Questions tagged [human-biology]

This tag is for questions about the general biological features of human beings (as opposed to the biology of non-humans).

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Is an embryo/fetus biologicallly alive and a separate organism from the mother? [closed]

Biologically, is an embryo or fetus alive? Is it a separate organism or just part of the mother until birth?
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When to use fixed effects vs random effects models?

I had previously read some on this topic and my understanding was that a fixed-effect model is when you are sampling an entire population, for example, a school district, a school, or a village. And a ...
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What bodily organ makes prolidase?

Trying to understand the inner working of the human body, and have got stuck on prolidase, which plays a key role in collagen synthesis. I am therefore asking: which of the body's organs makes it?
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Is it better for a person's stomach to have 1 big meal or 2 small meals? Does this change as a person gets older?

Is it better for a person's stomach to have 1 big meal or 2 small meals? Does this change as a person gets older. Also what about water? Is it the same way or different and why?
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A study claims that the consumption of fish increases the likelihood of getting skin cancer, does this have any relation to their omega-3 content?

A study claims that fish consumption increases the likelihood of getting skin cancer. Since another older study claimed that omega-3 consumption increases the likelihood of prostate cancer is there ...
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if the partial pressure of a gas in any liquid and air is same does that mean their concentration is same?

I am a high school student and while teaching gaseous exchange my teacher said that if two gases have different solubility in a liquid then the one with more solubility will dissolve more in blood for ...
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9 votes
1 answer
433 views

Source for "The human body recycles its body weight of ATP each day"?

I have read in many biology textbooks and scientific journals that "you create your own bodyweight in ATP each day", but they are all just stated as facts. I have yet to see a study or ...
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-4 votes
1 answer
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How likely is rabies virus will enter the body through this kind of imperfect human part when you perform this "experiment"?

First, let's not confuse my question with typical skin peel when your body part slip on a road and get that typical red colored skin due to blood. It's not like blood is flowing, but clearly red area ...
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How does the female body sense its own pregnancy?

I understand that after the fertilized ovum attached in the uterus the female body will not produce the required hormone surge for ovulation the next month. Therefore no new ovum will be sent down the ...
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What are the mechanical properties of human skeletal muscle?

TL;DR: I need more information on the mechanical properties of human skeletal muscle; if you have such information, please give it to me. I'm writing something on how much more effective (or otherwise)...
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1 vote
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Does succinic acid provide any caloric value in humans?

Would the ingestion of pure succinic acid provide any caloric value in humans? I couldn’t find any nutritional information about it via Googling, but I read on Wikipedia that it’s converted into ...
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Human biology - liver regeneration after laprascopic segmentectomy

I am trying to understand to what extent human patients can regenerate liver mass after laprascopic segmentectomy: what part of liver will be regenerated and how fully. My work with sources is not ...
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Could a bearded woman ever become pregnant?

I am referring to woman who are facing Hirsutism. So I gone through Hirsutism, there is no mention of pregnancy. So could a bearded woman ever become pregnant ?
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3 votes
1 answer
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Are there human genes that make a cell die when they undergo copy-number alterations?

I am trying to understand if there are known genes in the human genome where copy-number should be stable at a diploid level for the carrier cell to live. I.e., are there lethal deletions or ...
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5 votes
3 answers
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How do I know if the claims of a scientific paper are generally accepted?

I am looking for information about the use of glucosamine and chondroitin for treatment of back pain and disc degeneration. A paper published in Military Medicine in 1999 reported some beneficial ...
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Is anyone familiar with Microbubbles & Cell separation?

I came across a website that claims to separate cells via microbubbles (https://www.akadeum.com/technology/the-physics-of-how-microbubbles-sort-cells). Would this really have any upside in separating ...
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If human CD8 T cell was injected intravenously into someone could it destroy the orexin receptors in the hypothalamus?

