Questions tagged [immune-system]

This tag is for general questions related directly or indirectly to the vertebrate immune system, but are not questions directly related to Immunology, the discipline of the study of the immune system.

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134 views

If senescent cells are removed by the immune system, how can they contribute to ageing?

It is said that senescent cells, also called zombie cells, can cause biological ageing. These senescent cells are also killed by immune cells. It does not make sense as to how they cause ageing if ...
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Why it is important to vaccinate a human newborn within 24 hours since birth?

In Poland a newborn has to be vaccinated within 24 hours against hepatitis B and tuberculosis. As I understand it is good to be vaccinated against both, I do not see the need to hurry so much. ...
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What do memory cells actually do?

So I know that memory cells "remember" the most efficient way to kill a pathogen should it show up again... but what is the mechanism by which memory cells become activated by the second contact with ...
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Is there any antibody-forming immune system without immunological memory?

Is it possible for an immune system to exist that makes antibodies but does not possess any kind of immunological memory? If so, what examples are there?
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Theoretical question: Would immune cells that produce blue light be an effective and better alternative to inflammation? [closed]

It's well known that blue light is effective against a wide range of bacteria (type "antibacterial blue light" into Google for starters). This article (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23009190) ...
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The use of cytotoxic T-cells

The video below mentions whether the dendritic should call in a 'anti-virus force' or an 'army of bacteria killers'. The video goes on to talk about how bacteria is killed, using B-cells, but there's ...
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472 views

How exactly does a prion cause disease?

During my study of the immune system, I came across 2 very contrasting explanation as to how prions work. Firstly, scientific American pointed out this: link here: "A major breakthrough ...
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CD4+ as Monocytes cell surface receptors

Today in class, our teacher was discussing about the pathogenecity of the HIV virus. He said that the binding between HIV virus and macrophages is done by the interaction between the GP120 of the ...
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93 views

How some virus are able to reach the CNS?

I know that the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) could provoke meningitis and encephalitis when this virus reaches the brain. However, there are other viruses like Varicella (VSV), ...
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Autoimmunity - negative selection of T-cells - APC

Through negative selection of T-cell in the thymus T-cells lose the possibility to react to antigens which are "body own" -> self antigens. Though there are more than just this negative selection for ...
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39 views

What, other than genetic factors, influence which individual survives a parasite and which perishes?

What factors other than "good genes" are at play in determining whether one individual survives a parasite and another individual in the same species perishes as a result of the same parasite? For ...
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229 views

Does testosterone weaken the immune system?

I was reading this articles here that states that the higher the blood level of testosterone is, the weaker the immune system gets. I read another article about testosterone here that focuses on the ...
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209 views

What is the difference between an active and inactive T helper cell?

1- Are all inactive T helper cells "T memory cells" ? 2- Is there anything such as active T memory cells ? 3- I have noticed that there is also a third type of T helper cells but i dont know what it ...
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164 views

How does the adaptive immune system store information?

I am quite curious about this: Where and how is knowledge that the adaptive immune system accumulates stored? What is the "memory size limit" of this storage method if there is any? Why cant this ...
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279 views

What goes wrong in the immune system that leads to autoimmune diseases

As far as I understood so far, B and T cells are produced in the bone marrow, and during their maturing process in the bone marrow or Thymus, the are "programmed" to react to certain proteins. It is ...
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98 views

Is there a non-bacterial source of lipopolysacchrides

I am wondering if there are any other non-bacterial sources of LPS. To my understanding, lipopolysacchrides (LPS) are components of the outer leaflet of gram-negative bacteria, but are there any other ...
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137 views

Why would eating the meat of cows fed with antibiotics trigger an immune response to the antibiotics? [closed]

The document "Antibiotics and Antibiotic resistance" contains the following paragraph: The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in feed stuffs means that humans may receive unwanted doses of ...
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91 views

Can neutrophils kill bacteria inside other cells?

Are neutrophils able to get inside epithelial cells in order to kill bacteria. Therefore, even if a bacteria gets inside the epithelial cells can the neutrophils get inside the epithelium to kill the ...
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In the event of an abrasion, do mast cells cause vasodilation or vascular constriction?

Or both? I am unsure as to what mast cells will do in the event of a wound either on the epidermis or the epithelial. I know they secrete factors that mediate vascular constriction / dilation, but I ...
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How does the immune system fight scabies mites?

After a distressing episode involving my elderly mother and a nursing home, I've been reading up on scabies. It seems that in healthy people, the immune system limits the mite population to around 10 ...
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517 views

Clonal and subclonal mutations in cancer

Likely this will sound as a silly question, but I don't know whom to ask. Ok, here it goes. McGranahan et al link found that tumors with high clonal antigen load are more likely to respond to the ...
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179 views

Why can Toll-like receptors be found either inside and outside the cell?

Innate immune cells may present Toll-like receptors either inside (TLR3 and TLR9, for instance) or outside (TLR4 and TLR5, for instance) the cell, but is there any beneficial reason for this? If so, ...
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1answer
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How do B and T cells work incorrectly in a person with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus?

Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks healthy cells. How exactly do B and T cells attack these cells they mistake for pathogens?
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Does vaccination make the immune system “lazy”?

I was having this discussion with a friend over vaccination against the flu. Although he agrees that vaccination against almost all diseases is necessary, he said that flu shots are not. He argued ...
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What are the effects of the common cold in an immunodeficient person?

