Questions tagged [immunology]

The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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Do antibodies binding to the same epitope have similar electrophoretic mobility?

Serum protein electrophoresis is a commonly used blood test in medicine. It is often used for detection of paraproteins in the gamma-globulin region. If there is a narrow band with sharp borders ...
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Other than the major histocompatibility complexes, what is the difference between professional and non-professional antigen presenting cells?

Can both professional and nonprofessional APCs activate helper T-cells? Or is that only macrophages and B-cells? Do cytotoxic T-cells only make non-professional APCs go into apoptosis?
kuns 's user avatar
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Why are camelid-derived nanobodies called VHH (variable heavy domain of heavy chain)?

Single-domain antibodies (or nanobodies) derived from camelid heavy-chain antibodies are called VHH antibodies, where VHH stands for "variable heavy domain of heavy chain". I assume the ...
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Why in organ transplantation the dendritic cells can activate the T cells but not in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation?

In the both following cases let's consider that the donor has different HLA type from the recipient. When someones let's say kidney is transplanted into someone that has different HLA alleles, the ...
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Can your T lymphocytes be activated by dendritic cells that have different MHC II alleles?

So it is clear that a T cell is activated by a dendritic cell by presenting to the T cell the MHC II and the foreign antigen. This is because T cells are taught to have high affinity for MHC II when ...
Maria's user avatar
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How do T cells recognise the own bodies's infected cells?

A dendritic cell engulfs an antigen and presents it on its membrane with MHC II. This then binds to an antibody on the membrane of a T cell. It activates the T cell, let's call this X. This X then ...
Maria's user avatar
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Monoclonal Antibodies

In this paper, the authors say: We demonstrate that for a considerable number of eplets, the antibody-verified status is solely based on polyclonal serum reactivity of multiparous women or on ...
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Do Tardigrades have an innate immune system, or any type of immune protection?

Do Tardigrades have any immune protection against bacteria and viruses?
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Do humans produce an immune response to their own antibodies?

As far as I know, T and B cells form a part of the adaptive immune response in humans. In their early stages, these cells undergo genetic recombination to produce a diversity of antigen receptors/...
Bruno. T's user avatar
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Induction of IFN-beta in HEK293T

I'm trying to increase expression of a protein we're attempting to study, UBL7, supposedly unregulated by Type I Interferon and particularly IFN-beta. I've tried treating HEK293T cells (~60% ...
Tom Murphy's user avatar
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qPCR from tissue to compare T-cell subpopulations

In the experiment, groups of mice have been intranasally immunised with different vaccine formulations. We have stored nasal tissue (basically, the front part of the skull without muscles, brain, etc.)...
alex's user avatar
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When the CD4+ gets activated and help B cells, does it have to be the same pathogen?

Does the peptide (presented by the class II HLA molecule) that activates a CD4+ T cell need to be from the same pathogen as the antigen recognized by a B cell when the CD4+ T cell promotes the ...
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Is there a paradox in the field of immunology for the elderly patients?

Say you have an 80 year-old. You can spray anti-bacterial in their door knobs, keys, floors, walls, bathroom. So now less-bacteria. But by doing that, you weaken their immune system, so if they're ...
Neal Conroy's user avatar
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Is it possible for a non-self antigen to NOT be recognized by the body?

The amazing diversity of antigens that the body can recognize (by virtue of T and B cells that express receptors complementary to them) is truly fascinating. The explanation mooted for this is the ...
A-big-neutron's user avatar
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Why don't each of T and B cells make two different TCRs/antibodies, except for the class switch?

I have not been able to find any literature that clearly states this, but if I understand correctly, T and B cells are diploid. If so, there are two sets of genomes, and if both are TCR/VDJ ...
Blue Various's user avatar
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Do both a separate B and T lymphocyte need to be activated during the immune response?

Isn't it very unlikely that there will be both: a) a B and a T with a receptor complementary to the antigen, and b) that they will come into contact with the right antigen-presenting cell? What would ...
user265902's user avatar
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Does vaccinating people with cowpox give people immunity to smallpox?

