Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [immunology]

The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

1
vote
0answers
13 views

Could bone marrow transplants be used to prevent tissue rejection of trans-species organs?

So the immune system doesn't calibrate (for want of a better euphemism) to recognize it's own cells until fairly well along in fetal development & the major components of the immune system (...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Antigen molecular mimicry

Let us consider a situation in which the body is attacked by a microbe, and the microbe is captured by the immune system for recognition of surface antigens. The surface antigen recognized mimics one ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

Why is there such a large evening rise of temperature and night sweats in certain diseases like TB, lymphoma etc?

I've heard that it's got to do something with the levels of cortisol which usually dampens the effects of IL-1, but when it's night time the cortisol levels are usually low so IL-1 response is ...
0
votes
1answer
30 views

Fever vs Inflammation

What's the difference between inflammation and fever? And why is fever called an inflammatory response? Does the word inflammation have both a general and a specific meaning?
9
votes
1answer
2k views

Why doesn't our immune system react to infused antibodies produced in a horse?

Calmette tried injecting horses with snake venom and then taking out the serum which has produced antibodies against the venom and injecting in the snake-bitten human. Shouldn't our immune system ...
0
votes
1answer
27 views

Why does the HLA show a high degree of polymorphism?

I know how the HLA undergoes high degree of polymorphism (random genetic rearrangements), but I have not understood why it undergoes rearrangements. What is the advantage offered when HLA shows a high ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

What is the benefit of reducing inflammation when producing antibodies?

We just learned in lecture that IL-10 promotes the formation of plasma cells over memory cells. Which seemed strange to me as IL-10 also reduces inflammation, and I figure you would want inflammation ...
6
votes
3answers
789 views

Can people with AIDS/HIV be vaccinated?

If there is no immune system,it seems like vaccines wouldn't do much since there is no adaptive immune system to develop antibodies and memory cells. But can people with AIDS/HIV still be vaccinated? ...
0
votes
2answers
74 views

How do opportunistic infections affect an immunocompromised or AIDS patient?

I mean, everyone knows that AIDS patients don't die of the HIV infection, rather the opportunistic infections. But if HIV only affects T lymphocytes, and destroys them, then that means only cell ...
1
vote
0answers
22 views

What's the difference between a lymphocyte and a plasma cell?

According to my understanding, lymphocytes is the broad terminology for both T lymphocytes as well as B lymphocytes, while plasma cells refers to mature B cells which produce antibodies. But then why ...
1
vote
1answer
33 views

Common english name for tissues which are separated from the blood by blood-tissue barriers

Which general term is used to denote such organs/tissues as: brain, testis, thymus etc., which are separated from the blood by blood-tissue barriers?
0
votes
0answers
59 views

Opsonins and their role in phagcytisis

How do opsonins enhance phagocytosis? How do they make pathogens more susceptible to ingestion by phagocytes?
1
vote
2answers
38 views

What do phagocytes secrete? [closed]

What do phagocytes release after interacting with a pathogen? I know that this is a broad topic but I only need a general and concise answer.😊
2
votes
1answer
21 views

White blood cells after dealing with an infection

I just have a quick question. If there was an infection of a tissue within the body, white blood cells would leave the capillaries around the tissue and enter the tissues to help cure the infection. ...
2
votes
2answers
35 views

Cross-species infections

I’ve heard that HIV developed from SIV, etc. I’ve also heard that most species (including most monkeys) can’t get a common cold like humans. So then what causes infections to be able to travel ...
2
votes
1answer
30 views

T-Cell Motility: does motility require direction specific actin polymerization?

T-cells have been shown to migrate inside concentration gradients - both in the direction of the source or away. Even under shallow gradients, t-cells move. I argue that, to be able to move in a ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

Why do the host cells containing iC3b fragment not undergo phagocytosis?

As far as I understand, in complement system C3b gets deposited on pathogen surface but it can also be deposited on host cells. Host cells have some negative regulatory system such as membrane ...
0
votes
0answers
12 views

Are there chemicals/materials which when injected in blood stream remains there for long?