How would the virus causing the common cold (rhinovirus) affect the human body in the absence of a normal immune response? On the linked wiki page it is said that the runny nose and fever symptoms are ...
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Can fever cure Ebola disease?

Why is ebola disease does not cured on elevating body temperature by body defense system? Can we cure it either by elevating or reducing body temperature (in ice bath) and creating hostile environment ...
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What is the benefit of fever during infections?

When people get sick, they often develop a fever. What is the effect of an increased body temperature on viruses and bacteria in the body? Is it beneficial to the infected body? Importantly, often ...
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Where do the antibodies that trigger the specific immune response come from?

In A level Biology, we are taught that in order to trigger the specific immune response of the body, antibodies must first attach to the pathogen. The macrophages contain antibody receptors, and this ...
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Meaning of “primers IL-2” in a scientific article

From an article ("Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Lewis Rats by FTY720 Treatment", 2003): We performed PCR amplification in a 100-μl reaction mixture containing 200 μM ...
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158 views

What is the name of this series?

My biology teacher used to show us videos (actually animations) on the human immune system. What I remember is that one video was on a virus (represented as a purple colored sphere with spikes) that a ...
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709 views

Where and how is information about pathogen immunity stored in a cell?

If all of the DNA is being used, then how would the cell be able to store new information about pathogens in DNA? It's like a full hard drive that can't hold any more. So does the cell just compress ...
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1answer
331 views

What does the term “recruitment of T-cell” mean?

With respect to the article, what does the term "recruitment of T-cell" mean? Who recruits T- cell? Does recruiting T-cell mean the T-cells get a sense of directionality to get activated by the APC's?
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1answer
463 views

Lab experiment: Enumeration of Leukocytes

The images below were obtained in an experiment to enumerate leukocytes in a blood sample using Neubauer counting chamber. The following solution was prepared and added to the Neubauer chamber and ...
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Why don't phagocytes eliminate mutualistic foregin organisms residing in our body?

Many organisms residing in our body and have a symbiotic mutualistic relationship with our body e.g. organisms in our small intestines. How come our body does not activate an immune response against ...
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Meaning of proliferation rate of 3 day−1

The abstract of an article in Journal of Virology contains the following line: We find that CD8+ cell proliferation begins 1 to 2 days after infection and occurs at an average rate of 3 day−1, ...
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How much time does it take for the naive T Cell to get activated?

Suppose a naive T cell comes in contact with an APC. How much time does it take for the T Cell to get activated and within how much time does the T cell move away from the APC due to incompatibility ...
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371 views

Where do B cells produce antibodies?

I was recently at a Leukemia and Lymphoma Society conference where a particular oncologist lecturer claimed that all antibodies are created in the bone marrow (I won't mention his name, as he was a ...
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How do T cells deal with the obstructions in their path of migration?

When T cells move in the blood, are their any obstructions(other cells) while they migrate? If there are then how do the T cells overcome such obstructions in their path? Do they move past them or ...
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814 views

How lymphocytes in lymphatic system get oxygen?

We know that the gas-transporting protein hemoglobin is absent from the lymphatic system. So, how does gas transportation takes place in lymphatic system? Is mere diffusion from surrounding blood ...
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3answers
762 views

what if there is a door for which our immune system has no key?

And as a B cell matures, it develops the ability to determine friend from foe, developing both immunocompetence -- or how to recognize and bind to a particular antigen -- as well as self-tolerance,...
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Why don't we build up an immunity to sore throat?

We often get sore throats once or twice a year, and it clears in a few days sometimes without any antibiotics. I was wondering why doesn't our body become immune after clearing a sore throat?
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Do allergens have structural similarities to pathogens?

The conventional popular explanation of allergies is that the immune system confuses allergens with pathogens and reacts to them as such. Is there any merit to this explanation? If so, I would ...
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Why does a centrocyte have a cleaved nuclei?

Why does a centrocyte have a cleaved nuclei? Is there a biological reasoning behind this phenomenon or is it the nature of the centrocytes? Does the selected centrocytes proliferate too?
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What is significance of opsonization?

Wikipedia says Antibody opsonization is the process by which a pathogen is marked for ingestion and eliminated by a phagocyte. Opsonization involves the binding of an opsonin, e.g., antibody, to ...
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1answer
158 views

How harmless bacteria on skin defence against harmful bacteria?

I have read that there are some harmless bacteria live on skin and they also have role in protecting body against some harmful bacteria but how do they do so? I mean how these bacteria are able to ...
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Can viruses pass through sweat pores?

I have read somewhere that viruses and other microbes can not penetrate skin but what about sweat pores? Can viruses pass through these pores?
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118 views

Do symptoms of common cold infections correlate with the infectious agent?

The common cold - in summary, an acute upper respiratory tract viral infection - is one of the most frequent viral infections in humans and can be caused by about 200 viral types [Eccles (2005)]. ...
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where does genetic material for antibody production come from?

All antibodies are proteins and like every other protein, mRNA codes for them. So acquired immunity, is acquired, which means that information was not previously present in our DNA before exposure to ...
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Which living organisms have antibodies?

I'm wondering if only humans, or only mammals have antibodies and immune system. Obviously humans and dogs have (we vaccinate both) and in my head makes sense since we're so genetically similar to all ...
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How is histamine useful against allergies?

Histamine is a chemical produced and stored within the body. It is a part of our immune response and is released during an allergic reaction. Often histamine is responsible for hypersensitive ...