I've just recently learned about the body's defense mechanism about how lymphocytes from memory cells that are specific to a pathogen after being infected by a pathogen for the first time, but then I ...
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What can lymphocyte-produced antibodies do that 'innate' opsonins can't?

I have a conceptual misunderstanding relating to immunology which I'd be grateful if anyone could help me clear up. My A Level textbook says that at the start of an immune response, opsonins bind to ...
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Can simultaneous double pathogen infections happen, or are they prevented?

Is there something in immunology that prevents a simultaneous infection with a 2nd pathogen? For example, I've never heard of someone getting both dengue and malaria together. Or, say, Ebola and ...
curious_cat's user avatar
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Why does the thymus gland shrink with age?

What exactly is reason/process/mechanism for which our thymus gland starts to shrink with age? The thymus gland is the site of production of T lymphocytes which are the best defence against infection ...
Kshitij Kumar's user avatar
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Are there autoimmune disorders caused or mediated only by T cells?

I have frequently read that 'most' or 'the vast majority' of autoimmune disorders involving the adaptive immune system are caused by autoantibodies. These comments imply that there are known disorders ...
Kurt Hikes's user avatar
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Can macrophages phagocytose viruses directly?

I've been reading that Macrophages, members of the innate immune system, can actively track bacteria and protozoa to devour and destroy them. In the same way, can macrophages devour free viruses, in ...
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How to correct the different (background) fluorescence for different cell types?

I am differentiating mouse bone marrow macrophages in vitro. However, I found that the differentiated macrophages have higher background fluorescence (the unstained sample) in all channels, which ...
William Wong's user avatar
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Conjugate vaccines in the context of the original antigenic sin and antibody feedback inhibition

How come we can get an antibody response against a polysaccharide bound to a carrier protein, that we have antibodies towards, when antibody feedback inhibition exists? If we have antibodies against ...
Noel Lundström's user avatar
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What's the exact mechanism of oral tolerance? [closed]

I have mainly two matters of confusion need to be clarified. First question: The immune system does not necessarily kill everything hat has PAMPS, the bacteria living in the gut, have PAMPS (Pathogen-...
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What's the procedure of the antigen recognition by the B cells in a clear way?

Before presenting my confusion, I really sincerely thank everyone for any advices or clarifying , every single comment is helpful. And my english writing skill is still very bad, Just ask anything ...
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immunotherapy - how would the inhibitor detect

It's a known fact that if PD-L1 happens to be on cancer cells, it will signall off to the T-cell's receptor(PD-1) to turn off its activation, resulting in a fact ...
Giorgi Lagidze's user avatar
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cancer cell - antigen presenting cell

We all know that if normal cell contains virus inside it, normal cell has mechanism inside it that can detect that it has abnormality inside(virus) and what it will do is present the virus's protein(...
Giorgi Lagidze's user avatar
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immune system - how does adaptive work without innate?

The way I understood immune system is that: phagocytes detect viruses and present it on their surface and become antigen presenting cells. Then, T-helper cells try to bind to these phagocytes that ...
Giorgi Lagidze's user avatar
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how do phagocytes receptors work now and in the past?

As we know, phagocytes have receptors on their cell that are used to detect pathogens which they bind to and engulf them. That seems easy. Though, I'm trying to wrap my head around the fact how the ...
Giorgi Lagidze's user avatar
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How bacteria respond to toxic viral proteins?

The lysis-lysogeny state of bacteriophage lambda is well known. Under certain conditions, the phage will enter the lysogenic state after infection of a bacterium. Then, after a while, the phage ...
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How does the body avoid making an immune response to self-antigens?

