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Questions tagged [human-genome]

The 23 chromosome pairs, made up of 3 billion base-pairs, 22 chromosomes of which are autosomal and one which is an allosome, or sex chromosome.

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SNPs in the Human Genome

I read online that they have found around 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across individuals in the human genome [1]. However, this number includes all SNPs found in all people who ...
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Embryonic cells, when can you detect them in vivo? (In order to do whole genome sequencing)

I was wondering, when is it possible to extract cells (humans or mice) in order to sequence them and detect diseases. Extra: Urine of the embryo in humans is excreted in the 16th week, so I guess that ...
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How do different genes on human genome express themselves?

It is said that human genome contains over twenty five thousand genes, How many of these (can) express themselves as an external or internal trait in human beings (for e.g. like eye-colors, hair ...
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What are the potential dangers (if any) facing the twin girls recently born in China with their CCR5 gene modified?

According to this Nature news article, a Chinese researcher claims to have made the world's first genome-edited baby using the popular CRISPR–Cas9 genome-editing tool. A gene called CCR5 was modified ...
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chromosome 19 and recombination

Im doing a project with structural variation created by recombination within the human genome during spermatogenesis, where im especially examining intrachromatid homolog recombination. I find that ...
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What are the genetic basis for further classification of human beings? [closed]

According to anthropology, human race further gets divided in Caucasians, Mongoloids, Aboriginals, Eskimos, Red Indidians and Negro's. How far, is this classification, though maybe anthropologically ...
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Are human bodies programmed to die?

Following from this question: What is the evolutionary advantage of death?: Is there any evidence that human bodies have systemic self-destruction built into their developmental program? I'm not ...
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Balancing selection vs introgression?

Balancing selection can maintain polymorphisms in natural populations for extended periods of evolutionary time. However, in this paper, Dannemann et al. 2016 identify three archaic haplotypes in the ...
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183 views

haplotype data for 1000 Genomes

I need to get haplotype data for HapMap or 1000 Genomes for CEU, MKK, TSI, CHB and JPT for ± 1 Mb at LCT gene. I'm quite new in the area. Actually I don't know the meaning of "± 1 Mb". From which ...
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What advantages could there be for using the unseen variant chosen by He Jiankui instead of the naturally occurring CCR5-∆ 32 mutation?

Jennifer Doudna mentioned in https://youtu.be/9Yblg9wDHZA?t=2566 on 2019-02-21 that He Jiankui introduced an unseen variant of the CCR5 gene when gene editing the twin humans Lulu and Nana. What ...
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What percentage of the human genome hasn't been sequenced yet? If percentage estimates aren't precise, why is it difficult to estimate?

What percentage of the human genome hasn't been sequenced yet? I have read different estimates, e.g.: https://www.genome.gov/human-genome-project/Completion-FAQ (mirror): "In the April 2003 version, ...
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1answer
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If some humans inherited 3% of Neanderthal DNA, why are we 99.9% same genome? [duplicate]

Many sources say that humans are 99.5 to 99.9 percent the same. Also some sources state that some humans have 3.4% Neanderthal DNA and some don't share those genes. Why is that?
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Are SNPs and alleles the same thing?

It seems to be quite difficult to find an answer to this. Are SNPs the same thing as alleles?
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Why do genetic testing companies (FTDNA,AncestryDNA,23andme) express DNA shared in centimorgans (cM) instead of in number of base pairs or in percent?

Expressing DNA shared in number of base pairs or in percent of total genome would be so much simpler and easier to understand for the customers. .
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Are viruses ever manufactured directly from viral DNA embedded in the genome?

Some viruses can cause their genetic material to be pemanently stored in the human genome -- even getting passed on to offspring. Endogenous Retroviruses, for example are thought to make up between 5~...
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What causes skewed lanes in a DNA gel electrophoresis experiment?

In gel electrophoresis, what causes effects like these (see column 11 in the first one, and column 6 in the second)? (These images were samples that I took from an online activity we did for class)...
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1answer
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What's the longest intron in the human genome?

What's the longest intron in the human genome? Discarding isoforms were a long intron spans more than one exon, i.e. what's the longest distance between two exons without another exons in between.
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Basic questions about human genome project [closed]

The "human genome" was sequenced by the Human Genome Project around 2000. But I don't understand what was done and what its significance is. Questions: Wasn't a single person's genome sequenced? I....
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What is the strand specificity of a reference genome?

It's a simple question but I've come across many people who have this question, is the reference genome Positive of Negative strand? Indeed, I've had heated arguments over the same issue. So here's ...
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1answer
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Can a plasmid cause cancer? [closed]

Can a plasmid cause cancer? According to wikipedia, plasmids are normally present in bacteria They (plasmids) are normally present in bacteria , and sometimes in eukaryotic organisms such as yeast [...
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How many recombination events are there per generation in humans?

I'm looking for a reference that tells me how many recombenation events occur in humans from one generation to the next. Assuming that the human genome is a 3.3 GigaBases long DNA sequence, how many ...
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What about 23andMe's SNP test gives it such bad efficacy as a diagnostic tool?

The recent news about the FDA stopping the google backed 23andMe service selling any more kits got me thinking. I understand the company may have been selling it as a medical tool prematurely, but ...
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What is Genome Folding?

Why does genome folding have such great interest? For protein folding I could say that's important because protein's functionality closely depends on its folded state, since it affects its ...
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1answer
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Why are the genomes of Humans 99.5% the same?