It seemed to have worked in mice https://www.pnas.org/doi/epdf/10.1073/pnas.1603325113 It seems like CDT worked its way into the mouse’s brain and destroyed the orexin receptors. Could this happen in ...
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6 votes
1 answer
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What is the function of dihydrofolate reductase in humans?

According to StatPearls, synthetic folic acid — as an artificial dietary supplement — needs to be converted into the active form tetrahydrofolate (THF) by dihydrofolate reductase. In the cells, folic ...
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1 vote
3 answers
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How can you diagnose albinism in a naturally light-colored person? [closed]

Not all albinos have white hair. There is a type of albinism where the affected person has light yellow hair and the skin color can be the same as a normal North European person. How can you diagnose ...
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Why does a respiring mitochondrion have less cristae?

I read the following- Number of cristae is more in resting-state of mitochondrion, but decreases with activity, hence less in the respiring state. cited: GK Pal, Textbook of Medical Physiology ...
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Is the human mouth more burn-resistant than other animals which don't eat cooked food?

I burnt my mouth on some hot pizza and it got me wondering if we have been eating cooked food long enough to have evolved a better resistance to oral burns than other species. Have there been any ...
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2 votes
2 answers
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Why does damage to myelin sheath in multiple sclerosis lead to a decrease in information reaching the brain from sensory receptors?

In multiple sclerosis(MS), myelin sheath is attacked and damaged. When this happens, there is a decrease in the amount of information reaching the brain from sensory receptors. How and why does a ...
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1 vote
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difference between proximal and distal mechanisms of aging in biogerontology?

In his book Biology of Aging, Roger McDonald describes the difference between causes and mechanisms of aging; and states that the cause of aging is essentially thermodynamic (entropy) and that ...
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Why does water damage the lungs but amniotic fluid doesn't?

I've read that near-drowning causes lung damage due to water inhalation. How come this is not the case with amniotic fluid? Taking this further, would lukewarm purified oxygenated water cause damage (...
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1 vote
1 answer
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My bathroom connected scale pretend telling me my total body water level? How could it do that?

Along with a connected watch, I also bought a connected bathroom scale. Both are giving me plenty of indicators, very extended ones. And sometimes, I wonder where and how they can extract or deduce ...
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3 votes
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Hypothalamus and posterior pituitary gland in ADH production

Concerning the role of hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary gland in osmoregulation and especially when water potential of the blood is low, When the osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detect the ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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Are there any biometrics that can measure tiredness (sleepiness)?

Are there any biometrics that can estimate how tired someone is? I specifically refer to tiredness in the sense of sleepiness (as opposed to physical tiredness that might happen after a workout, for ...
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What is the true response of human photoreceptors to different wavelengths? Why is there so much disagreement in the literature?

I can find several qualitatively different diagrams of the responsiveness of human cones and rods to different wavelengths of light. A page referencing Bowmaker and Dartnall, 1980 has the following ...
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Does cancer really remain undetected about 80% of its life?

I was reading Atomic Habits by James Clear, who mentioned this and decided to google it. The only mention of this at least in the first search page was from this source from February, 2012. Is there ...
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3 votes
0 answers
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Sexual devolpment and sexual organs in humans

In an anatomy book from a friend studying medicine (Netter's book), I looked at some elements of sexual development in embryos. From a developmental stance, we can draw some analogous organs that ...
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What is the connection between LDL, liver, and saturated fat?

I've been trying to learn about cholesterol, lipoproteins, and fats, but unfortunately, there is an ocean of confusing information on the internet. I don't have any solid background in biology, so ...
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3 votes
2 answers
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What specific interaction between methylphenidate and quetiapine causes toxicity concerns?

A number of reputable sources on drug interactions posit a potential interaction between methylphenidate and quetiapine, described on Medscape as follows: quetiapine increases toxicity of ...
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If x amount of a chemical starts to become harmful for a mice, then will 3000x amount of it start to get harmful for a human (3000 times heavier)? [duplicate]

My reasoning is simply that since human beings are 3000 times heavier than mice, the safety threshold for exposure to a chemical should be approximately 3000 times higher for human beings as compared ...
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27 votes
5 answers
5k views

Why are scientists saying that the Omicron COVID-19 variant is a reason to get a booster?

