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Questions tagged [immune-system]

This tag is for general questions related directly or indirectly to the vertebrate immune system, but are not questions directly related to Immunology, the discipline of the study of the immune system.

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1answer
106 views

How does the adaptive immune system store information?

I am quite curious about this: Where and how is knowledge that the adaptive immune system accumulates stored? What is the "memory size limit" of this storage method if there is any? Why cant this ...
3
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1answer
210 views

What goes wrong in the immune system that leads to autoimmune diseases

As far as I understood so far, B and T cells are produced in the bone marrow, and during their maturing process in the bone marrow or Thymus, the are "programmed" to react to certain proteins. It is ...
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1answer
84 views

Is there a non-bacterial source of lipopolysacchrides

I am wondering if there are any other non-bacterial sources of LPS. To my understanding, lipopolysacchrides (LPS) are components of the outer leaflet of gram-negative bacteria, but are there any other ...
2
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1answer
107 views

Why would eating the meat of cows fed with antibiotics trigger an immune response to the antibiotics? [closed]

The document "Antibiotics and Antibiotic resistance" contains the following paragraph: The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in feed stuffs means that humans may receive unwanted doses of ...
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1answer
86 views

Can neutrophils kill bacteria inside other cells?

Are neutrophils able to get inside epithelial cells in order to kill bacteria. Therefore, even if a bacteria gets inside the epithelial cells can the neutrophils get inside the epithelium to kill the ...
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0answers
52 views

In the event of an abrasion, do mast cells cause vasodilation or vascular constriction?

Or both? I am unsure as to what mast cells will do in the event of a wound either on the epidermis or the epithelial. I know they secrete factors that mediate vascular constriction / dilation, but I ...
9
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1answer
2k views

How does the immune system fight scabies mites?

After a distressing episode involving my elderly mother and a nursing home, I've been reading up on scabies. It seems that in healthy people, the immune system limits the mite population to around 10 ...
0
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1answer
392 views

Clonal and subclonal mutations in cancer

Likely this will sound as a silly question, but I don't know whom to ask. Ok, here it goes. McGranahan et al link found that tumors with high clonal antigen load are more likely to respond to the ...
3
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1answer
115 views

Why can Toll-like receptors be found either inside and outside the cell?

Innate immune cells may present Toll-like receptors either inside (TLR3 and TLR9, for instance) or outside (TLR4 and TLR5, for instance) the cell, but is there any beneficial reason for this? If so, ...
3
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1answer
68 views

How do B and T cells work incorrectly in a person with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus?

Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks healthy cells. How exactly do B and T cells attack these cells they mistake for pathogens?
6
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1answer
305 views

Does vaccination make the immune system “lazy”?

I was having this discussion with a friend over vaccination against the flu. Although he agrees that vaccination against almost all diseases is necessary, he said that flu shots are not. He argued ...
3
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1answer
457 views

What are the effects of the common cold in an immunodeficient person?

How would the virus causing the common cold (rhinovirus) affect the human body in the absence of a normal immune response? On the linked wiki page it is said that the runny nose and fever symptoms are ...
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1answer
2k views

Can fever cure Ebola disease?

Why is ebola disease does not cured on elevating body temperature by body defense system? Can we cure it either by elevating or reducing body temperature (in ice bath) and creating hostile environment ...
52
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2answers
9k views

What is the benefit of fever during infections?

When people get sick, they often develop a fever. What is the effect of an increased body temperature on viruses and bacteria in the body? Is it beneficial to the infected body? Importantly, often ...
3
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3answers
1k views

Where do the antibodies that trigger the specific immune response come from?

In A level Biology, we are taught that in order to trigger the specific immune response of the body, antibodies must first attach to the pathogen. The macrophages contain antibody receptors, and this ...
0
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1answer
90 views

Meaning of “primers IL-2” in a scientific article

From an article ("Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Lewis Rats by FTY720 Treatment", 2003): We performed PCR amplification in a 100-μl reaction mixture containing 200 μM ...
8
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1answer
156 views

What is the name of this series?

