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Questions tagged [immunity]

the capability of multicellular organisms to resist harmful microorganisms from entering it. Use this tag in questions related to the study of immunity and immune system, the process involved in providing immunity and the diseases, caused due to improper functioning of immune system, including autoimmune diseases.

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Why did T cells have evolved to recognise self cells along with foreign antigent to generate a response?

T cells have evolved to be strain specific. For a T cell to respond it has to identify not only the foreign antigen but the antigen must also be attached to a self cell. what is the significance of ...
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Can a pathogen be totally resistant to the human immune system?

Can a pathogenic organism be totally resistant to the human immune system? For the purpose of this question, the organism in question must cause a disease. Examples of organisms that would qualify as ...
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Type of Immunity- Bacterial septicaemia

what type of immunity (Non-specific, Anti-body mediated, cell-mediated) is expressed in Bacterial Septicaemia (Bacterial contamination in systemic circulation)?
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How does the immune system recognize harmful proteins?

How does the human immune system detect whether a protein happens to be a protein found in the body that is supposed to be there, a bacterial toxin that should be inactivated, an already inactivated ...
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Immunity rejection and accept of organ [duplicate]

When blood is donated or received why WBC does not act or it does not rejection but it acts when transplant of organ occurs
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Organ and Bone Marrow Transplantation?

In organ transplantation the transplant is rejected by the body's immune system , but is it possible if along with organ transplant if bone marrow transplantation is carried out from the same donor , ...
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How similar do proteins have to be to trigger the same immune response?

The title really says it all. How precise or vague is the immunity we get from vaccination or from having encountered a germ before? Is it about protein parts that are recognised if they are ...
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Allergy desensitization: what is the mechanism? Could it happen with other immune responses? [closed]

Allergy is a type of immune response against an otherwise harmless substance. If I understand it well, the aim of allergy immunotherapy is not to stimulate an immune response like the immunotherapy ...
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Are cloned spieces significantly more vulnereble to deseases than sexually reproducing species?

I would like to be able to compare the risk for species to go extinct implied by their reproduction mechanism in the very short term. Imagine we choose some species A that can reproduce both sexually ...
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Allergy vs. Immunity

What is the difference between these two phenomena in our organism: allergy and immunity? Both cause producing of antibodies which struggle against antigens. Is it true, that allergy always leads to ...
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B -Cell activation by helper T cell

When Dendritic cell travels to nearby lymph node with antigen presented on MHC II molecule, the helper T-cell residing there gets activated. But what happens to B- cell residing there? Does it get ...
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How is cartilage immunised?

How is human cartilage immunised (protected) against pathogens since it does not contain lymphatic vessels?
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What is the relation between weak adhesion & rolling in immune cell migration vs. strong adhesion and emigration in immune cell migration?

Assume we're talking about lymphocyte migration. I think rolling is referring to part of the process of infection by chemotaxis but beyond that...
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Why Can't The Immune Systems of Uncontacted Tribes Handle Our Common Colds?

I'm sorry if this is a stupid question, I'm just starting my first year of a biomedicine degree and I'm curious - googling didn't find me any answers. I know that the Aboriginal Australians and many ...
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Why it is important to vaccinate a human newborn within 24 hours since birth?

In Poland a newborn has to be vaccinated within 24 hours against hepatitis B and tuberculosis. As I understand it is good to be vaccinated against both, I do not see the need to hurry so much. ...
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Is mate choice in non-human primates MHC-dependent?

Whether the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) affects or not mate choice in humans seems mired in controversy at the moment. Without implying that looking at non-human primates would solve this ...
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Vaccines against bacterial endotoxins

Today in class, there was a discussion going on about what part of pathogens(which can act as an antigen) can be used to make vaccines. There was this point where our teacher said that bacterial ...
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How can I perform virus neutralization assay for influenza?

How can I perform a Virus Microneutralization assay for influenza virus using serum from mice vaccinated with this virus?
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Placebo effect and why they work [closed]

I'm just wondering how the placebo effect works on people. If a patient is given fake drugs , how does that make him better? So what if they feel more "assured", how would that help the body immunity (...
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What is the difference between an active and inactive T helper cell?

1- Are all inactive T helper cells "T memory cells" ? 2- Is there anything such as active T memory cells ? 3- I have noticed that there is also a third type of T helper cells but i dont know what it ...
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Why would eating the meat of cows fed with antibiotics trigger an immune response to the antibiotics? [closed]

The document "Antibiotics and Antibiotic resistance" contains the following paragraph: The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in feed stuffs means that humans may receive unwanted doses of ...
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What is the mechanism by which passive immunity works?

