Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

2
votes
1answer
17 views

Cross-species infections

I’ve heard that HIV developed from SIV, etc. I’ve also heard that most species (including most monkeys) can’t get a common cold like humans. So then what causes infections to be able to travel ...
2
votes
1answer
25 views

T-Cell Motility: does motility require direction specific actin polymerization?

T-cells have been shown to migrate inside concentration gradients - both in the direction of the source or away. Even under shallow gradients, t-cells move. I argue that, to be able to move in a ...
1
vote
1answer
14 views

Why do the host cells containing iC3b fragment not undergo phagocytosis?

As far as I understand, in complement system C3b gets deposited on pathogen surface but it can also be deposited on host cells. Host cells have some negative regulatory system such as membrane ...
0
votes
0answers
11 views

Are there chemicals/materials which when injected in blood stream remains there for long?

Does human body detect all foreign bodies? If a chemical or pathogen or tiny particles(few microns diameter) are injected in blood stream, will they be removed from the body or destroyed sooner or ...
1
vote
0answers
7 views

Allergy desensitization: what is the mechanism? Could it happen with other immune responses?

Allergy is a type of immune response against an otherwise harmless substance. If I ubdestand it well, the aim of allergy immunotherapy is not to stimulate an immune response like the immunotherapy for ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

When programs started to immunize infants?

Today new borns are given a number of vaccinations, see here for details. Today it is a common practice. While vaccines were invented throughout the 19 th and 20th century, when programs started to ...
1
vote
2answers
41 views

Infant immunization

I know that polio vaccine consists of small dose of polio virus itself, which activates body's immunity against the disease. An infant is given a no of vaccines including chickenpox, tetanus, ...
-5
votes
1answer
77 views

Is it logical for someone to be allergic to the water molecule, but be perfectly fine with drinking milk since it's only 87% water molecules? [closed]

Recently this article got into the tabloids. The comments were disabled very quickly. Strange. The authos says she has Aquagenic Urticaria but it is a skin condition not an allergy, and hence wouldn'...
2
votes
1answer
32 views

Why do neutrophils need to die after pathogen phagocytosis?

From referenced article below, neutrophils need to be removed because its granule contents and oxygen metabolites (used for killing phagocytosed pathogen) are harmful to the surrounding tissue. Thus, ...
2
votes
0answers
20 views

Are cloned spieces significantly more vulnereble to deseases than sexually reproducing species?

I would like to be able to compare the risk for species to go extinct implied by their reproduction mechanism in the very short term. Imagine we choose some species A that can reproduce both sexually ...
2
votes
1answer
40 views

Why reaginic antibodies are absent in these types of syphilis?

According to Textbook of Microbiology and Immunology 2e, Subhash Chandra Parija, pg.no; 375 These(reaginic) antibodies do not appear in early primary syphilis, latent acquired syphilis of long ...
2
votes
3answers
52 views

Purpose of Fc Region

Could someone explain to me the role played by the Fc region of an antibody as well as the purpose of isotype switching? According to Wikipedia, it's to allow the antibody to be usable by different Fc ...
3
votes
2answers
91 views

Why exactly does the immune system weaken with age?

Why does the immune system become weaker with age in humans and in some other mammals? Let's try to be more specific than just "everything degrades with age."
2
votes
0answers
47 views

Could the Immune Gene HLA-B27 be gentically altered, snipped, switched off, replaced, edited within the body

Could the Immune Gene HLA-B27 be genetically altered, snipped, switched off, replaced, edited within the body.? Thousands upon thousands suffer immune disease as do I from this highly implicated gene....
2
votes
1answer
22 views

B cell clones and affinity maturation

As B-cells undergo affinity maturation, their BCR sequences change. Are they still considered to be part of the same clone? I couldn't find a clear answer in response to this very similar question: ...
3
votes
1answer
44 views

Animals as organ donors and organ's life expectancy

Recent attempts to find reliable organ donors was using genetically-engineered (GE) pigs as heart donors. The pig's DNA is altered so that its tissues will appear identical to the patient's tissue and ...
1
vote
1answer
32 views

Exactly what biochemical factors control the intensity of an allergic reaction?