My biology teacher used to show us videos (actually animations) on the human immune system. What I remember is that one video was on a virus (represented as a purple colored sphere with spikes) that a ...
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2answers
602 views

Where and how is information about pathogen immunity stored in a cell?

If all of the DNA is being used, then how would the cell be able to store new information about pathogens in DNA? It's like a full hard drive that can't hold any more. So does the cell just compress ...
4
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1answer
192 views

What does the term “recruitment of T-cell” mean?

With respect to the article, what does the term "recruitment of T-cell" mean? Who recruits T- cell? Does recruiting T-cell mean the T-cells get a sense of directionality to get activated by the APC's?
2
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1answer
347 views

Lab experiment: Enumeration of Leukocytes

The images below were obtained in an experiment to enumerate leukocytes in a blood sample using Neubauer counting chamber. The following solution was prepared and added to the Neubauer chamber and ...
5
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1answer
74 views

Why don't phagocytes eliminate mutualistic foregin organisms residing in our body?

Many organisms residing in our body and have a symbiotic mutualistic relationship with our body e.g. organisms in our small intestines. How come our body does not activate an immune response against ...
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0answers
72 views

Meaning of proliferation rate of 3 day−1

The abstract of an article in Journal of Virology contains the following line: We find that CD8+ cell proliferation begins 1 to 2 days after infection and occurs at an average rate of 3 day−1, ...
4
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0answers
123 views

How much time does it take for the naive T Cell to get activated?

Suppose a naive T cell comes in contact with an APC. How much time does it take for the T Cell to get activated and within how much time does the T cell move away from the APC due to incompatibility ...
4
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0answers
293 views

Where do B cells produce antibodies?

I was recently at a Leukemia and Lymphoma Society conference where a particular oncologist lecturer claimed that all antibodies are created in the bone marrow (I won't mention his name, as he was a ...
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0answers
22 views

How do T cells deal with the obstructions in their path of migration?

When T cells move in the blood, are their any obstructions(other cells) while they migrate? If there are then how do the T cells overcome such obstructions in their path? Do they move past them or ...
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0answers
645 views

How lymphocytes in lymphatic system get oxygen?

We know that the gas-transporting protein hemoglobin is absent from the lymphatic system. So, how does gas transportation takes place in lymphatic system? Is mere diffusion from surrounding blood ...
3
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3answers
369 views

what if there is a door for which our immune system has no key?

And as a B cell matures, it develops the ability to determine friend from foe, developing both immunocompetence -- or how to recognize and bind to a particular antigen -- as well as self-tolerance,...
5
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1answer
2k views

Why don't we build up an immunity to sore throat?

We often get sore throats once or twice a year, and it clears in a few days sometimes without any antibiotics. I was wondering why doesn't our body become immune after clearing a sore throat?
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0answers
75 views

Do allergens have structural similarities to pathogens?

The conventional popular explanation of allergies is that the immune system confuses allergens with pathogens and reacts to them as such. Is there any merit to this explanation? If so, I would ...
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0answers
69 views

Why does a centrocyte have a cleaved nuclei?

Why does a centrocyte have a cleaved nuclei? Is there a biological reasoning behind this phenomenon or is it the nature of the centrocytes? Does the selected centrocytes proliferate too?
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0answers
964 views

What is significance of opsonization?

Wikipedia says Antibody opsonization is the process by which a pathogen is marked for ingestion and eliminated by a phagocyte. Opsonization involves the binding of an opsonin, e.g., antibody, to ...
2
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1answer
121 views

How harmless bacteria on skin defence against harmful bacteria?

I have read that there are some harmless bacteria live on skin and they also have role in protecting body against some harmful bacteria but how do they do so? I mean how these bacteria are able to ...
5
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1answer
2k views

Can viruses pass through sweat pores?

I have read somewhere that viruses and other microbes can not penetrate skin but what about sweat pores? Can viruses pass through these pores?
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0answers
95 views

Do symptoms of common cold infections correlate with the infectious agent?

