Questions tagged [immune-system]

This tag is for general questions related directly or indirectly to the vertebrate immune system, but are not questions directly related to Immunology, the discipline of the study of the immune system.

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What is the optimal temperature for Omicron to thrive in?

I have always been under the impression that when sick, you should let a fever run its course. The accepted answer to the question Why do people take drugs to lower a fever? seems to provide some ...
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If we introduce the body with an adjuvant and after a time T with inactivated virus, for what rough reasonable value of T will the vaccine still work?

My understanding is that along with introducing an inactivated virus to the body, we also need to stimulate the immune system using an adjuvant so that there is a strong response to the virus ...
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What is the significance of an adjuvant to traffic vaccine antigen directly to draining lymph nodes without diffusing into the systemic circulation?

I found the following sentence in the this paper- Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBV152: a double-blind, randomised, phase 1 trial An imidazoquinoline molecule, which ...
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Is the response to a vaccine correlated with the reaction to the disease?

I was wondering if the response to a vaccine correlates with the reaction to the disease. For example, if someone had a strong reaction to a vaccine, this person would also have had a severe course of ...
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How much of TLR 7 agonist is safe for human beings, as it is both linked to development of autoimmune diseases but is also used as Vaccine adjuvant?

This question is motivated by the fact that TLR 7 agonists have been linked to development and acceleration of Lupus-like disease both in animals and human beings. But at the same time, TLR 7 agonist ...
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Why are scientists saying that the Omicron COVID-19 variant is a reason to get a booster?

I was watching Vox’s video, Big questions about the Covid booster shot, answered, which references the New York Times article Omicron Prompts Swift Reconsideration of Boosters Among Scientists. In ...
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What is the definiton of repertoire shift in B cells?

I am new to biology and trying to understand this term. Couldn't find a comprehensive defintion. Thank you
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What is the upper limit for 'active' vaccinations

As far as I know the effect of vaccines is caused mainly by creating Memory Cells specific to a single pathogen. As there is obviously a lower limit of memory cells needed for immunity ( at least one),...
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What animal has the strongest immune system?

I'm wondering what animal has the strongest immune system. It can be defined as the most evolved immune system or the immune system that can eliminate or tolerate most number of (different) viruses/...
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Viral vector vaccines - why doesn't the viral vector get attacked by the innate immune system?

I've been looking at how the Astrazeneca Covid-19 vaccine works: A chimpanzee adenovirus (the viral vector) is injected into the patient. After entering a cell, the viral DNA is deposited in the host ...
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Why do the mRNA vaccines for COVID need special lipids?

I've read that the Pfizer mRNA vaccine is delivered to the cell by encapsulating the fragile mRNA into a lipid nanoparticle. However, the lipid has to be PEGylated in order to avoid immunogenecity. ...
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Are autoantibodies against intracellular proteins "functional"?

Autoantibodies against intracellular proteins have been detected in some autoimmune diseases (For example, TRIM21 in Sjögren's syndrome and NALP5 in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1). My ...
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Do COVID-19 vaccines produce more spike protein than natural infection?

The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein has been shown to be harmful on its own. However, a news article quoted an "expert" as saying The spike protein components of the vaccine are not produced in ...
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Is the covid-19 vaccine-induced copy of the protein spike also damaging cells?

In recent scientific articles, it has been discovered how the spike protein not only is a respiratory disease but also damages blood vessels cells directly, and is connected with higher risk of ...
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Acute cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing capacity

how many cells can a CTL eliminate sequentially? Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are a subset of the adaptive immune system which can target cells for apoptotic elimination. This elimination begins ...
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How do APCs find their specific T-cells in the lymph nodes?

My understanding is that when an APC (more specifically a dendritic cell) encounters an antigen in the periphery, it ingests it and presents it on its surface. It then migrates to lymph nodes to ...
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Is covid vaccine helpful for a covid patient?

I am not a biology student and this question came in my mind out of nowhere. I read somewhere that the vaccines contain some denatured or almost dead corona viruses and when these are injected in our ...
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Does stronger reaction to vaccine (fever, days of nausea) mean that an immune system would have reacted the same to the virus?

I have heard that the real danger of Covid-19 is the strong immune response. Is it more likely that a person's immune system would have reacted dangerously to the virus?
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Does antibody-production play a significant role in viral infection-response?

My question targets the role of newly produced antibodies in prevention of later disease versus their role in the acute current infection. Initially, my interpretation of the typical viral immune ...
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What makes a bacterium move away from a neutrophil cell?

In this video we see a bacterium seemingly moving away from the neutrophil that is chasing it. What mechanism makes it "want" to avoid the neutrophil? It doesn't seem to mind being around ...
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What differentiates bound antibodies from unbound ones?

When an antibody is bound to an antigen, it can then stimulate a FcR receptor on a phagocyte etc. to respond to the threat. What stops 'free' antibodies from spuriously activating an immune response? ...
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How many lymphocytes in a lymph nodes?

Millions of lymphocytes pass through lymph nodes every hours (Hall, 1967). Anyone happen to know how many reside in a lymph node, roughly? Lymph nodes seem to have volume of around a ml, average (Ying,...
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Why is graft-vs-host so selective against phylogenetically close cells?

Is there a well established explanation for the phenomena that graft-vs-host is so much more selective against phylogenetically close cells? See historically significant references below, "This ...
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Which landmark paper first described the differentiation of T-cells?

T-cells are distinguished from B cells in part by their locus of differentiation/maturation (thymus). This is textbook knowledge, but I was wondering which particular person or people were responsible ...
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How does lactate produced in the intestines get transported to the rest of the body?