Human's DNA sequence is said to be roughly 99.5% equal. As far as I understand, this means that if I walked up to you and compared our DNA, the sequence of base pairs would be 99.5% the same. My ...
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What percentage of a complete Denisovan genomes lives on in the union of the sets of overlapping pieces in extant humans

In studies like this one mapping out distributions around the world or the analysis described in this article (suggesting a contribution from a non-Denisovan but Denisovan-like unidentified hominin to ...
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What distinguishes “coding” from “noncoding” DNA?

I've been reading a bit about "junk DNA" and how much of our genome consists of this "non coding DNA" in comparison to "coding DNA". I'm just an interested layperson but I thought all combinations of ...
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How our body produce different T-cells?

I've heard in many documents said that : There are 25 million to a billion different T-cells in your body. Each cell has a unique T-cell receptor that can fit with only one kind of antigen - ...
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How would you effect bulk DNA gene therapy for a human?

Let's imagine that we understood DNA programming and our genome very well and realized that there were some significant flaws (we die, we need sleep, etc.) And let's imagine that we understand how to ...
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1answer
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Is it safe to publish a person's genome? [closed]

I recently went through the process of having my genome analyzed by 23andme, and received my raw data. Its very interesting to me, and I want to share it with the world. Is it safe to publish the ...
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1answer
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What is the relationship between DNA molecules and the chromosomes? [closed]

Regarding the human genome, if the DNA molecule is two continuous strands, with each gene occupying a segment in it, and there are 46 chromosomes each with some genes, where is the physical boundary ...
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HAR1 speedy mutation

From wiki: Human accelerated region 1 (HAR1) is a segment of the human genome found on the long arm of chromosome 20. It is a Human accelerated region. [..] These 49 regions represent parts of the ...
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If a DNA letter is one of A,T,C and G, and there are 3 billion base pairs, why don't we say that there are 6 billion letters in the genome?

A DNA letter is either one of A,T,C or G. Human genome is supposed to have 3 billion base pairs coming from each parent. But these are pairs - a combination of A-T or C-G. So, doesn't that make the ...
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What does chrUn mean in the output from a Bowtie run on human sequences?

After having performed an alignment using bowtie2 and GRCh38 as a reference sequence, I got inusual matches on chrUn. Here a small part of the SAM file: ...
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Altering the human genome

I recently had a conversation with a rather unusual gentleman who was, let's say, more than a little partial to conspiracy theories. He has this idea that governments are lowering "nanowires" from ...
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What species have had their genomes sequenced/are being sequenced?

The human genome project released it's first complete genome nearly ten years ago. Since then many species have also been sequenced. I am trying to find a list of completed (and possibly ongoing/...
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Can a new Y-chromosome be created?

The major gene of the Y-chromosome is SRY. Would it be possible to get the X-chromosome and add SRY to create a "fuller" Y-chromosome? What advantage does the skinny Y-chromosome give an individual ...
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1answer
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What sequences are between adjacent genes?

The human genome has a lot of non-coding regions, which include regulatory elements, repetitive DNA, and introns. Suppose there are two adjacent genes on a chromosome, and their positions on the ...
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Why does human chromosome 19 have the second highest number of protein-coding genes?

While chromosome 19 only is the 19th largest autosomal chromosome, it contains 1440 protein-coding genes, and thus has the second highest number of protein-coding genes of any human chromosome. For ...
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1answer
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How Much DNA do Siblings whose Parents are First Cousins Share?

On average, two siblings generally share 50% of their genome. How much does this increase if the siblings' parents are first cousins?
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1answer
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Dnase data for GRCh38

This question below turned to be completely faulty. I don't have to do anything with DNase data for GRCh38. I asked it because of the file count difference between hg38 and hg37, which I thought to be ...
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1answer
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How two genomes adopt when cell goes to recipient's body from donor's body?

We often give blood to another following the blood giving compatibility chart. Heart transplant and similar transplants also brings one's cell to another's body. My curiosity is, when a cell goes to ...
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What physical traits are derived from the Neanderthal DNA in human DNA?

Some researches had found that Human DNA has a bit of Neanderthal DNA. So they suggested there would have been crossing between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. Now the Neanderthal looked a bit ...
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1answer
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No. of genes in chromosomes. phenotype

Why do cells need all the genes of all the 22 pairs (excluding the 2 X- or Y-chromosomes) of autosomes in every somatic cell, when each and every cell which is specialised for its function does not ...
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1answer
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Does GC content determine codon bias or does codon bias determine GC content

I was wondering if someone knows the answer to this quenstion, because I can't find a clear answer, maybe there isn't a clear answer :). question Which of these two is right? or maybe both influence ...
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1answer
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What's the difference between CREs and DHSs?

I would like to know what's the difference between cis-regulating elements and DNase I–hypersensitive sites, in order to produce a meaningful segregation of non coding elements affecting gene ...
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In percentage, how much is the human genome (DNA) similar to the mouse genome?

Some guy argued with me against evolution theory, and he claimed that human and mice share 98% just like human and chimpanzee. I've tried to search online for a simple and accurate answer, but I ...
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1answer
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Where can I find a file listing the genetic differences in humans?

I don't know much about genetics. For an arts project I'm looking for a human genome. I read that: Only about 0.1% of the genome is different among individuals, which equates to about 3 million ...
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Insertion of synthetic DNA sequence

If I have some synthetic DNA sequence (<=20 bp long), is there a way for me to reliably insert this sequence next to some n-bp motif? I'd like for this to be possible in humans. If so, are there ...
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why dna polymerase 3 requires a primer for replication [duplicate]

Why DNA polymerase 3 needs a primer to star replication.And whats happens when there is no AUG sequence on entire DNA.
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Will someone with a double mutation in the allosomes be normal?

Normally a female human has an X allosome from her father and an X allosome form her mother. What if an double mutation happened, which causes that someone has two X allosomes form her mother and no ...