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Questions tagged [human-genome]

The 23 chromosome pairs, made up of 3 billion base-pairs, 22 chromosomes of which are autosomal and one which is an allosome, or sex chromosome.

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How many people's DNA were involved in the compilation of the reference human genome?

I know that the reference human genome is complied from DNA portions from different people, most of whom were European. Do you know how many of them were involved? Do you know which ones were involved?...
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Are human bodies programmed to die?

Following from this question: What is the evolutionary advantage of death?: Is there any evidence that human bodies have systemic self-destruction built into their developmental program? I'm not ...
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Why reference genome is a reference?

I have heard that a reference genome such as humans is generated by randomly choosing samples from a group of donors. But why do we call the DNA sequence generated as a reference? Why should we ...
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What is the contribution of viruses to the evolution of mankind?

I'm interested in horizontal gene transfer in bacteria, viruses, and organisms such as Bdelloid Rotifers. I've just read in Carl Zimmer's 'A Planet of Viruses' the following passage: As a host cell ...
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What distinguishes “coding” from “noncoding” DNA?

I've been reading a bit about "junk DNA" and how much of our genome consists of this "non coding DNA" in comparison to "coding DNA". I'm just an interested layperson but I thought all combinations of ...
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Shortest strings not present in the human genome

What length are the shortest strings of DNA not present in any known person's genome, and what are they? And is there a database online by which I could find this out?
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Why does human chromosome 19 have the second highest number of protein-coding genes?

While chromosome 19 only is the 19th largest autosomal chromosome, it contains 1440 protein-coding genes, and thus has the second highest number of protein-coding genes of any human chromosome. For ...
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How is the sequenced genome of a person useful to him in practice, now?

Currently it is possible and not so expensive for a person to have his genome. This is useful in general for understanding how life works. But, in practice, how is this useful for the specific person ...
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Altering the human genome

I recently had a conversation with a rather unusual gentleman who was, let's say, more than a little partial to conspiracy theories. He has this idea that governments are lowering "nanowires" from ...
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Number of transcription factor genes in the human genome

What is the number of the transcription factor genes present in the human genome? Does this value differ compared to Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana, C. elegans and S. ...
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What causes skewed lanes in a DNA gel electrophoresis experiment?

In gel electrophoresis, what causes effects like these (see column 11 in the first one, and column 6 in the second)? (These images were samples that I took from an online activity we did for class)...
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What are the potential dangers (if any) facing the twin girls recently born in China with their CCR5 gene modified?

According to this Nature news article, a Chinese researcher claims to have made the world's first genome-edited baby using the popular CRISPR–Cas9 genome-editing tool. A gene called CCR5 was modified ...
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What is the strand specificity of a reference genome?

It's a simple question but I've come across many people who have this question, is the reference genome Positive of Negative strand? Indeed, I've had heated arguments over the same issue. So here's ...
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What are the function(s) of Alu elements in the cell?

My 2008 biology book (1) states that some 10% of the human genome consists of relatively short (~300 nucleotides long) Alu elements which do not code for proteins but many of which are transcribed ...
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Are there any DNA base sequences that are fully conserved between the genomes of all humans?

That is, they don't differ throughout the entire population. I understand of course that we can't DNA sequence every human, so by "fully" I mean there's an incredibly small probability of there being ...
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What about 23andMe's SNP test gives it such bad efficacy as a diagnostic tool?

The recent news about the FDA stopping the google backed 23andMe service selling any more kits got me thinking. I understand the company may have been selling it as a medical tool prematurely, but ...
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Turning publicly available genome data into proteins

I'm a computer scientist who is starting to dabble with biology. My eventual goal is to model different kinds of cells with a computer program. As of right now, I'm just trying to take some smaller ...
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In percentage, how much is the human genome (DNA) similar to the mouse genome?

Some guy argued with me against evolution theory, and he claimed that human and mice share 98% just like human and chimpanzee. I've tried to search online for a simple and accurate answer, but I ...
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How would you effect bulk DNA gene therapy for a human?

Let's imagine that we understood DNA programming and our genome very well and realized that there were some significant flaws (we die, we need sleep, etc.) And let's imagine that we understand how to ...
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How many recombination events are there per generation in humans?

I'm looking for a reference that tells me how many recombenation events occur in humans from one generation to the next. Assuming that the human genome is a 3.3 GigaBases long DNA sequence, how many ...
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What species have had their genomes sequenced/are being sequenced?

The human genome project released it's first complete genome nearly ten years ago. Since then many species have also been sequenced. I am trying to find a list of completed (and possibly ongoing/...
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How do you merge SNP data with a reference genome?

My Data I have a 23andMe file listing SNPs in the form: ...
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Results of a complete DNA sequencing - are they 100% reusable?

Is that correct that a complete DNA sequencing (the whole genome) need only to be done once (per person)? After that is done, it the complete genome can be stored and once the new genes (and their ...
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Is it safe to publish a person's genome? [closed]

I recently went through the process of having my genome analyzed by 23andme, and received my raw data. Its very interesting to me, and I want to share it with the world. Is it safe to publish the ...
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Criteria for the numbering of human chromosomes

What were the criteria devised for the numbering convention employed in human chromosomes? When was it fixed? Correct me if I am wrong; it appears that chromosome pairs 1 to 22 were originally ...
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Are SNPs and alleles the same thing?

