Questions tagged [immunology]

The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
-3
votes
0answers
29 views

Is modern medicine selecting for weaker immune systems?

I know that sometimes genes are selected against if it becomes evolutionarily useless for example in humans with respect to our vitamin-C-producing enzyme GULA due to us getting plenty from our diet. ...
-1
votes
0answers
50 views

How can I tell now if I had COVID-19 before I was vaccinated? [closed]

Is there any sort of serological test that could distinguish infection-induced immunity from vaccine-induced immunity?
0
votes
0answers
18 views

Function of IGLL5 in the immunoglobulin lambda light chain locus

IGLL5 sits in the locus of the lambda light chain genes. GeneCards has this description: This gene encodes one of the immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptides. It is located within the immunoglobulin ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views

Why do immunoglobulin heavy chain genes sit next to the telomere?

I just noticed that IGH genes are the last group of genes at the end of Chromosome 14. Is there a reason / selection pressure to explain why that is? Below is a snapshot of the UCSC genome browser. As ...
-2
votes
0answers
36 views

If we introduce the body with an adjuvant and after a time T with inactivated virus, for what rough reasonable value of T will the vaccine still work?

My understanding is that along with introducing an inactivated virus to the body, we also need to stimulate the immune system using an adjuvant so that there is a strong response to the virus ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Does specific immunity affect the incubation period of viruses?

My interest was inspired by the observed variation in incubation times for different strains of Covid-19, however I ask the question in the broader sense as it seems hard to find an answer in general. ...
2
votes
1answer
126 views

What is the significance of an adjuvant to traffic vaccine antigen directly to draining lymph nodes without diffusing into the systemic circulation?

I found the following sentence in the this paper- Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBV152: a double-blind, randomised, phase 1 trial An imidazoquinoline molecule, which ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

How do the anti-D antibodies help prevent Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn? And why do they not act like the maternal antibodies?

I understand that this question has been asked a few times in the past, but the answers there didn't really explain to me why the Anti-D antibodies we introduce are able to prevent the hemolysis of ...
-1
votes
0answers
14 views

What can be used to test for skin allergy?

I have to plan for a test for skin compatibility with our sanitizer from plant extractions for my project. Is there a way to test for skin compatibility without involving human testing? I was told ...
-3
votes
0answers
59 views

Could a different IRGM down-regulate a cytokine storm in humans?

Some research like Autoimmunity gene IRGM suppresses cGAS-STING and RIG-I-MAVS signalling to control interferon response. Kautilya Kumar Jena et al. EMBO Reports (2020) 21:e50051 show that IRGMs ...
2
votes
0answers
61 views

How much of TLR 7 agonist is safe for human beings, as it is both linked to development of autoimmune diseases but is also used as Vaccine adjuvant?

This question is motivated by the fact that TLR 7 agonists have been linked to development and acceleration of Lupus-like disease both in animals and human beings. But at the same time, TLR 7 agonist ...
26
votes
5answers
5k views

Why are scientists saying that the Omicron COVID-19 variant is a reason to get a booster?

I was watching Vox’s video, Big questions about the Covid booster shot, answered, which references the New York Times article Omicron Prompts Swift Reconsideration of Boosters Among Scientists. In ...
12
votes
2answers
3k views

Do spike-protein-based vaccines undermine the DNA repair system?

I ain't no biologist, but I came across a paper recently and tried to understand it: SARS–CoV–2 Spike Impairs DNA Damage Repair and Inhibits V(D)J Recombination In Vitro My question: Is it a correct ...
2
votes
2answers
156 views

Could Sars-CoV-2 vaccines make the immune response less effective against new variants?

Some viral diseases (e.g. influenza and dengue fever) are thought to exhibit original antigenic sin. The immune system remembers viruses that it has been previously exposed to, allowing the body to ...
4
votes
1answer
254 views

What animal has the strongest immune system?

I'm wondering what animal has the strongest immune system. It can be defined as the most evolved immune system or the immune system that can eliminate or tolerate most number of (different) viruses/...
1
vote
1answer
70 views

Can blood transfusion help to fight cancer cell?

First of all, I'm not a biology student or have sufficient knowledge of biology so I apologize if this question appears silly. Let's say patient A has cancer cells and a healthy person B has the same ...
-1
votes
1answer
51 views

Why do veterinary vaccines have shorter effect?