My idea is that passive immunity can be used to cure an individual who is infected with a certain disease. For example, for someone infected by clostridium tetani, you would inject them with an ...
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Bird diversity and the avian flu

From Learning from the Octopus 1 (p. 201): A complimentary line of defense would be to lower the chance of infection by lowering the prevalence and virulence of diseases…just keep the variability ...
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“Treatment” of allergy.

Is there any treatment for allergy? I am not saying about solutions like epi-pen which reduce the symptoms. Is there any way to modify our immunity so that it does not identify the allergens? Can we ...
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Where and how is information about pathogen immunity stored in a cell?

If all of the DNA is being used, then how would the cell be able to store new information about pathogens in DNA? It's like a full hard drive that can't hold any more. So does the cell just compress ...
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what if there is a door for which our immune system has no key?

And as a B cell matures, it develops the ability to determine friend from foe, developing both immunocompetence -- or how to recognize and bind to a particular antigen -- as well as self-tolerance,...
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Why does a centrocyte have a cleaved nuclei?

Why does a centrocyte have a cleaved nuclei? Is there a biological reasoning behind this phenomenon or is it the nature of the centrocytes? Does the selected centrocytes proliferate too?
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Do symptoms of common cold infections correlate with the infectious agent?

The common cold - in summary, an acute upper respiratory tract viral infection - is one of the most frequent viral infections in humans and can be caused by about 200 viral types [Eccles (2005)]. ...
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Why don't animals need filtered water? [duplicate]

Almost 10 years back when I was a kid, we had a picture in our school text of wild buffaloes drinking water from a river - which was visibly muddy. I asked my mother of why we need to drink filtered ...
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Serological assays measuring antibody response

Given that an appropriate immune response to a bacteria may be thwarted in an individual, including not producing all of the antibodies which are known to occur in people who have been infected, or ...
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Why are human immune systems comparatively weaker than other animal immune systems? [closed]

Humans get sick on such a regular basis and animals will hardly ever get sick. Animals are typically exposed to the same pathogens as humans, yet a dog won't have a cold or the flu twice a year, with ...
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What does high CD4 level means?

I was going through this webpage and I found the following lines: We hypothesised that despite unimodal distribution of CD4 co-receptor on naïve CD4 T cells they are not homogenous in their ...
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Does inorganic particles have pattern recognition receptor?

Does silica or carbon particles (inorganic substances causing silicosis and anthracosis) have Pattern Recognition Receptor (PRR) on macrophages/dendritic cells? Because phagocytic activity depends on ...
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How can insects survive without an adaptive immune system?

How can insects survive in a world full of pathogens that are able to defeat the innate immune system?
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does phagocytosis dependent on opsonization?

does phagocytotic activity of macrophages and neutrophils depends on opsonization by IGg (antibody) and C3 complex,if it does, so then why macrophages and neutrophils are categorized in Innate immune ...
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Is nuclear DNA immuno-privileged?

It is well known that if DNA occurs in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, an immune response may be triggered through a myriad of DNA receptors and pathways as part of the immuno response. Yet, ...
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Which process is right to describe V(D)J recombination? RAG-1 and RSS recurring process

I'm studying V(D)J recombination. I think I have two incompatible books about explantaion of the process. Which is right? In Molecular Biology of the Cell 5th Ed., firstly RAG (-1?) combines to RSSs ...
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What is self-immunoreactivity?

I read something like "some tested variants show self-immunoreactivity". So, what exacly is self-immunoreactivity? Is it something like antibodies induced by a specific variant showing ...
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Terminology regarding cross-immunoreactivity

After reading an article, I saw expressions like "cross-immunoreactivity among epitopes", "cross-immunoreactivity among variants of virus", "immunological reactions among pairs of peptides" and so on. ...
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Why are people unable to develop lasting immunity against Norovirus?

Infection with many viruses will result in decades-long if not lifetime immunity, for example chicken pox. Because of the large number of viruses responsible for the common cold, lifelong immunity to ...
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Cellular Immunity Response

What response of cellular immunity would appear after complementary protein activation to keep pathogenic bacteria away from our body? Notes: I do appreciate your explanation. Though I am facing ...
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Human leukocytes (re)circulation/migration in homeostatic state

One can easily find information on the topic of leukocytes trafficking between vessels and peripheral tissues during inflammation. But what happens during normal states when there is no pathology? ...
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Why don't we develop immunity against common cold?

We all suffer from common cold, and that, frequently. Why have we not developed immunity against it till now? By immunity I mean immunity as a species.
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How is the nasal secretion system of local immunity coupled with lymphatic circulation?

I started a thread about Nasal chronic Inflammation after influenza virus here. However, I do not understand enough well the structure of the nose to answer the questions there. I know that the lysed ...