It seems to be quite difficult to find an answer to this. Are SNPs the same thing as alleles?
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SNPs in the Human Genome

I have read online that they have found around 10 million SNPs in the human genome [1]. I was wondering how many SNPs there are in a single person on average, I could not find any well-found evidence ...
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Is there a more updated version of the book “Genome?” [closed]

I read the book Genome by Matt Ridley for my AP biology course. I found it fascinating, although it seems another book must have been written on the topic since 1999. Anything you can recommend?
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What is meant by single molecule sequencing?

When sequencing papers refer to single molecule sequencing, what is their definition of a "molecule". Are they saying base by base? The entire DNA chain in a chromosome can also be though of as a "...
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Is it really detrimental to humans as a species to reproduce with one's own first cousin?

Tired of hearing of these urban legends and popular opinions, I ask this question here to see if there really is scientific merit to this belief. My questions is, is it really "harmful" for a person ...
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Why are the genomes of Humans 99.5% the same?

Human's DNA sequence is said to be roughly 99.5% equal. As far as I understand, this means that if I walked up to you and compared our DNA, the sequence of base pairs would be 99.5% the same. My ...
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What does chrUn mean in the output from a Bowtie run on human sequences?

After having performed an alignment using bowtie2 and GRCh38 as a reference sequence, I got inusual matches on chrUn. Here a small part of the SAM file: ...
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Markers for human genetic mapping

For human genetic mapping several different types of markers are used: RFLPs (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms) VNTRs (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats) such as mini- and microsatellites ...
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Percentage of understood human DNA [closed]

I want to know what's the approximate percentage of understood human DNA, as in, which part does what. I'm not asking for details, just the amount. Thank you.
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List of heritability estimates in humans?

Many people on this site ask questions that directly or indirectly have to do with heritability in human. Do you know a list of estimates of heritability of various traits in humans? Or could you try ...
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Can a new Y-chromosome be created?

The major gene of the Y-chromosome is SRY. Would it be possible to get the X-chromosome and add SRY to create a "fuller" Y-chromosome? What advantage does the skinny Y-chromosome give an individual ...
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What sequences are between adjacent genes?

The human genome has a lot of non-coding regions, which include regulatory elements, repetitive DNA, and introns. Suppose there are two adjacent genes on a chromosome, and their positions on the ...
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How Much DNA do Siblings whose Parents are First Cousins Share?

On average, two siblings generally share 50% of their genome. How much does this increase if the siblings' parents are first cousins?
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How two genomes adopt when cell goes to recipient's body from donor's body?

We often give blood to another following the blood giving compatibility chart. Heart transplant and similar transplants also brings one's cell to another's body. My curiosity is, when a cell goes to ...
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Does GC content determine codon bias or does codon bias determine GC content

I was wondering if someone knows the answer to this quenstion, because I can't find a clear answer, maybe there isn't a clear answer :). question Which of these two is right? or maybe both influence ...
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How correlated are proximally related CpG sites in human DNA?

Cytosine residues in DNA that can be methylated (i.e. CpG sites) are likely to be in the same methylation state if they are geographically (proximally) close together. I can only find one paper that ...
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Dnase data for GRCh38

This question below turned to be completely faulty. I don't have to do anything with DNase data for GRCh38. I asked it because of the file count difference between hg38 and hg37, which I thought to be ...
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If some humans inherited 3% of Neanderthal DNA, why are we 99.9% same genome? [duplicate]

Many sources say that humans are 99.5 to 99.9 percent the same. Also some sources state that some humans have 3.4% Neanderthal DNA and some don't share those genes. Why is that?
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What is Genome Folding?

Why does genome folding have such great interest? For protein folding I could say that's important because protein's functionality closely depends on its folded state, since it affects its ...
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Are the Chromosomes organized in any meaningful way? [closed]

So my major is in pharmacy but both my master and my (currently in progress) doctoral degree are both in theoretical chemistry. My thesis is about quantum chemistry and proteins, but it has a certain ...
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How can stem cells be counted in body?

In the study of supercentenarian woman here, it was found that all her blood cells are formed from only two stem cells (ancestor stem cells). How scientists can distinguish cell ancestors? Aren't ...
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If a DNA letter is one of A,T,C and G, and there are 3 billion base pairs, why don't we say that there are 6 billion letters in the genome?

A DNA letter is either one of A,T,C or G. Human genome is supposed to have 3 billion base pairs coming from each parent. But these are pairs - a combination of A-T or C-G. So, doesn't that make the ...
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Generating custom human DNA sequences based on traits such as eye colour?

I'm wondering if it would be possible to create software (unless some already exists, but I couldn't find any) to generate human DNA (the base pairs on the double helix) containing genes representing ...
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What's the longest intron in the human genome?

What's the longest intron in the human genome? Discarding isoforms were a long intron spans more than one exon, i.e. what's the longest distance between two exons without another exons in between.