In humans activated T-lymphocytes persist until end of life, and activated B-lymphocytes persist many years, so most vaccines don't need to be reapplied and the few that do are reapplied after 10 to ...
4
votes
0answers
80 views

Following mRNA vaccination, do proteins mostly exit "naked" from transfected cells or by some more indirect route (EVs etc.)?

Related to someone's elses disbeliefs in how proteins produced from a mRNA vaccine end up in B cells; in theory the process could be more complicated than "naked" egress (which arguably does ...
2
votes
1answer
106 views

Transplant rejection through direct allogenic antigen detection: where do the T cells come from?

I just read a chapter in Janeway's Immunology on T cell development and thought about transplant rejection. But I couldn't figure out how the t cells develop which lead to the rejection. So in direct ...
29
votes
1answer
6k views

Are fully vaccinated people more likely to not get infected at all with COVID-19?

I've found some papers which describe that the viral shedding does not decrease during infection (for fully vaccinated people). But the overall shedding time does decrease. Therefore it is possible to ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

How do I classify cytotoxicity values, whether a sample is mildly, moderately, or highly cytotoxic?

I used LDH assay for cytotoxicity testing. I have a plant extract which I tested against HepG2 cancer cells. I did three trials, my results were 2%, 6%, and 8% cytotoxicity, respectively. How do I ...
-2
votes
1answer
64 views

What antibody targets are being tested for in the publicly offered UK antibody test?

In late August 2021 the NHS (UK) offered people who test positive for COVID what is referred to in this BBC report as a “new antibody test”. However, I have been unable to find out what exactly is new ...
4
votes
1answer
116 views

Why would this viral strain-specific antiserum fail to immunoprecipitate the same (98% identical protein) from another strain?

I'm reading this paper https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC392475/ and I can't work out why a certain immune serum didn't work on the same viral protein but from different strains. The serum ...
0
votes
2answers
44 views

Is it possible for a plant extract to have different effects, depending on the type of cell line it was tested on?

My plant extract (ethyl acetate fraction) seems to have two different effects depending on the cell/cell line it's being tested on. On liver cancer cells (HepG2), it is moderately cytotoxic. But on ...
1
vote
1answer
29 views

Why are basophils and eosinophils considered granulocytes?

I have read that granulocytes are a type of leukocytes that have granules (hence the name) visible by microscopy. But then there is something called a granulocyte/monocyte progenitor cell, which I ...
-2
votes
1answer
71 views

Fluctuations in disease burden of respiratory viruses (especially influenza/coronaviruses)

Compared to peaks in terms of disease burden (morbidity and mortality, or incidence of severely symptomatic cases and deaths caused by a viral strain within a population), is the relatively light ...
5
votes
0answers
60 views

Are autoantibodies against intracellular proteins "functional"?

Autoantibodies against intracellular proteins have been detected in some autoimmune diseases (For example, TRIM21 in Sjögren's syndrome and NALP5 in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1). My ...
1
vote
1answer
44 views

How to identify plasma cells that only produce monoclonal antibodies?

I am studying the procedures of forming hybridoma cells for generating a large number of monoclonal antibodies. Before the procedure of fusion (with multiple myeloma cells) happens, I would like to ...
-2
votes
1answer
59 views

Why is the antibody light chain essential for function?

Humans and most other mammals produce antibodies consisting of two heavy chains, each linked to a light chain. Both heavy and light chain contribute to the variable region, and thus the antigen ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

NF-κB activated, but IRF blocked - Rewiring of immune response

Rubela virus has the following PAMPs: ssRNA, which will activate the following PRRs: TLR7, TLR8, RIG-I, and possibly MDA5. Dendritic cells infected with Rubela virus are reported to produce very low ...
3
votes
1answer
147 views

why secondary/booster vaccine shots may sometimes induce worse side effects?

Background: I had my first shot about 1.5 months ago, I just had my shot yesterday. Unmistakable fever like symptom started within 4 hours. within 10 hours the whole body started aching, accompanied ...
6
votes
3answers
139 views

Why do T cells have MHC II receptors?

I have seen the answer to this question which says that T cells do not express MHC II proteins which would make sense. However, my textbook "The immune system" by Peter Parham disagrees. It ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

Differentiating molecules based on peptide sequence? How to annotate?

I want to differentiate between classical class I and non classical class I MHC molecules in a model organism using well conserved structural features within classical MHC I molecules (eg intradomain ...
3
votes
2answers
70 views

Why is there not an immune response to injected immunoglobulins?

