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Questions tagged [immunity]

the capability of multicellular organisms to resist harmful microorganisms from entering it. Use this tag in questions related to the study of immunity and immune system, the process involved in providing immunity and the diseases, caused due to improper functioning of immune system, including autoimmune diseases.

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Do Tardigrades have an innate immune system, or any type of immune protection?

Do Tardigrades have any immune protection against bacteria and viruses?
WadeNasholds's user avatar
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37 views

Is it possible for a non-self antigen to NOT be recognized by the body?

The amazing diversity of antigens that the body can recognize (by virtue of T and B cells that express receptors complementary to them) is truly fascinating. The explanation mooted for this is the ...
A-big-neutron's user avatar
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292 views

Why does the thymus gland shrink with age?

What exactly is reason/process/mechanism for which our thymus gland starts to shrink with age? The thymus gland is the site of production of T lymphocytes which are the best defence against infection ...
Kshitij Kumar's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
61 views

Can bottlenecked potato immunity defence be increased with knockouts?

I read in a Swedish newspaper advertisement some years ago that genetic intervention had been used to knock out part of the plant immunity defence. This advertisement was paid for by starch producer ...
David Jonsson's user avatar
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1 answer
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What is the difference between ‘classical’ and ‘non-classical’ pathogen resistance genes in plants?

I have stumbled across a mention of classical resistance genes against pests in plants, however the classification seems a bit vague. What would be classified as classical resistance genes and what as ...
Olaf's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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Role of Bone marrow in T- lymphocyte development?

After I have read this statement in my textbook : "Both bone-marrow and thymus provide micro-environments for the development and maturation of T-lymphocytes." I have been searching for some ...
Jaydeep Kalal's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
26 views

Thymus & T-Cell Generation and Maturity

I am a beginner in immune system. I am trying to understand the connection between T-Cell and Thymus as person ages. It is clear from Guyton & Hall that till teenage the T-cell from bone marrow ...
user3001408's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
132 views

What is the significance of an adjuvant to traffic vaccine antigen directly to draining lymph nodes without diffusing into the systemic circulation?

I found the following sentence in the this paper- Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBV152: a double-blind, randomised, phase 1 trial An imidazoquinoline molecule, which ...
Prem's user avatar
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1 answer
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What animal has the strongest immune system?

I'm wondering what animal has the strongest immune system. It can be defined as the most evolved immune system or the immune system that can eliminate or tolerate most number of (different) viruses/...
ermanen's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
176 views

What is the speed of human immune reactions?

It's easy to find general lists of immune systems: innate/adaptive, complement, phagocytes, B/T cells, and so on. Annoyingly, they are very skimpy on quantitative information regarding the speed of ...
SeanJ's user avatar
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Are autoantibodies against intracellular proteins "functional"?

Autoantibodies against intracellular proteins have been detected in some autoimmune diseases (For example, TRIM21 in Sjögren's syndrome and NALP5 in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1). My ...
Josuke's user avatar
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1 answer
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Why is only the donor's antigen seen during a blood transfusion?

I am a high school student and I am a little confused that why only donor's antigen matters during blood transfusion? for e.g if the donor's blood is O- so it means that it will antibodies against all ...
Arun Bhardwaj's user avatar
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3 answers
217 views

Help with understanding XKCD's “How Vaccine Failure due to Viral Vector Immunity Works” Why is this response a failure exactly?

Full disclosure; no biology since 9th grade, so please go easy on me! XKCD's 2406 shows a literal wooden Trojan Horse outside a castle, but instead of bringing it inside the castle walls, the soldiers ...
uhoh's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
65 views

What happens if a circulating naive B cell is met with a polysaccharide/lipid antigen?

These antigens should provoke a T-independent response, so will they differentiate then and there to form short-lived plasma cells? Or do they have to go to lymphoid tissue, enter a B follicle, and ...
Jaja bae's user avatar
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3 votes
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What are the advantages of mRNA vaccines?

When the mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 are administered, mRNA molecules are introduced into the cells of the subject. The translation of this mRNA determines the productions of antigens, which in turn ...
fdierre's user avatar
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How do injected purified anti-D antibodies prevent the natural production of antibodies in order to prevent Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn?

