Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [immune-system]

This tag is for general questions related directly or indirectly to the vertebrate immune system, but are not questions directly related to Immunology, the discipline of the study of the immune system.

53
votes
2answers
10k views

What is the benefit of fever during infections?

When people get sick, they often develop a fever. What is the effect of an increased body temperature on viruses and bacteria in the body? Is it beneficial to the infected body? Importantly, often ...
24
votes
1answer
128k views

Why do vaccines cause your arm to hurt?

When you get a shot for a vaccine (for example, the annual flu vaccine), the nurse frequently indicates that your arm will ache for a day or two, maybe more. This ache is typically not just a pain ...
16
votes
2answers
7k views

Why does immunity from the flu vaccine appear only after two weeks?

It is said that immunity from a flu vaccine appears after about two weeks. However, from experience, the flu usually lasts only a few days. If sufficient antibodies appear only after two weeks ...
9
votes
1answer
3k views

How does the immune system fight scabies mites?

After a distressing episode involving my elderly mother and a nursing home, I've been reading up on scabies. It seems that in healthy people, the immune system limits the mite population to around 10 ...
8
votes
2answers
235 views

Why it is important to vaccinate a human newborn within 24 hours since birth?

In Poland a newborn has to be vaccinated within 24 hours against hepatitis B and tuberculosis. As I understand it is good to be vaccinated against both, I do not see the need to hurry so much. ...
8
votes
1answer
158 views

What is the name of this series?

My biology teacher used to show us videos (actually animations) on the human immune system. What I remember is that one video was on a virus (represented as a purple colored sphere with spikes) that a ...
8
votes
1answer
2k views

Does our immune system react on all bacteria?

In our body we carry a lot of bacteria. Some of them are bad for our health, but others are beneficial. For example bacteria may protect us against other pathogenic bacteria. But is our immune ...
8
votes
2answers
905 views

Why Can't The Immune Systems of Uncontacted Tribes Handle Our Common Colds?

I'm sorry if this is a stupid question, I'm just starting my first year of a biomedicine degree and I'm curious - googling didn't find me any answers. I know that the Aboriginal Australians and many ...
7
votes
1answer
1k views

Why does influenza sometimes cause GI symptoms?

I'm speaking strictly of influenza, not gastroenteritis which is sometimes mistakenly called "stomach flu." I just read this article on the mechanism through which rotavirus causes diarrhea and ...
7
votes
1answer
83 views

Why don't allergies cause fever?

Allergy To my understanding, an allergy is a hypersensitivity of the immune system causing a substance in the environment to be identified as pathogenic by the immune system while it is not ...
6
votes
1answer
318 views

Does vaccination make the immune system “lazy”?

I was having this discussion with a friend over vaccination against the flu. Although he agrees that vaccination against almost all diseases is necessary, he said that flu shots are not. He argued ...
6
votes
1answer
2k views

Can viruses pass through sweat pores?

I have read somewhere that viruses and other microbes can not penetrate skin but what about sweat pores? Can viruses pass through these pores?
6
votes
2answers
185 views

What do memory cells actually do?

So I know that memory cells "remember" the most efficient way to kill a pathogen should it show up again... but what is the mechanism by which memory cells become activated by the second contact with ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

Can fever cure Ebola disease?

Why is ebola disease does not cured on elevating body temperature by body defense system? Can we cure it either by elevating or reducing body temperature (in ice bath) and creating hostile environment ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

What are the effects of removing CD4 receptors?

If the gene for the CD4 receptor was removed, would the person's immune system work normally? Could a new artificial receptor be substituted in place of CD4? Could HIV infection be prevented in this ...
5
votes
1answer
289 views

Immune System - B-cell receptors

How do the B-cells, which are a part of our body, develop antibodies against antigens of outside world (outside of our body), which they don't even know about? Is it just a random match?
5
votes
1answer
126 views

What is the purpose of requiring two separate binding systems for the antibody response?