When you inject immunoglobulins as a treatment for certain diseases, the immunoglobulins are a foreign substance. I can appreciate that maybe the constant region would be similar to the hosts as it is ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

Acute cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing capacity

how many cells can a CTL eliminate sequentially? Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are a subset of the adaptive immune system which can target cells for apoptotic elimination. This elimination begins ...
4
votes
2answers
108 views

Which viruses still present today caused a deadly pandemic/epidemic in the past?

The current Covid-19 pandemic and its virus Sars-Cov-2 can be dangerous, especially for vulnerable groups like the elders. But however, I have seen studies that this virus become less dangerous in the ...
0
votes
0answers
5 views

How important is the antigen presented by cTECs during TCR beta-selection?

During beta selection, a candidate T cell tries to use its pre-TCR to bind to cTECs in the thymus. If tonic signaling occurs between the pre-TCR and the cTEC MHC, then it will progress through later ...
3
votes
0answers
30 views

How do APCs find their specific T-cells in the lymph nodes?

My understanding is that when an APC (more specifically a dendritic cell) encounters an antigen in the periphery, it ingests it and presents it on its surface. It then migrates to lymph nodes to ...
14
votes
0answers
251 views

Does vaccination lead to short-term secondary infection suceptibility?

For clarity, here is a summary of my question, per anongoodnurse's comment: Does a lower peripheral lymphocyte count resulting from recent immunization render us more susceptible to infection by other ...
2
votes
1answer
116 views

Immunological factors for the cause of headaches following SAR-CoV-2/COVID vaccination

It is generally-accepted that headaches are a common side effect from receiving the COVID vaccine. Vaccine recipients with pre-existing immunity experience systemic side effects with a significantly ...
1
vote
0answers
10 views

Why am I finding peculiar B cell population when pbmcs are cultured for 3 days with CD40L?

While performing intracellular cytokine assay on B cells, I am finding a peculiar population. I use 2*10^6 cells for studying each functional marker. The pbmcs are cultured for 72 hours, with CD40L ...
0
votes
0answers
77 views

Is there any plausible biological mechanism for "universally protective vaccines" via "MHC allotype-independent immune effector memory cells"?

Geert Vanden Bossche, who has recently gained some fame for dissing all current Covid-19 vaccines (and who is also asking the WHO to meet him so they can be infused with his wisdom), has had the same ...
3
votes
1answer
19 views

Why are certain cells more likely to be attacked in autoimmune conditions?

For example, type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune system attacks and kills beta cells in the pancreas. This is relatively common. What makes beta cells more likely to be targeted than, say, alpha ...
0
votes
0answers
29 views

Help with histological cell identification in colon

I have scans of a histology slide of tissue of colorectal cancer and its surrounding tissue. This slide has been stained with the typical Hematoxylin & Eosin (HE) staining then unstained and ...
0
votes
0answers
22 views

What makes a bacterium move away from a neutrophil cell?

In this video we see a bacterium seemingly moving away from the neutrophil that is chasing it. What mechanism makes it "want" to avoid the neutrophil? It doesn't seem to mind being around ...
2
votes
2answers
134 views

SARS-CoV-2 : does vaccination provide a better immunity than being sick and recover?

I recently read in the news that countries are thinking to offer a "green passport" based on the vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, allowing vaccinated people to do things with less ...
0
votes
0answers
28 views

Need help designing an enzyme immunoassay (EIA)

I have a FITC-labelled DNA sequence and an anti-FITC antibody, however this antibody is not conjugated with HRP or any other enzyme. I work in a lab with limited finances, so is there a way I could ...
-3
votes
1answer
163 views

Why V(D)J recombination only happens in B and T cell development?

Does V(D)J recombination only happen in B and T cell development? Can it happen in other types of cells? If V(D)J recombination only happens in B and T cell development, why other types of cells ...
1
vote
0answers
40 views

VDJ sequencing in mice, DNA or RNA?

I am wondering if anyone who is well versed with VDJ sequencing for TCR repertoire analysis (specifically CDR3) would know if DNA or RNA is a better starting material? We are looking at the effects of ...
-2
votes
1answer
63 views

Do plant viruses attack animals? examples? [duplicate]

Do plant viruses attack animals, if yes please give an example of the virus. I feel both plant and animal viruses are different, and they cannot attack each other hosts.

1
2 3 4 5
14