Questions tagged [immunology]

The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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How would mixing an allergen with various proteins, sugars, and fats minimize the severity of the allergic reaction?

Context - https://www.health24.com/Medical/Allergy/News/wait-can-you-be-allergic-to-water-acquagenic-urticaria-explained-20200208-2 Specifically, referring to this paragraph; ''Some people can’t ...
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Why hasnt been developed yet a COVID-19 vaccine? [duplicate]

I'm a complete noob when it comes to biology, but as far as I remember from my biology class, a vaccine is just a the viruses itself but in small amounts so that the immune system creates memory cells....
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What are the difficulties/challenges against developing a coronavirus vaccine?

Multiple groups of scientists are trying to develop a coronavirus vaccine but they are not yet being fruitful. What challenges or difficulties are there in the process that slowing down and/or causing ...
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Our Aspen are weep brown sap. A web site from Colorado said this condition is terminal for Aspen. Can you help? [migrated]

Our Aspen are weeping a brown sap. A web site said the condition is terminal. A local weed and feed company said the condition can be treated with an antibiotic for pigs. Do you have information on ...
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How does the immune system distinguish between a TH1 and a TH2 response?

Hello and thanks for taking the time to read my post. I know that naive T-Cells (T0) can be induced to become mature T-Helper cells (TH1 or TH2) by induction with either IL2 or IL4. IL2+ TH0 -> TH1 ...
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If every person between 15-60 had an immune system equal to the healthiest people, would this affect the spread of coronavirus?

Has anyone calculated the speed or breadth of the spread of something like coronavirus (or any cold, flu, airborne pathogen) based on how well the population can master the virus with their immune ...
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How are antibodies specific for a disease detected in the blood if everybody produces a different antibody for the same antigen?

To break the title down into parts: There exist serology tests that detect the amount of an antibody (Ab) against a specific pathogen/antigen. Every human produces their own Ab for a specific ...
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How are B cells activated

I am currently an A-level biology student — what I understand is: B cells can either be independent of T cells or dependent on T cells for activation. The ones which are dependent on T cells ...
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Why do only some viruses cause a fever?

A fever is supposed to be one of the body's defense mechanisms against a virus. Raising body temperature can kill some viruses. So why isn't this response seen for all viruses, but just a few?
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If the covid-19 appeared once, could it reappear anytime?

Governments are imposing confinement measures on their populations, trusting that if there is no more transmission the virus will die out. But since this coronavirus appeared a first time, what could ...
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What differentiates diseases like Covid-19 and Polio from the common cold

Why are vaccines required for our body's immune system to destroy viruses that cause the likes of Covid-19 or Polio, while viruses that cause the common-cold are self-limiting (go away on their own)? ...
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Is it red blood cells or white blood cells that fight infection?

This article has me very confused; https://www.dailymail.co.uk/science...-blood-likely-catch-coronavirus.html#comments It's implying that red blood cells (ABO blood groups only affect the surface of ...
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Is Covid-19 likely to mutate into a deadlier form?

When the Spanish influenza hit in 1918, it struck in two waves. The first wave was typical for a flu virus, targetting mainly elderly people, but the second wave was far deadlier and killed far more ...
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Is COVID-19 claimed to get less deadly over time? If so, why?

From a TV news report of a press conference from (I think) the German Robert Koch Institute, I remember hearing an expert declare that he was expecting COVID-19 to get less deadly over time. ...
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How could the genocide of native Americans have happened? [closed]

According to work from Broden et al. (2015), the variation in the human immune system is largely driven by non-heritable influences. If there is little heritibility how can the genocide of native ...
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sperm reaction of virus infected

we know when a human body cell infected by a virus , create interferon 1 to call other cells that surrounded it , but red blood cells couldn't do this because they loose their nuclear and other ...
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Is it possible for an immune host to be reinfected and show symptom before swift recovery?

For example, let's say the pathogen is a virus, and the host was infected once but recovered purely on its own and thus retained a highly effective adapted immunity. However, if we IV inject the the ...
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What is holding the immune system back to not attack human body cells?

There are plenty of loose proteins or other macromolecules free floating everywhere. Why wouldn't they be seized and presented to T cell to trigger an immune response? Does each of these molecules ...
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How are lipid-coated mRNA-based vaccines transported into cells for expression?

In CNN's video Scientist says Coronavirus vaccine could be ready by 2021 after about 00:25 'Robin Shattock, the Head of Mucosal Infection and Immunity at Imperial ...
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Immunity to one's own microbiome

It seems that a human bite can be very dangerous, because of the myriads of bacterial species found in saliva. This leads to several questions that, perhaps, may have the same single answer. But, I'...
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Provisional vaccine for fast spreeding new viruses?

Developing a standard vaccine for coronavirus will take at least a few months - what might be too late: However, its sequence is already known, and is nearly identical - suggesting a recent single ...
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Why do vaccines sometimes induce a fever? [closed]

How does a vaccine cause an immune response such as fever? Why do only some people experience these reactions? Why might those reactions change upon subsequent doses of the same or similar vaccines?
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Why do viruses want to kill their hosts? [duplicate]

I know viruses don't "want" anything as they aren't alive, but why do they kill their hosts? Don't they die as well so it would be more evolutionary beneficial for them to keep us alive?
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How do bats survive their own coronaviruses?

How do bats survive their own coronaviruses (without showing any symptoms)? Or, more generically, how can viruses keep reproducing inside healthy carriers without inducing any pathogenic effect? Are ...
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How does a lymphocyte produce an antibody from an antigen?