I've read that in most cases, B-cell activation requires helper T-cells. This requires antigen binding by both antibodies and T-cell receptors, using two different antigen-binding proteins, ...
5
votes
1answer
93 views

Why don't phagocytes eliminate mutualistic foregin organisms residing in our body?

Many organisms residing in our body and have a symbiotic mutualistic relationship with our body e.g. organisms in our small intestines. How come our body does not activate an immune response against ...
5
votes
1answer
2k views

Why don't we build up an immunity to sore throat?

We often get sore throats once or twice a year, and it clears in a few days sometimes without any antibiotics. I was wondering why doesn't our body become immune after clearing a sore throat?
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Why don't antibodies generally bind to food and drugs?

Are these excluded thru central tolerance? What if you ingested something with a unique molecular structure that you hadn't ingested before?
4
votes
2answers
657 views

Where and how is information about pathogen immunity stored in a cell?

If all of the DNA is being used, then how would the cell be able to store new information about pathogens in DNA? It's like a full hard drive that can't hold any more. So does the cell just compress ...
4
votes
2answers
600 views

Do intestinal flora have the same DNA as their host?

Please bear with me, this is not my professional field and I might be mixing things up. In an explanation why seeds won't start growing in one's intestines, the explanation given was that foreign ...
4
votes
1answer
72 views

Are cytotoxic (killer) T-cells always present or are they only produced during a cell mediated immune response?

The book I'm studying says the following "During a cell mediated immune response, the release of IL-2 by helper T-cells is resposible for stimulating the production of Cytotoxic T-cells, which have ...
4
votes
3answers
2k views

B-cell antibody production

I've just learned about B cells in immunology lectures and some things are not clear to me. Here's what I know: 1) Apparently, each B cell produces a specific antibody, determined randomly at the ...
4
votes
1answer
2k views

Why are some human injections intraperitoneal?

In humans, what benefit do intraperitoneal (IP) injections(old/cheap rabies vaccines, or cancer related injections) offer versus traditional intramuscular injections? For example, where I live, the ...
4
votes
1answer
89 views

Autoimmunity - negative selection of T-cells - APC

Through negative selection of T-cell in the thymus T-cells lose the possibility to react to antigens which are "body own" -> self antigens. Though there are more than just this negative selection for ...
4
votes
1answer
212 views

What does the term “recruitment of T-cell” mean?

With respect to the article, what does the term "recruitment of T-cell" mean? Who recruits T- cell? Does recruiting T-cell mean the T-cells get a sense of directionality to get activated by the APC's?
4
votes
0answers
126 views

How much time does it take for the naive T Cell to get activated?

Suppose a naive T cell comes in contact with an APC. How much time does it take for the T Cell to get activated and within how much time does the T cell move away from the APC due to incompatibility ...
4
votes
0answers
340 views

Where do B cells produce antibodies?

I was recently at a Leukemia and Lymphoma Society conference where a particular oncologist lecturer claimed that all antibodies are created in the bone marrow (I won't mention his name, as he was a ...
3
votes
1answer
5k views

Is honey in hot green tea unsafe?

I used Google to try to figure out what kind of mixture honey has with hot water, and I found several Ayurvedic sources claiming that honey in hot water is toxic. For example: Honey – NEVER Put It ...
3
votes
3answers
2k views

Where do the antibodies that trigger the specific immune response come from?

In A level Biology, we are taught that in order to trigger the specific immune response of the body, antibodies must first attach to the pathogen. The macrophages contain antibody receptors, and this ...
3
votes
1answer
578 views

What are the effects of the common cold in an immunodeficient person?

How would the virus causing the common cold (rhinovirus) affect the human body in the absence of a normal immune response? On the linked wiki page it is said that the runny nose and fever symptoms are ...
3
votes
2answers
179 views

Why exactly does the immune system weaken with age?

Why does the immune system become weaker with age in humans and in some other mammals? Let's try to be more specific than just "everything degrades with age."
3
votes
3answers
628 views

what if there is a door for which our immune system has no key?