The body contains antigen-detecting and presenting cells (APCs) including leukocytes and cytokines each having their characteristic HLA genes consisting of different recognition sites that detect the ...
hali's user avatar
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PCR: From transgene/microgram to cell concentration

I am doing research on CAR T-cell kinetics. The measurement of CAR T-cell concentrations across time is normally carried out with qPCR (see here, Fig. 1). These concentrations are generally reported ...
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Exhaustion of 'memory' CD8 T cells

I've been reading literature on the exhaustion of cytotoxic CD8 T cells. In many of the papers I read, the authors aim to delineate molecular mechanisms that differ between exhausted and memory ...
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CDRs and antigen-binding sites [duplicate]

Are complementarity determining regions (CDRs) not the same thing as antigen-binding sites? If not, what is the difference? An old exam question states: "Clarify how CDRs are related to the ...
user71502's user avatar
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Role of the CD3 proteins and ζ chain

Could someone please explain which of the following is correct and why? The role of the CD3 proteins and ζ chain on the surface of the cell is to: a) transduce signals to the interior of the T cell b)...
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Heat shock proteins in T cells of tumor microenvironment

Analyzing human tumor single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data, I found abundant expression of Heat shock protein (HSP) family genes in T cells. My literature review on "HSPs in T cells" ...
Yulia Kentieva's user avatar
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snRNAseq vs scRNAseq in cancer

my question is about phagocytosis as response to cancer. It is known that cytotoxic T cell may kill a cancer cell and sends cytokines to phagocytes like macrophage or dendritic cell to engulf and ...
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What causes Erythroblastosis fetalis?

So this is what I understood about the disease by researching about it When a Rh-ve mother has a Rh+ve baby in her womb, The placenta prevents mixing of fetal and maternal blood preventing antigen ...
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How long is the typical peptide sequence recognized by a T-cell?

A naive T-cell recognizes either a certain sequence of amino-acids (even if that sequence occurs as a part of a longer sequence of amino-acids(*)), or a small set(**) thereof. Only T-cells that do ...
Jirka Hanika's user avatar
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Can typed-switched B cells recognize the tertiary structure of antigens?

As T helper cells are responsible for isotype switching but Th cells are MHC class 2 restricted and MHC only presents denatured peptides (up to 30 residues, no folding), does that imply that only IgM ...
Rand's user avatar
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Disease-causing allele frequency and modern medicine

I was thinking about what the impact modern medicine might have on human evolution based on a couple assumptions. If we assume that: modern medicine has massively cushioned the selection pressure ...
AnethOthbo's user avatar
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How does the exposure time affect the potencies of antibodies?

The potency of neutralizing antibodies is commonly represented by their binding affinity for their targets. However, binding affinity is based on the dissociation constants at equilibrium, which can’t ...
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Can the Monkeypox virus be spread by mosquitoes?

I am wondering if the Monkeypox virus could be spread by mosquitoes since it is part of the Smallpox family. While doing some online research on this possibility, I came across this abstract taken ...
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Does HIV erase the immune memory?

It’s said that HIV selectively infects and kills CD4+ T cells, which disables the adaptive immunity because both CD8+ T cells and B cells need CD4+ T cells to activate them. However, once activated, ...
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Are individual auto-reactive 'lymphocytes' or auto-reactive 'clones' generated in the central lymphoid organs?

Clonal deletion is a well-known mechanism of immune central tolerance. But individual lymphocytes or lymphocyte clones are subjected to apoptosis? If clones, then what is the reason to allow mitosis ...
abc's user avatar
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Thymus & T-Cell Generation and Maturity

I am a beginner in immune system. I am trying to understand the connection between T-Cell and Thymus as person ages. It is clear from Guyton & Hall that till teenage the T-cell from bone marrow ...
user3001408's user avatar
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Vero cells and Influenza

I am currently reading a paper regarding Influenza. In the paper they describe a mutant and a WT, and the differences in replication. They grow the two strains in Vero cells (kidney epithelial cells). ...
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What does genetic diversity in one species have to do with survival rate when an epidemic spreads?

I was studying about genes, and soon remembered that the more diverse the genetics of one species, the less the chance of the species to go extinct from natural disaster. One instance was an epidemic ...
Mineppl12's user avatar
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Does Herpes Simplex Virus induce antibodies which last a lifetime?

Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is a virus which produces both lytic and latent infection. In the latter case it persists in a quiescent form in the neural ganglia for the lifetime of its host. My ...
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