Questions tagged [human-biology]

This tag is for questions about the general biological features of human beings (as opposed to the biology of non-humans).

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22 views

Number of Joints get confirmed in human body?

The Wikipedia page on joints states that the number of joints in an adult human is 360, citing a Scientific Reports article on human locomotion. The authors of the paper write The human body ...
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Why is only the donor's antigen seen during a blood transfusion?

I am a high school student and I am a little confused that why only donor's antigen matters during blood transfusion? for e.g if the donor's blood is O- so it means that it will antibodies against all ...
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516 views

How many drinks were consumed by each test subject in this study?

I was reading this study and came across the following line: ...subjects consumed either 500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO), alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass⁻¹), 12±2 standard drinks) co-ingested with ...
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When are Alleles identical by descent? [closed]

I think it's the last one, but I am not sure. I did some research and I think this is the only one that makes sense. A) they are molecularly indistinguishable. B) they are functionally equivalent. C) ...
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What best describes population genetics data for Oceania (Australia & surrounding islands, including the South Pacific)? [closed]

Peoples from Oceania are the only remaining pure Denisovans. Genetically, peoples from Oceania are more similar to Native Americans than to Eurasians. Oceania is a single discrete population, and ...
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Is it true that ethanol can have some positive effects?

I recently was reading this inforgrafics about excessive alcohol use. It is written: No one should begin drinking or drink more frequently based on potential health benefits I am surprised. Is ...
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116 views

Is it possible to fuse DNA from two sperms and can a baby be born from that? [closed]

If this is possible, then isn't there going to be a chance to have a YY child?
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Does mRNA vaccines affect all of the WBC cells in the blood?

Do the mRNA vaccines affect all of the WBC in the blood or just a portion of it ? As an estimate ,how much percentage of the WBC cells/lymphocytes are affected ?
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How is a thickening of grey matter possible?

There are plenty of studies that document grey matter thickening in certain brain areas as a result of meditation or exercise. However, it's often said that the extent of neurogenesis outside of the ...
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level of organisation of Cardiovascular System

This is my assignment in probability so I want verification as to my solution. Is it correct? Thank you!! Question : Using examples from the cardiovascular system, describe the levels of organisation ...
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Which of dB or dBA are more useful for predicting damage to hearing?

With no information about noise other than its loudness measured in decibels or in A-weighted decibels, which can be used to more accurately predict how much hearing damage may be caused? Even though ...
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171 views

Why do humans share over 99% of their genomes?

From Wikipedia The haploid human genome (23 chromosomes) is about 3 billion base pairs long and contains around 30,000 genes.[33] Since every base pair can be coded by 2 bits, this is about 750 ...
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How do organophosphates affect kidney function?

Many organophosphates, besides inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, can also permanently inhibit the enzyme neuropathy target esterase, leading to nerve damage. NTE also happens to be found in the kidneys,...
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Is meat a natural part of the human diet? [duplicate]

Meat, at least indicated by some scholars[1] made us who we are. This can easily become a political question. And I'm not sure how to ask this question correctly. But is there any science on whether ...
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Can the effect of an allele on height be context-dependent?

Some data is available on the effect alleles have on height. For example Common DNA Variants Accurately Rank an Individual of Extreme Height However after browsing the literature I was not able to ...
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1answer
853 views

Could a trans-female person ever become pregnant?

I was told that a transgender person, which I will define as anyone assigned male or female at birth that identifies opposite to that assignment, could never become pregnant conceptually, due to the ...
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80 views

Eye vision for distant large objects versus small close objects

We often hear that looking at distant objects after staring at screens is good for the eyes to prevent strain. But from the perspective of eye muscles, what is the difference between small font that ...
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2answers
79 views

What evolutionary advantage do separate teeth have compared to a single piece of bone? [duplicate]

Humans and many animals have multiple teeth consisting of separate pieces of bone embedded in the jaw. For humans, this arrangement has some disadvantages: teeth are quite fragile when impacted and ...
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1answer
1k views

Why does sympathetic activity constrict pulmonary vessels?

I don't know understand why sympathetic stimulation constricts pulmonary vessels? I thought that the sympathetic nervous system activated the body for physical activity. Physical activity would need ...
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1answer
39 views

Why does the body lose enzymes over time?

I recently started my GCSE Biology course where I spend the next two years learning and preparing for my GCSE. One of the questions I have is that I was told that enzymes are recycled every time they ...
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2answers
75 views

How many cells need to be damaged before a human can feel it as pain?

I'm guessing the answer to this question is rather large. Skin cells die all the time, it seems, and that never registers as painful. But suppose you rupture or otherwise destroy a group of cells, say ...
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Why ions created in our body doesn't give any sensation of electric shock?

We know almost every cell in human body uses ions specially nerve cells , still why we are not getting shocked by those ions ?
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What is the difference in the function of tractus rubrospinalis and tractus corticospinalis?

What is the difference in the function of tractus corticospinalis and tractus rubrospinalis? I know, that they begin in different parts of the brain, but from what have I read on the internet*, I can'...
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1answer
261 views

Are there any phenotypically visible examples of gene linkage in humans?

Are there any examples of two "visible" or "obvious" phenotypic traits in humans that are a priori unrelated, but which tend to be inherited together (i.e. their inheritance ...
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How is heavy water detrimental to the human body?

Heavy water (D2O) is known to be lethal to humans and other life in large quantities. All I've been able to find on the toxicity is that it's similar to chemotherapy chemistry. I'd like to know ...
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1answer
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Does a tubular sodium reabsorption cause a stimulation of β2-adrenergic receptors?