I was watching Vox’s video, Big questions about the Covid booster shot, answered, which references the New York Times article Omicron Prompts Swift Reconsideration of Boosters Among Scientists. In ...
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How many genes of an individual are homozygous?

We have 20000 to 25000 protein-coding genes. Considering an individual, how many of his\her protein-coding genes are homozygous? I am looking for an estimation of gene homozygosity ratio in human ...
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What are the Genes/Enzymes responsible for the supposedly stark between-individual differences in lethargy after eating starches?

Andrew Huberman claims in one if his podcasts episodes that: [...] because starches cause the release of serotonin in the brain and lend themselves to a state of sleepiness. Now, I should mention ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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What is the upper limit for 'active' vaccinations

As far as I know the effect of vaccines is caused mainly by creating Memory Cells specific to a single pathogen. As there is obviously a lower limit of memory cells needed for immunity ( at least one),...
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The village of Twins — Mystery behind and Scope

With the presence of more than 200 twins, Kodinhi , a village situated in Malappuram District in Kerala , India , is popularly known as the "Village of Twins".This phenomenon of large ...
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Is lysozyme present in the lysosome? [closed]

Is lysozyme present in the lysosome? I cannot find anything about this in the literature.
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1 vote
0 answers
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Bladder size based on child height/weight [closed]

My son is 10 years old, but weighs 24kg, which is quite little for his age. Is it correct to estimate his bladder volume based on a formula using age? This seems to be a generally accepted way, for ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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Why can't humans digest dietary fiber when we can digest starch?

So, I can see that there's a couple of questions touching on this subject already, but none of them answer the aspect that I'm curious about: Dietary fiber is a polymer composed of multiple starch ...
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29 votes
1 answer
7k views

Do we know all the possible human hair colors?

I occasionally see people with blue hair and I always assume it is dyed. I wonder how justified is that assumption. Have biologists determined all the possible human hair colors? Or is it possible ...
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At what cold temperature at thermoreceptors human feel pain (e.g. in fingers)?

I've tried web search but have not found that specific answer. As far as I know at least some people feel pain (e.g. in fingers) when exposed to cold for prolonged amounts of time. E.g. here ...
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1 vote
1 answer
530 views

How many drinks were consumed by each test subject in this study?

I was reading this study and came across the following line: ...subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO), alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass⁻¹), 12±2 standard drinks) co-ingested with ...
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1 vote
0 answers
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Which of dB or dBA are more useful for predicting damage to hearing?

With no information about noise other than its loudness measured in decibels or in A-weighted decibels, which can be used to more accurately predict how much hearing damage may be caused? Even though ...
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4 votes
1 answer
109 views

How is a thickening of grey matter possible?

There are plenty of studies that document grey matter thickening in certain brain areas as a result of meditation or exercise. However, it's often said that the extent of neurogenesis outside of the ...
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0 answers
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Can the effect of an allele on height be context-dependent?

Some data is available on the effect alleles have on height. For example Common DNA Variants Accurately Rank an Individual of Extreme Height However after browsing the literature I was not able to ...
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1 answer
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Why do humans share over 99% of their genomes?

From Wikipedia The haploid human genome (23 chromosomes) is about 3 billion base pairs long and contains around 30,000 genes.[33] Since every base pair can be coded by 2 bits, this is about 750 ...
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3 answers
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Is it possible to fuse DNA from two sperms and can a baby be born from that? [closed]

If this is possible, then isn't there going to be a chance to have a YY child?
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2 answers
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What evolutionary advantage do separate teeth have compared to a single piece of bone? [duplicate]

Humans and many animals have multiple teeth consisting of separate pieces of bone embedded in the jaw. For humans, this arrangement has some disadvantages: teeth are quite fragile when impacted and ...
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