I am studying the immune system, and I have a question about the inner workings of antibody production in lymphocytes. As I understand it now, lymphocytes are able to create antibodies based on ...
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Why are superantigens not “MHC-restricted”, and what's the significance?

MHC restriction is the requirement to recognize an antigen in association with a self-MHC molecule; CD4+ cells can only respond to an antigen if it's presented with a self-MHC II molecule, and the ...
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Induction of disease

In the paper they are infection WT and IL-22-/- mice with C rodentium on some occasions they use oral infection, on others they use IV and on some they use a bacteremia model. Can anyone please ...
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How to choose an assay for detecting virulence factors?

When looking for a protein of interest, an ELISA is being administered. I read this article about the different types of ELISAs and the advantages/disadvantages. However, I am conflicted about ...
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Is slow growth a virulence factor?

Many slow-growth pathogens (e.g. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, lentivirus, Rhabdovirus, Leptospira spp) are difficult to treat. In addition, a review of 61 pathogens found that slower growing ...
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Why do neutrophils have segmented nuclei?

To clarify, I'm not asking what causes high segmentation in neutrophils. I'm asking how segmented nuclei function in a regular neutrophil cell.
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Trade-offs between phage and yeast displays?

If you wanted to test a peptide you designed, you can do a phage display or a yeast display experiment to assess binding affinity. What are the trade-offs between these two methods? I've heard ...
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Does a breastfed infant gain immunoprotection due to intramuscular vaccination of the breastfeeder?

There is a claim that infants gain immunoprotection from breastfeeding. I am especially interested in specific protection against pathogens the breastfeeder (not necessarily the mother) has been ...
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Do species ever move into new territory and then die out because of the local diseases?

We usually hear that an invasive species has brought with it a disease which it itself shrugs off easily, but which then decimates the local population which has never encountered it before. It's a ...
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FUT2 secretor and O blood group

If I understand correctly, an individual may or may not be a secretor, depending on a non-sense mutation encoding a stop codon that inactivates the FUT2 enzyme. A secretor will thus secrete histo-...
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Mithradates - Developing immunity to poison?

According to legend, Mithridates studiously researched and examined all known toxins and experimented with potential remedies by using prisoners as his guinea pigs. Supposedly, Mithridates’ toils paid ...
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Do people have local immunity?

I mean the immunity that covers only one body part or skin area after exposure to the infection but does not cover the whole organism.
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What does it mean to be a fully human monoclonal antibody?

I somewhat understand that some monoclonal antibodies are developed from the cells of mice, or a fusion of human and mice genes. When something is a fully human monoclonal antibody does that mean it ...
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Do plasma B cells express the BCR or only produce soluble antibodies?

Is the B cell receptor still expressed on a B cell once it has begun to produce soluble antibodies? Is there a gene change that prevents the membrane-bound form from being produced anymore?
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Can a person be infected with Polio even after vaccination in childhood?

We know that a person develops antibodies by active immunisation after the administration of vaccines (either in dead form / live attenuated form). Is there any chance of developing the same disease ...
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Can someone please recommend me a source where I can find reliable markers of gamma delta T cells?

can someone please recommend me a source where I can find markers for gamma delta T cells?
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How are new antigens recognised by the body?

I understand that non-self cells are engulfed by APCs, and are recognised by Helper T cells for the cell-mediated response to occur, but the Helper T cell must have the specific binding for such an ...
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Why do some subsets of Dendritic cells coexpress inhibitory ligand PD-L1 and the co-stimulatory molecule CD86?

I don't understand the logic behind activated DCs coexpressing PD-L1 and CD86. Is there a good rationale for seemingly paradoxical co-expression signatures?
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What do we mean by MHC molecule diversity? Does each human have a variety of MHC molecule isoforms?

I'm going to try and explain what I think I know From what I understand, MHC/HLA molecules present peptides to T cells. To be able to present peptides from a wide variety of pathogens, they need to ...
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Difference between scFV vs scTCR

Both scFv and scTCR consist of 2 variable regions joined by a linker loop. The 2 variable regions both consist of 3 CDR regions encompassed by 4 framework regions. So what's the difference ...
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Are tumor-associated antigens unique to cancerous cells?

Are tumor-associated antigens found only on the membrane of cancerous cells or just over-expressed on the membrane of carcinogenic cells? In other words, are these antigens also found on healthy ...
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What is the probability of an offspring sharing identical HLA typing as one of their parents?

DISCLAIMER: I have yet to thoroughly study HLA 100% to the bone, and hence I won't know everything about it at the back of the hand. Recently I came across this information on a San Francisco ...
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What is the purpose of getting a rabies vaccine after exposure?

After exposure to the virus, it is already inside you and your immune system will start to recognize it. Is the vaccine then just a way to kickstart this process so the body can fight off the ...
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Species specific White Blood Cells (WBC) composition

In our ongoing immunology undergrad course I learnt that neutrophil primarily fights off bacterial infection and lymphocyte is produced in response to viral infection. I also learnt that neutrophil ...
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Presence of anti-drug-antibodies in patients prior to drug exposure (Mabs)?

How do we explain the presence of anti-drug-antibodies in patients prior to exposure to a drug - specifically for monoclonal antibodies (Mabs)?
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Why are red blood cells not attacked by NK cells?

All cells containing a nucleus present MHC-I, while some specialized cells present MHC-II in addition to that. Since erythrocytes lack any MHC why do natural killer cells not attack them? It is my ...

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