I read the study "The Role of Aldosterone in Obesity-Related Hypertension" and there is one thing I didn't understand. They write: "According to norepinephrine-induced tubular sodium reabsorption, ...
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What determines if a compound is primarily uptaken by the lymphatic extensions rather than the portal vein blood supply in villi of the intestine?

I am currently studying the intestinal absorption/transport systems, but confused about one part specifically. There are hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds (to varying degrees), and they get ...
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Is sex a spectrum?

At the moment I'm especially interested in the question of whether biological sex is really a spectrum. Unfortunately I could not find any good answers on the Internet. Therefore I hope that some of ...
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1answer
122 views

What type of epithelium are the pancreatic Islets of Langerhans?

The human pancreas contains exocrine acinus cells (simple cuboidal epithelium) and Islets of Langerhans. Despite looking online I cannot identify what type of epithelium the Islets of Langerhans ...
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78 views

Why does (insulin induced) hypoglycemia stimulate ADH secretion?

Intuitively, I understand that ADH (Anti Diuretic Hormone) is responsible for maintaining osmolarity, and increased serum osmolarity is a stimulatory factor for its release-- ADH increases water ...
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1answer
43 views

Do phagocytes need antibodies to be able to engulf pathogens (to function)?

I recently saw a question about monoclonal antibodies, that are specific to a certain virus, being split (into their constant and variable regions via an enzyme), and the question asked whether some ...
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Are there any congenital anomalies that cause a lack of epicanthic folds in a child who would normally have them?

Wikipedia lists several medical conditions associated with epicanthic folds. Mount Sinai says that epicanthic folds in a baby who would not be expected to have them is a diagnostic tool that indicates ...
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1answer
317 views

What triggers the release of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone with the onset of puberty?

I am interested to know the process of development of puberty. During puberty, when boys/girls reache 12-14 (puberty) years of their age, their hypothalamus releases gonadotropin releasing hormone (...
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What are the roles of ATP and ADP in muscle contraction?

I've always known that the hydrolysis of ATP generates ADP, P, and energy, so I'd assume that if energy is necessary in a given process, ATP hydrolysis should occur (or another exothermic process). ...
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Why do babies urinate when they hear "SHHH.." sound? [closed]

I have noticed it many times in the region where I live. I don't know if its common World wide. But I think someone else would have noticed it. So why does this happen ?
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192 views

Does estrogen increase muscular growth in females?

Regarding humans it is said that most psychological effects caused in men by testosterone are caused in women by estrogens. There are many studies on that, particularly regarding temporary shifts of ...
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Do adult mammalian cochlear inner hair cells regenerate?

The consensus seems to be no, but I see conflicting evidence. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5361427/ Supernumerary human hair cells—signs of regeneration or impaired development? A ...
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1answer
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Why is BRCA-1 mutation a dominant mutation?

BRCA-1 gene is a tumor suppressor gene and undergoes a loss of function mutation to become cancer inducing. Why is it that only one allele needs to be mutated because loss of function mutations are ...
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27k views

What is inside the male’s body in the space where females have the ovaries and the uterus?

The male penis and scrotum are external, whereas the female sex organs are placed "inside" the body. As females have the bladder, rectum etc. just like males, does this mean overall females ...
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1answer
121 views

Is there any chance that the COVID-19 virus could become more deadly by it interacting with the HIV virus?

I would like to know if there is any chance that the COVID-19 virus, or one of its variants, could become more deadly by interacting with the HIV virus. Let's say for example, that a person who has ...
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453 views

Do reproductive organs function before puberty?

Testis means one of the two male reproductive glands that produce spermatozoa and secrete androgens. Ovary means one of usually two organs that produce oocytes and secrete oestrogen and progesterone. ...
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How does medicine work? [closed]

Take aromatase inhibitors for example. In order for a molecule to stop the enzyme aromatase from converting androgens into estrogens, it must meet 6 criteria: Not get broken down by the acidity or ...
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118 views

Should fat calories' numerical values be increased to better reflect the new scientific findings?

According to a study discussed on this website, people lose more weight on a calorie restricted fat reduced diet than on a similar calorie restricted carb reduced diet. Is this study a fair dinkum, ...
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90 views

Does loss of dopaminergic neurons totally eliminate voluntary muscular control?

Breathing is a function that is not only autonomic, but can also be temporarily overridden and placed under voluntary control. In fact, you are now breathing manually. Now, suppose that someone has ...
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1answer
101 views

Why does inert gas asphyxiation trigger unconsciousness almost immediately?

According to an official safety bulletin from the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board: "Breathing an oxygen deficient atmosphere can have serious and immediate effects, including ...
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What makes humans omnivores, and not herbivores?

Some vegans claim that humans are herbivores, not omnivores, and that we are not physiologically designed to eat meat (see here: http://www.peta.org/living/food/natural-human-diet/). "According to ...
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Why are symptoms like headache and coma common in patients of metabolic acidosis?

Metabolic acidosis is a systemic electrolyte disorder in humans. Headache is a common symptom of metabolic acidosis. Is the headache due to excess amount of acid and coma when the brain becomes too ...
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113 views

Pressure measurement blood flow

During blood pressure measurement, when the flow within the arteries of the arm is interrupted, how is blood flow redistributed to the rest of the circulatory system? Is it possible that more blood ...
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63 views

Why does the friction of the sexual organs cause ejaculation?

What is the physiological mechanism?What kind of physiological phenomenon can friction cause? Why does friction produce orgasm and generate electric current in the body?
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47 views

Why do colors clash in your brain?

Wen pairing two or more colors together, some "clash" or cause a effect visually where the two colors meet. To me it appears to be a black line between the colors or shading when in fact ...

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