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Questions tagged [immunology]

The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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21 views

How does a lymphocyte produce an antibody from an antigen?

I am studying the immune system, and I have a question about the inner workings of antibody production in lymphocytes. As I understand it now, lymphocytes are able to create antibodies based on ...
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Why are superantigens not “MHC-restricted”, and what's the significance?

MHC restriction is the requirement to recognize an antigen in association with a self-MHC molecule; CD4+ cells can only respond to an antigen if it's presented with a self-MHC II molecule, and the ...
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Induction of disease

In the paper they are infection WT and IL-22-/- mice with C rodentium on some occasions they use oral infection, on others they use IV and on some they use a bacteremia model. Can anyone please ...
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How to choose an assay for detecting virulence factors?

When looking for a protein of interest, an ELISA is being administered. I read this article about the different types of ELISAs and the advantages/disadvantages. However, I am conflicted about ...
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Is slow growth a virulence factor?

Many slow-growth pathogens (e.g. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, lentivirus, Rhabdovirus, Leptospira spp) are difficult to treat. In addition, a review of 61 pathogens found that slower growing ...
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Why do neutrophils have segmented nuclei?

To clarify, I'm not asking what causes high segmentation in neutrophils. I'm asking how segmented nuclei function in a regular neutrophil cell.
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Trade-offs between phage and yeast displays?

If you wanted to test a peptide you designed, you can do a phage display or a yeast display experiment to assess binding affinity. What are the trade-offs between these two methods? I've heard ...
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Does a breastfed infant gain immunoprotection due to intramuscular vaccination of the breastfeeder?

There is a claim that infants gain immunoprotection from breastfeeding. I am especially interested in specific protection against pathogens the breastfeeder (not necessarily the mother) has been ...
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Do species ever move into new territory and then die out because of the local diseases?

We usually hear that an invasive species has brought with it a disease which it itself shrugs off easily, but which then decimates the local population which has never encountered it before. It's a ...
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FUT2 secretor and O blood group

If I understand correctly, an individual may or may not be a secretor, depending on a non-sense mutation encoding a stop codon that inactivates the FUT2 enzyme. A secretor will thus secrete histo-...
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Mithradates - Developing immunity to poison?

According to legend, Mithridates studiously researched and examined all known toxins and experimented with potential remedies by using prisoners as his guinea pigs. Supposedly, Mithridates’ toils paid ...
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Do people have local immunity?

I mean the immunity that covers only one body part or skin area after exposure to the infection but does not cover the whole organism.
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What does it mean to be a fully human monoclonal antibody?

I somewhat understand that some monoclonal antibodies are developed from the cells of mice, or a fusion of human and mice genes. When something is a fully human monoclonal antibody does that mean it ...
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Do plasma B cells express the BCR or only produce soluble antibodies?

Is the B cell receptor still expressed on a B cell once it has begun to produce soluble antibodies? Is there a gene change that prevents the membrane-bound form from being produced anymore?
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Can a person be infected with Polio even after vaccination in childhood?

We know that a person develops antibodies by active immunisation after the administration of vaccines (either in dead form / live attenuated form). Is there any chance of developing the same disease ...
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Can someone please recommend me a source where I can find reliable markers of gamma delta T cells?

can someone please recommend me a source where I can find markers for gamma delta T cells?
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How are new antigens recognised by the body?

I understand that non-self cells are engulfed by APCs, and are recognised by Helper T cells for the cell-mediated response to occur, but the Helper T cell must have the specific binding for such an ...
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Why do some subsets of Dendritic cells coexpress inhibitory ligand PD-L1 and the co-stimulatory molecule CD86?

I don't understand the logic behind activated DCs coexpressing PD-L1 and CD86. Is there a good rationale for seemingly paradoxical co-expression signatures?
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What do we mean by MHC molecule diversity? Does each human have a variety of MHC molecule isoforms?

I'm going to try and explain what I think I know From what I understand, MHC/HLA molecules present peptides to T cells. To be able to present peptides from a wide variety of pathogens, they need to ...
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Difference between scFV vs scTCR

Both scFv and scTCR consist of 2 variable regions joined by a linker loop. The 2 variable regions both consist of 3 CDR regions encompassed by 4 framework regions. So what's the difference ...
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Are tumor-associated antigens unique to cancerous cells?

Are tumor-associated antigens found only on the membrane of cancerous cells or just over-expressed on the membrane of carcinogenic cells? In other words, are these antigens also found on healthy ...
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What is the probability of an offspring sharing identical HLA typing as one of their parents?

DISCLAIMER: I have yet to thoroughly study HLA 100% to the bone, and hence I won't know everything about it at the back of the hand. Recently I came across this information on a San Francisco ...
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What is the purpose of getting a rabies vaccine after exposure?

After exposure to the virus, it is already inside you and your immune system will start to recognize it. Is the vaccine then just a way to kickstart this process so the body can fight off the ...
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Species specific White Blood Cells (WBC) composition

In our ongoing immunology undergrad course I learnt that neutrophil primarily fights off bacterial infection and lymphocyte is produced in response to viral infection. I also learnt that neutrophil ...
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Presence of anti-drug-antibodies in patients prior to drug exposure (Mabs)?

How do we explain the presence of anti-drug-antibodies in patients prior to exposure to a drug - specifically for monoclonal antibodies (Mabs)?
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Why are red blood cells not attacked by NK cells?