Treatments involving Anti-D antibodies are given to pregnant women carrying Rh+ fetuses when the mother has an Rh- blood type in order to prevent Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn during the 2nd ...
JulianS's user avatar
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1 answer
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Fate of antigen-presenting cells after antigen presentation to Helper T cells

In many texts, the Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that initiate helper T cell responses are often "forgotten" after their antigen presentation function is discussed. I have been wondering ...
Chemo-Mike's user avatar
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How do Helper T cells activate Cytotoxic T cells?

Helper T cells activate the Antigen-presenting Cells (APCs) through their secretions (the cytokines) (although the T cell in question gets activated in turn). This is typically achieved by cell-to-...
Chemo-Mike's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
277 views

When someone gets infected with influenza, and gains some immunity, is that immunity just as good as getting it from a vaccine?

A friend thinks that being infected with a new influenza virus means that little immunity is gained, unless you get a vaccine. But, he is forgetting that new strains can make current vaccines out-...
The T's user avatar
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1 answer
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What does the decline of serum antibodies after infection mean for B cell immunity, exactly?

About a month ago there was a small media blip about a report in the New England Journal of Medicine that neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 decline significantly within a matter of months. ...
BatWannaBe's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
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What is the mechanism responsible for long-lasting detectable antibody titers?

As I understand, when naive B cell encounters antigen matching its receptors and is activated by a T helper cell, it can either differentiate into 4 plasma cells, produce a lot of antibodies and ...
abukaj's user avatar
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How close is the U.S. to herd immunity, assuming long-term immunity?

Assuming: infection always results in death or immunity (unproven, but no evidence of repeat infections yet) official COVID-19-related death counts are accurate (142k at the time of this question) ...
Paul Draper's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
140 views

Can you vaccinate against bacterial diseases? Are there existing vaccines for such diseases?

I have the (maybe wrong?) preconception that we only vaccinate against viral diseases, and that there can only exist vaccines against viruses. I think the idea comes from the idea that only for viral ...
kutschkem's user avatar
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To what exten do children produce antibodies against covid-19?

Here in Sweden all kindergartens and schools up to the month of June the year people turn 16 remain open. In almost all other European country schools are closed. I do not really know why our schools ...
Agerhell's user avatar
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Could old-style "inoculation" be used against COVID-19? [closed]

Before the first vaccination was invented, for smallpox, there already was a technique called inoculation or https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variolation. Unlike vaccination where dead or modified ...
Nadav Har'El's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
124 views

Would "Pox Parties" of the young/healthy (while isolating the vulnerable) be an effective method of combating the COVID-19 outbreak?

It is commonly said that most people, especially the healthiest would only develop mild syndromes. Therefore, shouldn’t we, instead of confining all the population as a whole proceed as follows : ...
amyvvach's user avatar
32 votes
3 answers
6k views

Can you be immune to a coronavirus?

Can one be immune to the new coronavirus? Another question is what is the exact definition of "being immune". Does it mean that even when the virus enters my system, it cannot multiply?
kokoo's user avatar
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-3 votes
1 answer
82 views

Share immunity by kissing?

How can you get a cold by kissing someone who already has it, but you can't get their antibodies by kissing them after they recover? Or can you?
user55908's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
78 views

Does a breastfed infant gain immunoprotection due to intramuscular vaccination of the breastfeeder?

There is a claim that infants gain immunoprotection from breastfeeding. I am especially interested in specific protection against pathogens the breastfeeder (not necessarily the mother) has been ...
abukaj's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
68 views

Mithradates - Developing immunity to poison?

According to legend, Mithridates studiously researched and examined all known toxins and experimented with potential remedies by using prisoners as his guinea pigs. Supposedly, Mithridates’ toils paid ...
mph85's user avatar
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Why did T cells have evolved to recognise self cells along with foreign antigent to generate a response?

T cells have evolved to be strain specific. For a T cell to respond it has to identify not only the foreign antigen but the antigen must also be attached to a self cell. what is the significance of ...
priyanka's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
127 views

Can a pathogen be totally resistant to the human immune system?

Can a pathogenic organism be totally resistant to the human immune system? For the purpose of this question, the organism in question must cause a disease. Examples of organisms that would qualify as ...
user73910's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
79 views

Organ and Bone Marrow Transplantation?