I think have a functional understanding of how an allergic reaction (Type I Hyper Sensitivity) occurs: basically the allergen causes production of antibodies that attach to mast cells and basophils. ...
2
votes
0answers
23 views

Europeans succumbing to diseases they introduced to native Americans

I am reading a non-fiction account of Spanish first contact with native Americans. The Spaniards were shipwrecked, undernourished, malnourished, and dehydrated upon their arrival. Over 75% of them ...
1
vote
3answers
57 views

Why aren't all infections immune-system resistant?

It's been less than a century since the widespread use of antibotics started, and already we're seeing bacteria that have evolved immunities to the antibotics we use. On the other hand, we've been ...
3
votes
0answers
40 views

Why there are no RBCs in lymphatic vessels?

I know the following. Leukocytes (white blood cells) are made in the bone marrow, and naive leukocytes go to the blood vessels. So, leukocytes mainly exist in blood vessels. Endothelial cells ...
1
vote
1answer
40 views

Why do alpha-gal allergies only occur after a tick bite if alpha-gal is already present in red meat?

I just read an NPR article about allergies to red meat being caused by tick bites. That stood out to me because I thought allergies are triggered by an initial exposure to some allergen. In this case, ...
2
votes
1answer
72 views

Can immunity to diseases vary by populations?

A common explanation for the massive population decreases of isolated societies upon contact with Europeans during the Age of Discovery is that the natives lacked immunity to newly introduced diseases....
1
vote
1answer
52 views

B -Cell activation by helper T cell

When Dendritic cell travels to nearby lymph node with antigen presented on MHC II molecule , the helper T-cell residing there gets activated . But what happens to B- cell residing there ? Does it get ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

IgE ELISA mouse

i am currently looking for a good method to measure IgE titers in Notch2-KO and Notch2-KI mice after NP-CGG (T-cell dependent antigen) immunization. Can anyone recommend a good ELISA to do this? ...
1
vote
2answers
75 views

Maternal immunity without prenatal vaccination?

It is recognized that antibodies from the mother provide a level of protection to infants. This is why mothers are often advised to get vaccinated when they're pregnant. However, does the vaccine have ...
4
votes
1answer
232 views

Immune System - B-cell receptors

How do the B-cells, which are a part of our body, develop antibodies against antigens of outside world (outside of our body), which they don't even know about? Is it just a random match?
1
vote
0answers
31 views

Isolation of Intact Granules from Mast Cells

How to isolate intact granules from mast cells without using sucrose and percoll?
2
votes
0answers
32 views

how can I get stronger staining for my lymph node sections

I am using the same protocol and same antibodies that the literature says but still I cannot get good staining for my lymph node sections, I tried to change the fixation method and I am using now ...
0
votes
1answer
41 views

If an antiserum was raised in a buffalo by injecting it with monkey red blood cells, what would be the full name for this antiserum?

Im confused, i've attempted this & what i got is buffalo anti-monkey red blood cell antiserum. I'm not sure if this answer is right
2
votes
0answers
20 views

Regarding Passive Aritficial Immunity: Why does the concentration of the foreign antibodies decrease over time?

So, like suggested in question, I am extremely confused about this one concept. That whether or not the injection of foreign antibodies ( passive artificial immunity ) triggers an immune response. ...
1
vote
0answers
19 views

Overall, for the most part, which is more important--capturing prey or surviving predators or parasites?

For animals in nature, does selection intensity tend to be stronger upon abilities used against parasites or predators or abilities used against prey? Any empirical reports would be appreciated. I ...
0
votes
0answers
21 views

What type of cells are we seeing in the blue field entropic phenomenon?

The blue field entropic phenomenon involves seeing the movement of immune cells passing over the retina. They are visible because, unlike erythrocytes, light can pass right through them. I am curious ...
2
votes
1answer
34 views

V(D)J recombination on homologous chromosome

V(D)J recombination is known to recombine IG locus of a B cell. Is anything known about how the recombinations on two homologous chromosomes are connected? For example, are the selected V(D)J couples(...
3
votes
1answer
73 views

How do memory cells(B-cells) encounter pathogens?