The common cold - in summary, an acute upper respiratory tract viral infection - is one of the most frequent viral infections in humans and can be caused by about 200 viral types [Eccles (2005)]. ...
3
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1answer
51 views

where does genetic material for antibody production come from?

All antibodies are proteins and like every other protein, mRNA codes for them. So acquired immunity, is acquired, which means that information was not previously present in our DNA before exposure to ...
3
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1answer
1k views

Which living organisms have antibodies?

I'm wondering if only humans, or only mammals have antibodies and immune system. Obviously humans and dogs have (we vaccinate both) and in my head makes sense since we're so genetically similar to all ...
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1answer
643 views

How is histamine useful against allergies?

Histamine is a chemical produced and stored within the body. It is a part of our immune response and is released during an allergic reaction. Often histamine is responsible for hypersensitive ...
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3answers
978 views

Why do we take antibiotics if our immune system already produces them? [closed]

Why do we take antibiotics if our immune system already produces them? Is it because our body doesnt make enough or the specific complementary antibody to fit with the antigen?
2
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2answers
221 views

Microscopy of moving white blood cells

Is there a way to get white blood cells to move while on a microscope slide? I want to try to get some microscope images of them moving, but so far I have only found them stationary.
2
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2answers
196 views

How do T-cells determine which cells they've already inspected?

From what I understand, T-cells are constantly traveling in the body, inspecting cells by looking for antigens. If they're self antigens, then the T-cell doesn't attack, whereas if they're non-self, ...
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0answers
34 views

Are immunosuppressors necessary after a bone marrow transplant for Bubble Boy Syndrome?

I know that under normal circumstances, immunosuppressors are needed to mitigate the host body's immune reaction to the graft. However, people suffering Bubble Boy Syndrome have pretty much no immune ...
3
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1answer
464 views

Effect of HIV on T-cells

When HIV infects macrophages, it doesn't kill or destroy them immediately, but once it infects T-cells, they're destroyed. Why is that? As in why does it destroy T-cells and not macrophages or other ...
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3answers
1k views

B-cell antibody production

I've just learned about B cells in immunology lectures and some things are not clear to me. Here's what I know: 1) Apparently, each B cell produces a specific antibody, determined randomly at the ...
8
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1answer
1k views

Does our immune system react on all bacteria?

In our body we carry a lot of bacteria. Some of them are bad for our health, but others are beneficial. For example bacteria may protect us against other pathogenic bacteria. But is our immune ...
3
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2answers
75 views

Is there evidence to suggest that nutrients in vitamin capsules are not as readily absorbed as the same nutrients in whole foods?

I recently fell ill with a cold, and began to take a vitamin C capsule each day to help my immune system. When I noticed no change in my condition, I began to incorporate an abundance of citrus into ...
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2answers
89 views

Do we vaccinate sick people?

As I understand, vaccination helps the human body to create antibodies and stimulate immune system to react against specific antigens. If someone gets sick, do vaccines help to stimulate immune system?...
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2answers
7k views

Why does immunity from the flu vaccine appear only after two weeks?

It is said that immunity from a flu vaccine appears after about two weeks. However, from experience, the flu usually lasts only a few days. If sufficient antibodies appear only after two weeks ...
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1answer
1k views

Why does influenza sometimes cause GI symptoms?

I'm speaking strictly of influenza, not gastroenteritis which is sometimes mistakenly called "stomach flu." I just read this article on the mechanism through which rotavirus causes diarrhea and ...
3
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1answer
80 views

Are there fundamental differences between the adaptive immune systems of higher primates and other mammals?

I recently attended a Leukemia and Lymphoma Society lecture in which one of the lecturers indicated that there are fundamental differences between the adaptive immune systems of higher primates and ...
5
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1answer
96 views

What is the purpose of requiring two separate binding systems for the antibody response?

I've read that in most cases, B-cell activation requires helper T-cells. This requires antigen binding by both antibodies and T-cell receptors, using two different antigen-binding proteins, ...