Mayo Clinic says, Regular physical activity makes your heart stronger. A stronger heart can pump more blood with ...
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Why does the thickness of the Loop of Henle have to be less than the convoluted proximal tube and the distal convoluted tube?

We are currently being taught "Homeostasis through excretory system" in college. After seeing the structure of a nephron, it is not quite evident as to why should the Loop of Henle be the ...
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If you only ate fruits, vegetables or smoothies would you be able to skip drinking water?

If you only ate fruits, vegetables or smoothies would you be able to skip drinking water? I do not see some animals (like squirrels) drinking water daily (doesn't mean they don't have a water source) ...
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What type of epithelium are the pancreatic Islets of Langerhans?

The human pancreas contains exocrine acinus cells (simple cuboidal epithelium) and Islets of Langerhans. Despite looking online I cannot identify what type of epithelium the Islets of Langerhans ...
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Why do we use mice in labs? [closed]

Why do we use mice in labs for experiments targeting humans ? Are they near humans biologically speaking ?
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Is it likely that humans will evolve to be less affected by dangerous food additives or tobacco smoking chemicals?

I recently had a discussion with a few colleagues about food additives and there were two major "arguments" about how some of these affect the human body in the long term: some food ...
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Is chromatic aberration related to the spectral sensitivity of the human eye and can it cause “relative myopia” and “relative farsightedness”?

in the text below, the authors equate chromatic aberration and the spectral sensitivity of the human eye. Aren't these two very different phenomena though? They also propose a so-called "relative ...
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142 views

A study has found that cell phones cause infertility, is this something to worry about or is the study flawed?

Is this a worrying study, or is it flawed? A study has found that cell phones are detrimental to male sperm quality (Lower sperm motility and sperm concentration). It’s original goal was to determine ...
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Osmotic pressure and turgor pressure details

I am a high school student and I am very confused in how we define osmotic pressure? Osmotic pressure is defined as the pressure required to stop the diffusion of solvent into a solution by applying ...
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What are the advantages of long read sequencing for cancer oncogenomic research?

Currently I am using whole genome nanopore sequencing, Illumina short read and 10x linked read to study oncogenesis mechanisms of certain types of rare cancer. I am wondering about the advantages of ...
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Why mammals don't have renal portal system

I am a high school student and I am a little confused why mammals don't have renal portal system?, some books says that because we have four chambered heart, so our blood is filtered more effectively ...
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Why certain COGs appears more often in Humans Bacteria but not in plants Bacteria

I'm doing a Bioinformatic project from the university where I got a DB of COGS from Human & Plants Bacteria genomes and I need to find distinguishing sets in this DB and explain the biological ...
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How would our vision be improved if our photoreceptors were not backwards?

I'm curious to how much better human eyesight would be if the nerves from our rods and cones were correctly placed behind the receptors? Are there any Animal Models with correctly placed ...
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What does the term 'glycogen mobilisation' mean?

I read that glycogen is a mobilised store of glucose: Glycogen is a readily mobilized storage form of glucose. It is a very large, branched polymer of glucose residues (Figure 21.1) that can be ...
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Do all tendons have either a synovial sheath (a.k.a. true sheath) or a paratenon (a.k.a. false sheath)?

I have read the following {1}: According to their envelope, tendons can be divided into tendons within a synovial sheath (i.e., sheathed tendons) and paratenon-covered tendons. This means that all ...
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Distribution of hearing loss

Low-frequency sounds are more penetrating, damaging. Hearing damage caused by blasts typically occurs at frequencies around 2 - 8 kHz, while age-related hearing loss starts at the high frequencies. ...
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Quantitative Physiology Textbooks Recommendations?

I am currently completing a 2nd year (UK) Mamamilian Physiology Module and a Neuroscience Module. However, my degree is also 40% Maths and Statistics. So in order to learn the content better, I am ...
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Why don't sodium Voltage Gated Channels open during Repolarization?

During Depolarization the Sodium VGC open when they receive the Threshold Stimulus. But when Repolarization occurs there comes a point when the cell interior has exactly the the same potential that it ...
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Is Pars intermedia functional in humans?

My textbook says, "Pars intermedia secretes only one hormone called melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)." My teacher says that in humans MSH is secreted by the anterior lobe because the ...
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combustion vs biological oxidation of glucose [duplicate]

I am a high school student and I am a little confused in cellular respiration, To represent respiration many biology text books just writes, C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O But in actual ...

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