From what I understand, once the infection is handled, some of the B cells capable of producing the correct antigens are stored for the long-term in the lymph nodes. They will start multiplying again ...
0
votes
1answer
40 views

Do B/T cells form from lymphoid tissue or bone marrow?

This website says lymphocytes are produced in bone marrow https://courses.washington.edu/conj/immune/lymphoid.htm But if that's true, then what cells do lymphoid tissues produce? It could make sense ...
1
vote
2answers
149 views

Where are eosinophils and basophils phagocytic?

It seems known that neutrophils circulate and are phagocytic within the blood stream, but I'm having trouble finding similar conconclusions about where eosinophils and basophils are phagocytic which ...
2
votes
0answers
27 views

eosinophil question

Which of the following statement(s) is/are incorrect? A. All cells of the immune system originate in the Bone Marrow B. Lymphoid progenitor cells originate from a pluripotent stem cell C. B cells ...
1
vote
1answer
71 views

What does the immune system do to stop pathogens that aren't killed by macrophages?

For instance, say a host is infected with salmonella where the pathogen can enter into a macrophage without the macrophage destroying it. How does the body then fight off an infection that is capable ...
1
vote
2answers
110 views

Why is cholera toxin added to certain culture media?

I was reading an article [1] where they cultured SEB-1 human sebocytes in DMEM F12 + FBS + EGF + adenine + hydrocortisone + insuline as well as cholera toxin. Why is cholera toxin added to the media? ...
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Immunology Anti anti Rhesus Antibodies Molecular Biology

Do Rhesus negative women who give birth to Rhesus positive infants make anti -anti D to the injected anti-D they are given after birth and does this shut off the cells that would make anti-D
1
vote
1answer
49 views

Is it possible to make a cancer cell that doesn’t encode any neoantigens?

The cell still has mutations, but those mutations only occur in the noncoding sequences, such as promoters, which drives over expression of proto-oncogenes and downregulation of tumor suppressor genes....
-1
votes
1answer
57 views

Why are vaccines a successful treatment of allergy?

As I understand the answer to Allergic rhinitis vaccine, the vaccine facilitates immune response against the antigen. Given that allergy is an overreaction of the immune system against harmless ...
0
votes
0answers
27 views

How does negative selection occur for B cells?

I mostly get negative selection in T cells. Thymic cells express random self antigens T cells that react to these self antigens die via negative selection But how does this work for B cells? Is it ...
0
votes
0answers
10 views

Is it possible to vaccinate an adult with whole-cell pertussis vaccine?

Some time ago a "vaccine-resistant" strain of pertussis has been discovered. As I understand, the strain lacks one of the antigens targetted by the acellular vaccines. An obvious remedy is to use ...
0
votes
0answers
24 views

Can different Ig's bind to the same epitope in an antigen?

We all know that Igs bind to different epitope, but can for example IgM and IgG bind to the same epitope? Also after VDJ recombination in B cells when they express mIgM and mIgD, will it have same ...
0
votes
2answers
28 views

Number of different clones of B lymphocytes

My professor told us that there are about a million different B cells based on their surface receptor. I have read that we have about 30000 genes in all. Since receptors are proteins how do these ...
0
votes
1answer
33 views

What is the relation between weak adhesion & rolling in immune cell migration vs. strong adhesion and emigration in immune cell migration?

Assume we're talking about lymphocyte migration. I think rolling is referring to part of the process of infection by chemotaxis but beyond that...
2
votes
0answers
79 views

How can autoimmunity be selective?

Vitiligo is a skin disorder where the pigment disappears. More on Wikipedia. This is believed to be caused by autoimmunity and has made me interested in autoimmunity in general. I am still very much ...
0
votes
0answers
36 views

What contributes to the cytotoxic activity of the NK cells?

Natural killer cells (also known as NK cells, K cells, and killer cells) are a type of lymphocyte (a white blood cell) and a component of innate immune system. NK cells play a major role in the host-...
2
votes
1answer
106 views

Passing virus/diseases immunity to newborn

From my understanding, our white blood cells 'learn' to fight off viruses and other pathogens that make us sick (or that they encounter because of vaccination) so that the subsequent encounters with ...