Does human body detect all foreign bodies? If a chemical or pathogen or tiny particles(few microns diameter) are injected in blood stream, will they be removed from the body or destroyed sooner or ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Allergy desensitization: what is the mechanism? Could it happen with other immune responses? [closed]

Allergy is a type of immune response against an otherwise harmless substance. If I understand it well, the aim of allergy immunotherapy is not to stimulate an immune response like the immunotherapy ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

When programs started to immunize infants?

Today new borns are given a number of vaccinations, see here for details. Today it is a common practice. While vaccines were invented throughout the 19 th and 20th century, when programs started to ...
1
vote
2answers
67 views

Infant immunization

I know that polio vaccine consists of small dose of polio virus itself, which activates body's immunity against the disease. An infant is given a no of vaccines including chickenpox, tetanus, ...
-5
votes
1answer
98 views

Is it logical for someone to be allergic to the water molecule, but be perfectly fine with drinking milk since it's only 87% water molecules? [closed]

Recently this article got into the tabloids. The comments were disabled very quickly. Strange. The authos says she has Aquagenic Urticaria but it is a skin condition not an allergy, and hence wouldn'...
2
votes
1answer
71 views

Why do neutrophils need to die after pathogen phagocytosis?

From referenced article below, neutrophils need to be removed because its granule contents and oxygen metabolites (used for killing phagocytosed pathogen) are harmful to the surrounding tissue. Thus, ...
2
votes
0answers
24 views

Are cloned spieces significantly more vulnereble to deseases than sexually reproducing species?

I would like to be able to compare the risk for species to go extinct implied by their reproduction mechanism in the very short term. Imagine we choose some species A that can reproduce both sexually ...
2
votes
1answer
46 views

Why reaginic antibodies are absent in these types of syphilis?

According to Textbook of Microbiology and Immunology 2e, Subhash Chandra Parija, pg.no; 375 These(reaginic) antibodies do not appear in early primary syphilis, latent acquired syphilis of long ...
2
votes
3answers
68 views

Purpose of Fc Region

Could someone explain to me the role played by the Fc region of an antibody as well as the purpose of isotype switching? According to Wikipedia, it's to allow the antibody to be usable by different Fc ...
3
votes
2answers
122 views

Why exactly does the immune system weaken with age?

Why does the immune system become weaker with age in humans and in some other mammals? Let's try to be more specific than just "everything degrades with age."
2
votes
0answers
52 views

Could the Immune Gene HLA-B27 be gentically altered, snipped, switched off, replaced, edited within the body

Could the Immune Gene HLA-B27 be genetically altered, snipped, switched off, replaced, edited within the body.? Thousands upon thousands suffer immune disease as do I from this highly implicated gene....
2
votes
1answer
58 views

B cell clones and affinity maturation

As B-cells undergo affinity maturation, their BCR sequences change. Are they still considered to be part of the same clone? I couldn't find a clear answer in response to this very similar question: ...
3
votes
1answer
63 views

Animals as organ donors and organ's life expectancy

Recent attempts to find reliable organ donors was using genetically-engineered (GE) pigs as heart donors. The pig's DNA is altered so that its tissues will appear identical to the patient's tissue and ...
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Exactly what biochemical factors control the intensity of an allergic reaction?

I think have a functional understanding of how an allergic reaction (Type I Hyper Sensitivity) occurs: basically the allergen causes production of antibodies that attach to mast cells and basophils. ...
2
votes
0answers
32 views

Europeans succumbing to diseases they introduced to native Americans

I am reading a non-fiction account of Spanish first contact with native Americans. The Spaniards were shipwrecked, undernourished, malnourished, and dehydrated upon their arrival. Over 75% of them ...
1
vote
4answers
74 views

Why aren't all infections immune-system resistant?

It's been less than a century since the widespread use of antibotics started, and already we're seeing bacteria that have evolved immunities to the antibotics we use. On the other hand, we've been ...
3
votes
0answers
45 views

Why there are no RBCs in lymphatic vessels?

