Questions tagged [immunology]

The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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in what type of container (flask, beakers, bottles) is incubated bacteria with macrophages for in vitro study?

i need to know for a science homework what kind of container (flask, beakers, bottles) is used to incubate togheter macrophage cells with bacteria on in vitro assays. The name of the container and ...
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History of molecular virology [closed]

I am looking for experiments and papers that lead to our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms in which viruses affect cells. For example which experiments lead to the "uncoating"...
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Staining of ISGs?

Is it possible to stain for interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) in histopathology? And if so, which staining method would you use?
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Can typed-switched B cells recognize the tertiary structure of antigens?

As T helper cells are responsible for isotype switching but Th cells are MHC class 2 restricted and MHC only presents denatured peptides (up to 30 residues, no folding), does that imply that only IgM ...
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Disease-causing allele frequency and modern medicine

I was thinking about what the impact modern medicine might have on human evolution based on a couple assumptions. If we assume that: modern medicine has massively cushioned the selection pressure ...
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How does the exposure time affect the potencies of antibodies?

The potency of neutralizing antibodies is commonly represented by their binding affinity for their targets. However, binding affinity is based on the dissociation constants at equilibrium, which can’t ...
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Can the Monkeypox virus be spread by mosquitoes?

I am wondering if the Monkeypox virus could be spread by mosquitoes since it is part of the Smallpox family. While doing some online research on this possibility, I came across this abstract taken ...
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Does HIV erase the immune memory?

It’s said that HIV selectively infects and kills CD4+ T cells, which disables the adaptive immunity because both CD8+ T cells and B cells need CD4+ T cells to activate them. However, once activated, ...
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Are individual auto-reactive 'lymphocytes' or auto-reactive 'clones' generated in the central lymphoid organs?

Clonal deletion is a well-known mechanism of immune central tolerance. But individual lymphocytes or lymphocyte clones are subjected to apoptosis? If clones, then what is the reason to allow mitosis ...
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If RBCs don't have MHC I, why don't NK cells kill them?

As mentioned in textbooks, All nucleated cells have MHC class I molecules on the cell surface. RBCs have no nucleus, therefore no MHC I NK cells kill cells with deficiency in MHC I presentation Then ...
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Thymus & T-Cell Generation and Maturity

I am a beginner in immune system. I am trying to understand the connection between T-Cell and Thymus as person ages. It is clear from Guyton & Hall that till teenage the T-cell from bone marrow ...
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Vero cells and Influenza

I am currently reading a paper regarding Influenza. In the paper they describe a mutant and a WT, and the differences in replication. They grow the two strains in Vero cells (kidney epithelial cells). ...
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What does genetic diversity in one species have to do with survival rate when an epidemic spreads?

I was studying about genes, and soon remembered that the more diverse the genetics of one species, the less the chance of the species to go extinct from natural disaster. One instance was an epidemic ...
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Does Herpes Simplex Virus induce antibodies which last a lifetime?

Herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is a virus which produces both lytic and latent infection. In the latter case it persists in a quiescent form in the neural ganglia for the lifetime of its host. My ...
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Why doesn't repeated Mantaux testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis cause an immune response?

I have never had TB but have had multiple TB tests for work. All negative. If you are introducing TB antigen with each test, why isn't a memory of that formed by the adaptive immune system?
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Antigen transfer from baby to mother

When considering immunity in babies, the main mechanism that supports their undeveloped immune system is the transfer of antibodies from mother to baby via breastfeeding. Case #1: both baby and mother ...
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Why don't T-Cells that correspond to certain viruses damage our cells? [closed]

I am studying immunology, and I am facing a problem. The antibodies that B-Cells produce attack the viruses, but won't they also attack our cells that need to use the receptors on other cells? When I ...
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Rationale for helper T cells?

If my understanding is correct, helper T cells have two main functions: stimulating macrophages at the site of infection activating B cells and helping them undergo somatic hypermutation What ...
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What protein(s) serve as the control antigen in Covid lateral flow tests? [duplicate]

Having recently been obliged to take a lateral flow test for Covid in order to fly from the UK, I idly wondered: What is the control antigen for Covid lateral flow tests? as (fortunately) that was ...
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Why there is swelling when skin doesn't break visibly? [closed]

I had read that swelling occurs as result of blood vessels pouring watery fluid in the affected area to help in fighting the incoming pathogens, when we our skin is cut open. However sometimes like ...
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Function of IGLL5 in the immunoglobulin lambda light chain locus

IGLL5 sits in the locus of the lambda light chain genes. GeneCards has this description: This gene encodes one of the immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptides. It is located within the immunoglobulin ...
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Why do immunoglobulin heavy chain genes sit next to the telomere?

I just noticed that IGH genes are the last group of genes at the end of Chromosome 14. Is there a reason / selection pressure to explain why that is? Below is a snapshot of the UCSC genome browser. As ...
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Does specific immunity affect the incubation period of viruses?

My interest was inspired by the observed variation in incubation times for different strains of Covid-19, however I ask the question in the broader sense as it seems hard to find an answer in general. ...
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What is the significance of an adjuvant to traffic vaccine antigen directly to draining lymph nodes without diffusing into the systemic circulation?

I found the following sentence in the this paper- Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBV152: a double-blind, randomised, phase 1 trial An imidazoquinoline molecule, which ...
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How do the anti-D antibodies help prevent Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn? And why do they not act like the maternal antibodies?

I understand that this question has been asked a few times in the past, but the answers there didn't really explain to me why the Anti-D antibodies we introduce are able to prevent the hemolysis of ...
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How much of TLR 7 agonist is safe for human beings, as it is both linked to development of autoimmune diseases but is also used as Vaccine adjuvant?