In organ transplantation the transplant is rejected by the body's immune system , but is it possible if along with organ transplant if bone marrow transplantation is carried out from the same donor , ...
Chloritone_360's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
49 views

How similar do proteins have to be to trigger the same immune response?

The title really says it all. How precise or vague is the immunity we get from vaccination or from having encountered a germ before? Is it about protein parts that are recognised if they are ...
BlindKungFuMaster's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
39 views

Allergy desensitization: what is the mechanism? Could it happen with other immune responses? [closed]

Allergy is a type of immune response against an otherwise harmless substance. If I understand it well, the aim of allergy immunotherapy is not to stimulate an immune response like the immunotherapy ...
Gruxg's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
39 views

Are cloned spieces significantly more vulnereble to deseases than sexually reproducing species?

I would like to be able to compare the risk for species to go extinct implied by their reproduction mechanism in the very short term. Imagine we choose some species A that can reproduce both sexually ...
yukashima huksay's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
55 views

Allergy vs. Immunity

What is the difference between these two phenomena in our organism: allergy and immunity? Both cause producing of antibodies which struggle against antigens. Is it true, that allergy always leads to ...
Artem Zefirov's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
2k views

B -Cell activation by helper T cell

When Dendritic cell travels to nearby lymph node with antigen presented on MHC II molecule, the helper T-cell residing there gets activated. But what happens to B- cell residing there? Does it get ...
Sandeep's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
50 views

How is cartilage immunised?

How is human cartilage immunised (protected) against pathogens since it does not contain lymphatic vessels?
Abdelrahman asal's user avatar
10 votes
2 answers
2k views

Why Can't The Immune Systems of Uncontacted Tribes Handle Our Common Colds?

I'm sorry if this is a stupid question, I'm just starting my first year of a biomedicine degree and I'm curious - googling didn't find me any answers. I know that the Aboriginal Australians and many ...
Bethany's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
449 views

Why it is important to vaccinate a human newborn within 24 hours since birth?

In Poland a newborn has to be vaccinated within 24 hours against hepatitis B and tuberculosis. As I understand it is good to be vaccinated against both, I do not see the need to hurry so much. ...
abukaj's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
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Is mate choice in non-human primates MHC-dependent?

Whether the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) affects or not mate choice in humans seems mired in controversy at the moment. Without implying that looking at non-human primates would solve this ...
got trolled too much this week's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
372 views

Vaccines against bacterial endotoxins

Today in class, there was a discussion going on about what part of pathogens(which can act as an antigen) can be used to make vaccines. There was this point where our teacher said that bacterial ...
anamika Singh's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
59 views

How can I perform virus neutralization assay for influenza?

How can I perform a Virus Microneutralization assay for influenza virus using serum from mice vaccinated with this virus?
Sahar's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
80 views

Placebo effect and why they work [closed]

I'm just wondering how the placebo effect works on people. If a patient is given fake drugs , how does that make him better? So what if they feel more "assured", how would that help the body immunity (...
Jfjdkksjsjk's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
235 views

What is the difference between an active and inactive T helper cell?

1- Are all inactive T helper cells "T memory cells" ? 2- Is there anything such as active T memory cells ? 3- I have noticed that there is also a third type of T helper cells but i dont know what it ...
Max white's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
151 views

Why would eating the meat of cows fed with antibiotics trigger an immune response to the antibiotics? [closed]

The document "Antibiotics and Antibiotic resistance" contains the following paragraph: The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in feed stuffs means that humans may receive unwanted doses of ...
Mathematician's user avatar
4 votes
3 answers
2k views

What is the mechanism by which passive immunity works?

My idea is that passive immunity can be used to cure an individual who is infected with a certain disease. For example, for someone infected by clostridium tetani, you would inject them with an ...
Mathematician's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
95 views

Bird diversity and the avian flu

From Learning from the Octopus 1 (p. 201): A complimentary line of defense would be to lower the chance of infection by lowering the prevalence and virulence of diseases…just keep the variability ...
JAR's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
45 views

"Treatment" of allergy.

Is there any treatment for allergy? I am not saying about solutions like epi-pen which reduce the symptoms. Is there any way to modify our immunity so that it does not identify the allergens? Can we ...
YAHB's user avatar
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