Questions tagged [immune-system]

This tag is for general questions related directly or indirectly to the vertebrate immune system, but are not questions directly related to Immunology, the discipline of the study of the immune system.

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10 views

Does antibody-production play a significant role in viral infection-response?

My question targets the role of newly produced antibodies in prevention of later disease versus their role in the acute current infection. Initially, my interpretation of the typical viral immune ...
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What makes a bacterium move away from a neutrophil cell?

In this video we see a bacterium seemingly moving away from the neutrophil that is chasing it. What mechanism makes it "want" to avoid the neutrophil? It doesn't seem to mind being around ...
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What differentiates bound antibodies from unbound ones?

When an antibody is bound to an antigen, it can then stimulate a FcR receptor on a phagocyte etc. to respond to the threat. What stops 'free' antibodies from spuriously activating an immune response? ...
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T cell “memory” vs natural immunity with viral infections

Please note: in this question I discuss COVID-19 as an example, but it really applies to viruses in general and how the immune system deals with "remembering" how to overpower them upon ...
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How many lymphocytes in a lymph nodes?

Millions of lymphocytes pass through lymph nodes every hours (Hall, 1967). Anyone happen to know how many reside in a lymph node, roughly? Lymph nodes seem to have volume of around a ml, average (Ying,...
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Why is graft-vs-host so selective against phylogenetically close cells?

Is there a well established explanation for the phenomena that graft-vs-host is so much more selective against phylogenetically close cells? See historically significant references below, "This ...
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1answer
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Which landmark paper first described the differentiation of T-cells?

T-cells are distinguished from B cells in part by their locus of differentiation/maturation (thymus). This is textbook knowledge, but I was wondering which particular person or people were responsible ...
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How does lactate produced in the intestines get transported to the rest of the body?

Some gut bacteria known as lactic acid bacteria(LAB) are known to produce lactate in the intestines and they confer beneficial effects such as enhancement of the immune system, but I assume not all of ...
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How does your body recognize new antigens? [duplicate]

So I've been looking into the function of the immune system recently, and have been a bit confused with the process of developing new antibodies for foreign antigens. Based on what I've read and ...
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What happens if a circulating naive B cell is met with a polysaccharide/lipid antigen?

These antigens should provoke a T-independent response, so will they differentiate then and there to form short-lived plasma cells? Or do they have to go to lymphoid tissue, enter a B follicle, and ...
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172 views

Spike protein production by mRNA vaccines?

I am trying to understand the spike protein production mechanism of the mRNA vaccines, and during my research I learned that the mRNA (Moderna, mRNA-1273) vaccines hijack the cell machinery to produce ...
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Why can't C1r cleave C4 proteins?

I am researching the complement system, and have ran into something I'm not really sure about. In the past, the C1r2s2 complex was thought to be an 8-like structure tucked inside C1q's collagenous ...
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How do injected purified anti-D antibodies prevent the natural production of antibodies in order to prevent Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn?

Treatments involving Anti-D antibodies are given to pregnant women carrying Rh+ fetuses when the mother has an Rh- blood type in order to prevent Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn during the 2nd ...
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Why is the food we consume right from birth not immunogenic to elicit an immune response? [closed]

Excluding the hypersensitive reactions which are individual specific, how is food we consume considered safe by the immune system?
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At what age are mice considered too old for their thymus to stop being functional and produce T cells?

I am studying the effects of radiation on the immune system of mice. After exposing them to radiation, we will be harvesting their spleen, lymph nodes and blood to investigate immune cells such as T ...
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Howthe body differentiate between foreign and native protein? How does it know when to create an immune response? [duplicate]

How the body differentiate between a foreign and a native protein? Suppose there is a bacteria, it has lot's protein on its membrane, with specific structures. How does our body know it's the foreign ...
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Auto-immune problems if immature B-cells released if bone marrow bone is fractured?

A fracture of a bone containing bone marrow with B-cells not yet taught to not recognize self-antigen, if the bone is fractured, can those cells get released and cause problems?
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Can you still contract a disease after being vaccinated and be able to spread it?

I assume I know the answer to this already but wanted to confirm before I respond to someone that appears to be arguing that vaccines don't make you immune (they only stop your symptoms?) - but you ...
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Does immunity to CRISPR proteins limit their effectiveness?

The use of crisper-cas systems is currently applied to cells cultivated in vitro. As control of the ‘off target’ effects of Crispr improves and Crispr is used in vivo, why won’t the immune system ...
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1answer
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How T-Cell recognizes a cell infected by a virus?

According to few articles I read (like BBC about The people with hidden immunity against Covid-19 ): starting out about four or five days after infection, you begin to see T cells getting activated, ...
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What is the mechanism responsible for long-lasting detectable antibody titers?

As I understand, when naive B cell encounters antigen matching its receptors and is activated by a T helper cell, it can either differentiate into 4 plasma cells, produce a lot of antibodies and ...
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How can I detect which antibody is produced by the B cell?

In the primary immune response, IgM is produced (in addition to IgD ). In the secondary immune response, various types of antibodies are produced. So how do I detect which antibody a B cell is ...
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About how many covid-19 virus particles is required in the human body before infection and sickness follows?

Our immune systems are often able to destroy germs and virus particles. About how many of them does it take to make a 70 year old healthy male sick ? Any ideas ?
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Could there be a pathogen which does not activate an immune response?

In order for the immune system to be stimulated to produce antibodies, there must be a surface protein of the invading pathogen which binds to a receptor on B cell surface somewhat loosely. We need ...
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1answer
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Are all antibodies against a common antigen identical? [duplicate]

I understand that when some antigen (e.g., virus, bacteria, etc.) is recognized in the body, antibodies specific to this antigen are produced that, in turn, bind to the antigen and effectively ...
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Why is there a distinction between an *allergic* and an *immune* response?