I know the following. Leukocytes (white blood cells) are made in the bone marrow, and naive leukocytes go to the blood vessels. So, leukocytes mainly exist in blood vessels. Endothelial cells ...
1
vote
1answer
42 views

Why do alpha-gal allergies only occur after a tick bite if alpha-gal is already present in red meat?

I just read an NPR article about allergies to red meat being caused by tick bites. That stood out to me because I thought allergies are triggered by an initial exposure to some allergen. In this case, ...
2
votes
1answer
90 views

Can immunity to diseases vary by populations?

A common explanation for the massive population decreases of isolated societies upon contact with Europeans during the Age of Discovery is that the natives lacked immunity to newly introduced diseases....
2
votes
2answers
138 views

B -Cell activation by helper T cell

When Dendritic cell travels to nearby lymph node with antigen presented on MHC II molecule , the helper T-cell residing there gets activated . But what happens to B- cell residing there ? Does it get ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

IgE ELISA mouse

i am currently looking for a good method to measure IgE titers in Notch2-KO and Notch2-KI mice after NP-CGG (T-cell dependent antigen) immunization. Can anyone recommend a good ELISA to do this? ...
1
vote
2answers
111 views

Maternal immunity without prenatal vaccination?

It is recognized that antibodies from the mother provide a level of protection to infants. This is why mothers are often advised to get vaccinated when they're pregnant. However, does the vaccine have ...
5
votes
1answer
256 views

Immune System - B-cell receptors

How do the B-cells, which are a part of our body, develop antibodies against antigens of outside world (outside of our body), which they don't even know about? Is it just a random match?
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Isolation of Intact Granules from Mast Cells

How to isolate intact granules from mast cells without using sucrose and percoll?
2
votes
0answers
33 views

how can I get stronger staining for my lymph node sections

I am using the same protocol and same antibodies that the literature says but still I cannot get good staining for my lymph node sections, I tried to change the fixation method and I am using now ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

If an antiserum was raised in a buffalo by injecting it with monkey red blood cells, what would be the full name for this antiserum?

Im confused, i've attempted this & what i got is buffalo anti-monkey red blood cell antiserum. I'm not sure if this answer is right
2
votes
0answers
53 views

Regarding Passive Aritficial Immunity: Why does the concentration of the foreign antibodies decrease over time?

So, like suggested in question, I am extremely confused about this one concept. That whether or not the injection of foreign antibodies ( passive artificial immunity ) triggers an immune response. ...
1
vote
0answers
20 views

Overall, for the most part, which is more important--capturing prey or surviving predators or parasites?

For animals in nature, does selection intensity tend to be stronger upon abilities used against parasites or predators or abilities used against prey? Any empirical reports would be appreciated. I ...
0
votes
0answers
23 views

What type of cells are we seeing in the blue field entropic phenomenon?

The blue field entropic phenomenon involves seeing the movement of immune cells passing over the retina. They are visible because, unlike erythrocytes, light can pass right through them. I am curious ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

V(D)J recombination on homologous chromosome

V(D)J recombination is known to recombine IG locus of a B cell. Is anything known about how the recombinations on two homologous chromosomes are connected? For example, are the selected V(D)J couples(...
3
votes
1answer
105 views

How do memory cells(B-cells) encounter pathogens?

From what I understand, once the infection is handled, some of the B cells capable of producing the correct antigens are stored for the long-term in the lymph nodes. They will start multiplying again ...
0
votes
1answer
44 views

Do B/T cells form from lymphoid tissue or bone marrow?

This website says lymphocytes are produced in bone marrow https://courses.washington.edu/conj/immune/lymphoid.htm But if that's true, then what cells do lymphoid tissues produce? It could make sense ...
1
vote
2answers
304 views

Where are eosinophils and basophils phagocytic?

It seems known that neutrophils circulate and are phagocytic within the blood stream, but I'm having trouble finding similar conconclusions about where eosinophils and basophils are phagocytic which ...