Some gut bacteria known as lactic acid bacteria(LAB) are known to produce lactate in the intestines and they confer beneficial effects such as enhancement of the immune system, but I assume not all of ...
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What happens if a circulating naive B cell is met with a polysaccharide/lipid antigen?

These antigens should provoke a T-independent response, so will they differentiate then and there to form short-lived plasma cells? Or do they have to go to lymphoid tissue, enter a B follicle, and ...
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Spike protein production by mRNA vaccines?

I am trying to understand the spike protein production mechanism of the mRNA vaccines, and during my research I learned that the mRNA (Moderna, mRNA-1273) vaccines hijack the cell machinery to produce ...
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Why can't C1r cleave C4 proteins?

I am researching the complement system, and have ran into something I'm not really sure about. In the past, the C1r2s2 complex was thought to be an 8-like structure tucked inside C1q's collagenous ...
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How do injected purified anti-D antibodies prevent the natural production of antibodies in order to prevent Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn?

Treatments involving Anti-D antibodies are given to pregnant women carrying Rh+ fetuses when the mother has an Rh- blood type in order to prevent Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn during the 2nd ...
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Why is the food we consume right from birth not immunogenic to elicit an immune response? [closed]

Excluding the hypersensitive reactions which are individual specific, how is food we consume considered safe by the immune system?
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Howthe body differentiate between foreign and native protein? How does it know when to create an immune response? [duplicate]

How the body differentiate between a foreign and a native protein? Suppose there is a bacteria, it has lot's protein on its membrane, with specific structures. How does our body know it's the foreign ...
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Auto-immune problems if immature B-cells released if bone marrow bone is fractured?

A fracture of a bone containing bone marrow with B-cells not yet taught to not recognize self-antigen, if the bone is fractured, can those cells get released and cause problems?
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Can you still contract a disease after being vaccinated and be able to spread it?

I assume I know the answer to this already but wanted to confirm before I respond to someone that appears to be arguing that vaccines don't make you immune (they only stop your symptoms?) - but you ...
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Does immunity to CRISPR proteins limit their effectiveness?

The use of crisper-cas systems is currently applied to cells cultivated in vitro. As control of the ‘off target’ effects of Crispr improves and Crispr is used in vivo, why won’t the immune system ...
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How T-Cell recognizes a cell infected by a virus?

According to few articles I read (like BBC about The people with hidden immunity against Covid-19 ): starting out about four or five days after infection, you begin to see T cells getting activated, ...
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What is the mechanism responsible for long-lasting detectable antibody titers?

As I understand, when naive B cell encounters antigen matching its receptors and is activated by a T helper cell, it can either differentiate into 4 plasma cells, produce a lot of antibodies and ...
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How can I detect which antibody is produced by the B cell?

In the primary immune response, IgM is produced (in addition to IgD ). In the secondary immune response, various types of antibodies are produced. So how do I detect which antibody a B cell is ...
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About how many covid-19 virus particles is required in the human body before infection and sickness follows?

Our immune systems are often able to destroy germs and virus particles. About how many of them does it take to make a 70 year old healthy male sick ? Any ideas ?
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Could there be a pathogen which does not activate an immune response?

In order for the immune system to be stimulated to produce antibodies, there must be a surface protein of the invading pathogen which binds to a receptor on B cell surface somewhat loosely. We need ...
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Are all antibodies against a common antigen identical? [duplicate]

I understand that when some antigen (e.g., virus, bacteria, etc.) is recognized in the body, antibodies specific to this antigen are produced that, in turn, bind to the antigen and effectively ...
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Why is there a distinction between an *allergic* and an *immune* response?

Our immune system has evolved to protect us against potentially dangerous non-self particles. I have difficulty in understanding why there is a distinction called an allergic response: what’s wrong ...
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Immune response to foreign protein

In the context of COVID-19, why is it possible to inject someone else’s antibody protein into a person without fear of stimulating an immune response. Does this indicate that, somehow, antibody ...
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Do person with strong immune system have less chance of surviving SARS-COV-2 attack?

In most of the cases dealing with SARS-COV-2 disease, the major mortality cause is due to cytokine storm in response to Corona-virus that also attack healthy organs causing multiple organ failure. ...
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Can intracellular protein initiate strong immune response?

Some autoantibodies escape immune tolerance and can cause autoimmune disease. In order to cause harm to the tissues by these autoantibodies, do the antigen need to be extracellular or membrane bound, ...
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Can the innate immune system defeat a pathogen by itself? Fast enough that we don't develop antibodies, etc.?

Would we have any way of knowing if our innate immune system destroyed a pathogen without involving the adaptive? Could a symptomless person who tests positive for COVID-19 with the RNA test, e.g., ...
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Why do viruses cause different symptoms?

If the sole purpose of a virus is to hijack the nucleus of a cell to replicate, why do we have different symptoms for different viruses? I can think of the following coming into play: immune response ...
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How can poliovirus and other pathogens lead to permanent conditions if the bodies adaptive immune system is still functioning? [closed]

Wont the lymphatic system eventually create antibodies that completely eliminate the virus in the body?
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Can a macrophage differentiate back into a monocyte?

I know that monocytes differentiate into macrophages when they enter the tissues, but do macrophages stay in those same tissues for the remainder of their lifespan, or do they differentiate back into ...
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How antibodies are produced in our body against intracellular proteins of infectious bacteria?

When an infectious agent invades our body, then surface antigens of the infectious agent are detected by our immune system and B-cells get activated. However, we do have antibodies in our blood ...
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Is this trial that reversed aging in humans worth taking seriously?

In September 2019 Fahy et al. published results from the TRIIM (Thymus Regeneration, Immunorestoration, and Insulin Mitigation) trial. Their stated goals were to investigate whether they could restore ...