Our immune system has evolved to protect us against potentially dangerous non-self particles. I have difficulty in understanding why there is a distinction called an allergic response: what’s wrong ...
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Immune response to foreign protein

In the context of COVID-19, why is it possible to inject someone else’s antibody protein into a person without fear of stimulating an immune response. Does this indicate that, somehow, antibody ...
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Do person with strong immune system have less chance of surviving SARS-COV-2 attack?

In most of the cases dealing with SARS-COV-2 disease, the major mortality cause is due to cytokine storm in response to Corona-virus that also attack healthy organs causing multiple organ failure. ...
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Can intracellular protein initiate strong immune response?

Some autoantibodies escape immune tolerance and can cause autoimmune disease. In order to cause harm to the tissues by these autoantibodies, do the antigen need to be extracellular or membrane bound, ...
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Can the innate immune system defeat a pathogen by itself? Fast enough that we don't develop antibodies, etc.?

Would we have any way of knowing if our innate immune system destroyed a pathogen without involving the adaptive? Could a symptomless person who tests positive for COVID-19 with the RNA test, e.g., ...
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1answer
54 views

Why do viruses cause different symptoms?

If the sole purpose of a virus is to hijack the nucleus of a cell to replicate, why do we have different symptoms for different viruses? I can think of the following comming into play: immune ...
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How can poliovirus and other pathogens lead to permanent conditions if the bodies adaptive immune system is still functioning? [closed]

Wont the lymphatic system eventually create antibodies that completely eliminate the virus in the body?
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Can a macrophage differentiate back into a monocyte?

I know that monocytes differentiate into macrophages when they enter the tissues, but do macrophages stay in those same tissues for the remainder of their lifespan, or do they differentiate back into ...
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How antibodies are produced in our body against intracellular proteins of infectious bacteria?

When an infectious agent invades our body, then surface antigens of the infectious agent are detected by our immune system and B-cells get activated. However, we do have antibodies in our blood ...
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Is this trial that reversed aging in humans worth taking seriously?

In September 2019 Fahy et al. published results from the TRIIM (Thymus Regeneration, Immunorestoration, and Insulin Mitigation) trial. Their stated goals were to investigate whether they could restore ...
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Is it possible for virus infected cells to continue to present a self-antigen on the MHC1?

Forgive my ignorance, as I'm new to immunology, however it seems like there would be some amount of positive selective pressure for viruses to develop the ability to continue to present the host's ...
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What determines if a small protein / large peptide is immunogenic?

I'm wondering if there is some threshold in size or a specific structural property that determines if a small protein or large peptide would cause an immune reaction. Context: there are a number of ...
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If every person between 15-60 had an immune system equal to the healthiest people, would this affect the spread of coronavirus? [closed]

Has anyone calculated the speed or breadth of the spread of something like coronavirus (or any cold, flu, airborne pathogen) based on how well the population can master the virus with their immune ...
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How are antibodies specific for a disease detected in the blood if everybody produces a different antibody for the same antigen?

To break the title down into parts: There exist serology tests that detect the amount of an antibody (Ab) against a specific pathogen/antigen. Every human produces their own Ab for a specific ...
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Does antibodies get produced in female body against sperms?

Our immune system produces antibodies against any foreign particles entering our body.In female body sperms are a foreign particle .Does females produce antibodies or some sort of chemical resistance ...
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Why do vaccines sometimes induce a fever? [closed]

How does a vaccine cause an immune response such as fever? Why do only some people experience these reactions? Why might those reactions change upon subsequent doses of the same or similar vaccines?
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Relationship between immunologic response to specific gluten epitopes and clinical antibody testing

Celiac disease is understood to be an immune response to certain proteins which occur in a group of cereals; most commonly they are glutens (wheat), secalins (rye) and hordeins (barley). A clinical ...
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Why are superantigens not “MHC-restricted”, and what's the significance?

MHC restriction is the requirement to recognize an antigen in association with a self-MHC molecule; CD4+ cells can only respond to an antigen if it's presented with a self-MHC II molecule, and the ...
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Does a breastfed infant gain immunoprotection due to intramuscular vaccination of the breastfeeder?

There is a claim that infants gain immunoprotection from breastfeeding. I am especially interested in specific protection against pathogens the breastfeeder (not necessarily the mother) has been ...
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How does the white blood cell ‘hunt’ the bacterium?

There's this mildly viral video which reportedly shows a white blood cell hunting a bacterium: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JnlULOjUhSQ What I don't understand is - at this scale, how does the ...
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Do people have local immunity?

I mean the immunity that covers only one body part or skin area after exposure to the infection but does not cover the whole organism.
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2answers
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What does it mean to be a fully human monoclonal antibody?

I somewhat understand that some monoclonal antibodies are developed from the cells of mice, or a fusion of human and mice genes. When something is a fully human monoclonal antibody does that mean it ...
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Can cell mediated immune response be transferred via blood transfusion

I read that human body can develop cell mediated immunity to viral infections and subsequently clear the virus. For example, people clear warts through cell mediated immune response against the wart ...
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What is the end-point of material from an apoptotic cell, after phagocytosis?

Apoptosis occurs. The organelles and interior material form apoptotic bodies that are packed in vesicles. The cell membrane breaks apart (cell no longer exists) and apoptotic bodies enter the ...
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Is there evidence that children should play in dirt to get healthy?

I've heard it said many times, that we should let children play in the dirt as it builds up their immunity and prevents things like allergies in later life. I have another suggestion which, to me, is ...