And as a B cell matures, it develops the ability to determine friend from foe, developing both immunocompetence -- or how to recognize and bind to a particular antigen -- as well as self-tolerance,...
3
votes
1answer
75 views

Does avoiding medication that alleviates symptoms to shorten the length of a cold?

People use over the counter (OTC) medications to relieve symptoms of the common cold. However, these symptoms are part of the immune response, right? They are driven by the body responding to the ...
3
votes
1answer
244 views

What goes wrong in the immune system that leads to autoimmune diseases

As far as I understood so far, B and T cells are produced in the bone marrow, and during their maturing process in the bone marrow or Thymus, the are "programmed" to react to certain proteins. It is ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Which living organisms have antibodies?

I'm wondering if only humans, or only mammals have antibodies and immune system. Obviously humans and dogs have (we vaccinate both) and in my head makes sense since we're so genetically similar to all ...
3
votes
1answer
531 views

Effect of HIV on T-cells

When HIV infects macrophages, it doesn't kill or destroy them immediately, but once it infects T-cells, they're destroyed. Why is that? As in why does it destroy T-cells and not macrophages or other ...
3
votes
2answers
112 views

Is there evidence to suggest that nutrients in vitamin capsules are not as readily absorbed as the same nutrients in whole foods?

I recently fell ill with a cold, and began to take a vitamin C capsule each day to help my immune system. When I noticed no change in my condition, I began to incorporate an abundance of citrus into ...
3
votes
1answer
95 views

Animals as organ donors and organ's life expectancy

Recent attempts to find reliable organ donors was using genetically-engineered (GE) pigs as heart donors. The pig's DNA is altered so that its tissues will appear identical to the patient's tissue and ...
3
votes
1answer
155 views

How do memory cells(B-cells) encounter pathogens?

From what I understand, once the infection is handled, some of the B cells capable of producing the correct antigens are stored for the long-term in the lymph nodes. They will start multiplying again ...
3
votes
1answer
141 views

Why can Toll-like receptors be found either inside and outside the cell?

Innate immune cells may present Toll-like receptors either inside (TLR3 and TLR9, for instance) or outside (TLR4 and TLR5, for instance) the cell, but is there any beneficial reason for this? If so, ...
3
votes
1answer
72 views

How do B and T cells work incorrectly in a person with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus?

Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks healthy cells. How exactly do B and T cells attack these cells they mistake for pathogens?
3
votes
1answer
52 views

where does genetic material for antibody production come from?

All antibodies are proteins and like every other protein, mRNA codes for them. So acquired immunity, is acquired, which means that information was not previously present in our DNA before exposure to ...
3
votes
1answer
80 views

Are there fundamental differences between the adaptive immune systems of higher primates and other mammals?

I recently attended a Leukemia and Lymphoma Society lecture in which one of the lecturers indicated that there are fundamental differences between the adaptive immune systems of higher primates and ...
3
votes
0answers
103 views

Do symptoms of common cold infections correlate with the infectious agent?

The common cold - in summary, an acute upper respiratory tract viral infection - is one of the most frequent viral infections in humans and can be caused by about 200 viral types [Eccles (2005)]. ...
2
votes
2answers
231 views

Microscopy of moving white blood cells

Is there a way to get white blood cells to move while on a microscope slide? I want to try to get some microscope images of them moving, but so far I have only found them stationary.
2
votes
1answer
153 views

Why do neutrophils need to die after pathogen phagocytosis?

From referenced article below, neutrophils need to be removed because its granule contents and oxygen metabolites (used for killing phagocytosed pathogen) are harmful to the surrounding tissue. Thus, ...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

Does contracting Rubella give one some kind of immunity to Measles and vice versa?

Both these diseases- Measles and Rubella, have very similar symptoms, have similar complications and are often confused for one another. And both the diseases have a common MMR vaccine. So, are the ...
2
votes
1answer
400 views

Lab experiment: Enumeration of Leukocytes

The images below were obtained in an experiment to enumerate leukocytes in a blood sample using Neubauer counting chamber. The following solution was prepared and added to the Neubauer chamber and ...