This question is motivated by the fact that TLR 7 agonists have been linked to development and acceleration of Lupus-like disease both in animals and human beings. But at the same time, TLR 7 agonist ...
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Why are scientists saying that the Omicron COVID-19 variant is a reason to get a booster?

I was watching Vox’s video, Big questions about the Covid booster shot, answered, which references the New York Times article Omicron Prompts Swift Reconsideration of Boosters Among Scientists. In ...
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Do spike-protein-based vaccines undermine the DNA repair system?

I ain't no biologist, but I came across a paper recently and tried to understand it: SARS–CoV–2 Spike Impairs DNA Damage Repair and Inhibits V(D)J Recombination In Vitro My question: Is it a correct ...
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Could Sars-CoV-2 vaccines make the immune response less effective against new variants?

Some viral diseases (e.g. influenza and dengue fever) are thought to exhibit original antigenic sin. The immune system remembers viruses that it has been previously exposed to, allowing the body to ...
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What animal has the strongest immune system?

I'm wondering what animal has the strongest immune system. It can be defined as the most evolved immune system or the immune system that can eliminate or tolerate most number of (different) viruses/...
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Can blood transfusion help to fight cancer cell?

First of all, I'm not a biology student or have sufficient knowledge of biology so I apologize if this question appears silly. Let's say patient A has cancer cells and a healthy person B has the same ...
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Why do veterinary vaccines have shorter effect?

In humans activated T-lymphocytes persist until end of life, and activated B-lymphocytes persist many years, so most vaccines don't need to be reapplied and the few that do are reapplied after 10 to ...
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Following mRNA vaccination, do proteins mostly exit "naked" from transfected cells or by some more indirect route (EVs etc.)?

Related to someone's elses disbeliefs in how proteins produced from a mRNA vaccine end up in B cells; in theory the process could be more complicated than "naked" egress (which arguably does ...
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Transplant rejection through direct allogenic antigen detection: where do the T cells come from?

I just read a chapter in Janeway's Immunology on T cell development and thought about transplant rejection. But I couldn't figure out how the t cells develop which lead to the rejection. So in direct ...
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Are fully vaccinated people more likely to not get infected at all with COVID-19?

I've found some papers which describe that the viral shedding does not decrease during infection (for fully vaccinated people). But the overall shedding time does decrease. Therefore it is possible to ...
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How do I classify cytotoxicity values, whether a sample is mildly, moderately, or highly cytotoxic?

I used LDH assay for cytotoxicity testing. I have a plant extract which I tested against HepG2 cancer cells. I did three trials, my results were 2%, 6%, and 8% cytotoxicity, respectively. How do I ...
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What antibody targets are being tested for in the publicly offered UK antibody test?

In late August 2021 the NHS (UK) offered people who test positive for COVID what is referred to in this BBC report as a “new antibody test”. However, I have been unable to find out what exactly is new ...
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Why would this viral strain-specific antiserum fail to immunoprecipitate the same (98% identical protein) from another strain?

I'm reading this paper https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC392475/ and I can't work out why a certain immune serum didn't work on the same viral protein but from different strains. The serum ...
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Is it possible for a plant extract to have different effects, depending on the type of cell line it was tested on?

My plant extract (ethyl acetate fraction) seems to have two different effects depending on the cell/cell line it's being tested on. On liver cancer cells (HepG2), it is moderately cytotoxic. But on ...
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Why are basophils and eosinophils considered granulocytes?

I have read that granulocytes are a type of leukocytes that have granules (hence the name) visible by microscopy. But then there is something called a granulocyte/monocyte progenitor cell, which I ...
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Fluctuations in disease burden of respiratory viruses (especially influenza/coronaviruses)

Compared to peaks in terms of disease burden (morbidity and mortality, or incidence of severely symptomatic cases and deaths caused by a viral strain within a population), is the relatively light ...
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Are autoantibodies against intracellular proteins "functional"?

Autoantibodies against intracellular proteins have been detected in some autoimmune diseases (For example, TRIM21 in Sjögren's syndrome and NALP5 in Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1). My ...
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How to identify plasma cells that only produce monoclonal antibodies?

I am studying the procedures of forming hybridoma cells for generating a large number of monoclonal antibodies. Before the procedure of fusion (with multiple myeloma cells) happens, I would like to ...
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Why is the antibody light chain essential for function?

Humans and most other mammals produce antibodies consisting of two heavy chains, each linked to a light chain. Both heavy and light chain contribute to the variable region, and thus the antigen ...
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why secondary/booster vaccine shots may sometimes induce worse side effects?

Background: I had my first shot about 1.5 months ago, I just had my shot yesterday. Unmistakable fever like symptom started within 4 hours. within 10 hours the whole body started aching, accompanied ...
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Why do T cells have MHC II receptors?

I have seen the answer to this question which says that T cells do not express MHC II proteins which would make sense. However, my textbook "The immune system" by Peter Parham disagrees. It ...
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Differentiating molecules based on peptide sequence? How to annotate?

I want to differentiate between classical class I and non classical class I MHC molecules in a model organism using well conserved structural features within classical MHC I molecules (eg intradomain ...
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Why is there not an immune response to injected immunoglobulins?

When you inject immunoglobulins as a treatment for certain diseases, the immunoglobulins are a foreign substance. I can appreciate that maybe the constant region would be similar to the hosts as it is ...
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Which viruses still present today caused a deadly pandemic/epidemic in the past?

The current Covid-19 pandemic and its virus Sars-Cov-2 can be dangerous, especially for vulnerable groups like the elders. But however, I have seen studies that this virus become less dangerous in the ...
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How do APCs find their specific T-cells in the lymph nodes?

My understanding is that when an APC (more specifically a dendritic cell) encounters an antigen in the periphery, it ingests it and presents it on its surface. It then migrates to lymph nodes to ...
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