All cells containing a nucleus present MHC-I, while some specialized cells present MHC-II in addition to that. Since erythrocytes lack any MHC why do natural killer cells not attack them? It is my ...
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Can exposure to blood make pathogens resistant to the immune system?

If a drop of my blood is dropped into a pool of pathogens. Does that act as "reverse-vaccination" for said pathogens? I see this it as a potential risk for bacteria/viruses to compete or get ...
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Meaning of units in ELISA based tests?

For some ELISA based antibody tests (e.g. h-tTg antibody test), labs report units as RU/mL or U/mL. Also different labs have different cut off (normal range) values. I understand that different kit ...
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What's the difference between veterinary and human snake antivenom?

Recently, out of curiosity, I looked online if snake antivenom for humans were actually sold for individuals. I found out they aren't. Not only that, but bills can get really high on countries that ...
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How are humanized antibodies made?

What kind of antigen is used to provoke/induce an immune response if you are trying to make therapeutic humanized antibodies for cancer and alzheimer's disease? For example, if you wanted to make an ...
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Heritable immunity and smallpox vaccination [duplicate]

As I understand it, lack of heritable immunity caused smallpox to wipe out certain communities of native Americans. If vaccination conveys heritable immunity to a population, shouldn’t this make ...
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Is there evidence that children should play in dirt to get healthy?

I've heard it said many times, that we should let children play in the dirt as it builds up their immunity and prevents things like allergies in later life. I have another suggestion which, to me, is ...
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How are monocytes larger than capillaries?

I have read that the average size of a capillary is about 8 micrometers. How is it possible that the 15 micrometer or so monocytes in blood do not block these vessels? https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
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Why did T cells have evolved to recognise self cells along with foreign antigent to generate a response?

T cells have evolved to be strain specific. For a T cell to respond it has to identify not only the foreign antigen but the antigen must also be attached to a self cell. what is the significance of ...
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Why do some people have symptoms of salmonella and others not?

So I was reading from the Mayo Clinic website and they say that typically people with Salmonella have no symptoms, but why? Why do some people have symptoms and others not? Salmonella does after all ...
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Why do NK cells not destroy bacteria, even though bacteria don't have MHC-I?

Part of the function of NK cells is to destroy cells that are unable to bind their KIR receptors. Or in other words, cells that don't express MHC class I. This is why they can kill MHC supressed ...
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Immune response to IgA positive bacteria

If certain bacteria can be coated with IgA in vitro, does that mean they are likely to elicit an IgA immune response? Edit I'm working on a project that involves IgA-Seq analysis. Bacteria are coated ...
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Antibodies combine with antigens in the presence or abscence of macrophages?

There was a mcq in book that antibodies combine with antigens when.... And the correct answer was if macrophages are absent. As far as I know macrophages release interleukin 1 which stimulates T ...
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What is the meaning of expansion of T cells?

In immunology, what does it mean by the term 'expansion' of T cells ex-vivo and activate it (generally with reference to cancer immunotherapy)?
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What is meant by 'fixing' of an antigen presenting cell?

Can someone please explain what does 'fixing' of an antigen presenting cell mean?
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Placebo Effect Reactions

Why do some people actually experience measureable effects when given a placebo(fake drugs) versus the actual drug? Is is the power of suggestion, belief, or something else?
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Why do bulls-eye rashes look like they do?

People infected with Lyme Disease often present with an erythema migrans ("migrating redness") rash. Most often, these rashes are in the shape of a bulls-eye. Rash image. Presumably, this is a ...
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How does the immune system recognize harmful proteins?

How does the human immune system detect whether a protein happens to be a protein found in the body that is supposed to be there, a bacterial toxin that should be inactivated, an already inactivated ...
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Why don't allergies cause fever?

Allergy To my understanding, an allergy is a hypersensitivity of the immune system causing a substance in the environment to be identified as pathogenic by the immune system while it is not ...
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What properties of the pathogens of infectious diseases make recovered individuals susceptible to the disease?

I was wondering what properties of the pathogens of infectious diseases make these diseases more prone to making recovered individuals immediately susceptible to the disease? I was thinking that with ...
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Where are Opsonins produced?

I read that opsonins are a type of antibody that play a vital role in chemotaxis and phagocytosis in general. The fact of them being antibodies though, got me confused. Antibodies are, to my knowledge ...
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Are microbial antigens selected against?

Antigens provoke a response from the host immune system. Could selective pressures result in microbes losing their antigens? Has this been observed? Or are antigens typically so important that they ...
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Is autoimmune disease associated with self-reactive B cells?

I'm a bit of an amateur, so excuse what may be a very naive question, but I somewhat understand how B cells that are self-reactive (bind to endogenous epitopes) are selected out during development. I ...
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How are primary monoclonal antibodies for screening mutant cells made, physically?

I'm working with a fairly common protein expressed in a large numbers of organisms, let's say a keratin-associated beta-protein. I'm trying to develop a process which requires primary-secondary ...
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Can MHC class I be used for presenting peptides of extracellular origin by non-professional APCs?

Wikipedia says that: "The antigens presented by MHC class II are derived from extracellular proteins (not cytosolic as in MHC class I)." So does this mean that MHC class I cannot be used for ...