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Questions tagged [immunology]

The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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Why do NK cells not destroy bacteria, even though bacteria don't have MHC-I?

Part of the function of NK cells is to destroy cells that are unable to bind their KIR receptors. Or in other words, cells that don't express MHC class I. This is why they can kill MHC supressed ...
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Immune response to IgA positive bacteria

If certain bacteria can be coated with IgA in vitro, does that mean they are likely to elicit an IgA immune response? Edit I'm working on a project that involves IgA-Seq analysis. Bacteria are coated ...
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How do scientists genetically modify Interleukin for medical use, where do they source the gene and insert it?

I was wondering how scientists genetically modify Interleukin for medical use. Where do they source the gene from, what are the steps involved in genetically modifying Interleukin for medical use, how ...
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Antibodies combine with antigens in the presence or abscence of macrophages?

There was a mcq in book that antibodies combine with antigens when.... And the correct answer was if macrophages are absent. As far as I know macrophages release interleukin 1 which stimulates T ...
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What is the meaning of expansion of T cells?

In immunology, what does it mean by the term 'expansion' of T cells ex-vivo and activate it (generally with reference to cancer immunotherapy)?
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What is meant by 'fixing' of an antigen presenting cell?

Can someone please explain what does 'fixing' of an antigen presenting cell mean?
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Placebo Effect Reactions

Why do some people actually experience measureable effects when given a placebo(fake drugs) versus the actual drug? Is is the power of suggestion, belief, or something else?
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Why do bulls-eye rashes look like they do?

People infected with Lyme Disease often present with an erythema migrans ("migrating redness") rash. Most often, these rashes are in the shape of a bulls-eye. Rash image. Presumably, this is a ...
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How does the immune system recognize harmful proteins?

How does the human immune system detect whether a protein happens to be a protein found in the body that is supposed to be there, a bacterial toxin that should be inactivated, an already inactivated ...
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Why don't allergies cause fever?

Allergy To my understanding, an allergy is a hypersensitivity of the immune system causing a substance in the environment to be identified as pathogenic by the immune system while it is not ...
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What properties of the pathogens of infectious diseases make recovered individuals susceptible to the disease?

I was wondering what properties of the pathogens of infectious diseases make these diseases more prone to making recovered individuals immediately susceptible to the disease? I was thinking that with ...
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Where are Opsonins produced?

I read that opsonins are a type of antibody that play a vital role in chemotaxis and phagocytosis in general. The fact of them being antibodies though, got me confused. Antibodies are, to my knowledge ...
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Are microbial antigens selected against?

Antigens provoke a response from the host immune system. Could selective pressures result in microbes losing their antigens? Has this been observed? Or are antigens typically so important that they ...
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Is autoimmune disease associated with self-reactive B cells?

I'm a bit of an amateur, so excuse what may be a very naive question, but I somewhat understand how B cells that are self-reactive (bind to endogenous epitopes) are selected out during development. I ...
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How are primary monoclonal antibodies for screening mutant cells made, physically?

I'm working with a fairly common protein expressed in a large numbers of organisms, let's say a keratin-associated beta-protein. I'm trying to develop a process which requires primary-secondary ...
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Can MHC class I be used for presenting peptides of extracellular origin by non-professional APCs?

Wikipedia says that: "The antigens presented by MHC class II are derived from extracellular proteins (not cytosolic as in MHC class I)." So does this mean that MHC class I cannot be used for ...
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Which cells are prefered by the HIV virus to establish an infection?

We always read that HIV infects CD4 cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. However, is it a common event for HIV to infect non-immune cells within a host? If not, why? And also if not, why are ...
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If a bacterium had a protein on its surface that humans also have, would it cause an autoimmune disease?

Suppose that a bacterium happened to have a protein on its surface. This protein can also be found in the human body. If this bacterium were to then infect a human with an otherwise normal immune ...
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Does eosinophil-derived neurotoxin attack the helminth nervous system?

I had always assumed that EDN's purpose was to attack the nervous systems of helminths and similar multicellular parasitic organisms, given the function of eosinophils. The enzyme was named due to its ...
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Question on compatibility of blood groups [duplicate]

How come a person with blood group O can donate to a person with blood group AB? Since there are A and B antibodies in the O blood group blood surely this would cause agglutination in the blood of the ...
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Do memory B cells communicate?

How do memory cells(B-cells) encounter pathogens? This question talks about how most of the memory B cells reside in the spleen and that upon a reinfection, produce antibodies which then circulate ...
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Will new proteins incorporating new amino acids trigger an immune response?

This article reported that scientists have succeeded in adding two new bases to the quartet of A, C, G and T, resulting in non-canonical amino acid. Additionally, the bacteria in which this was done ...
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Why proximal muscle weakness is seen earlier than distal muscle weakness in Dermatomyositis?

It is said that in dermatomyositis(DM) , proximal muscle weakness is seen earlier than distal muscle weakness. It is also said that , DM is due to damage to small blood vessels contributing to muscle ...
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Could bone marrow transplants be used to prevent tissue rejection of trans-species organs?

So the immune system doesn't calibrate (for want of a better euphemism) to recognize it's own cells until fairly well along in fetal development & the major components of the immune system (...
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Antigen molecular mimicry

Let us consider a situation in which the body is attacked by a microbe, and the microbe is captured by the immune system for recognition of surface antigens. The surface antigen recognized mimics one ...
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Why is there such a large evening rise of temperature and night sweats in certain diseases like TB, lymphoma etc?

I've heard that it's got to do something with the levels of cortisol which usually dampens the effects of IL-1, but when it's night time the cortisol levels are usually low so IL-1 response is ...
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Fever vs Inflammation

What's the difference between inflammation and fever? And why is fever called an inflammatory response? Does the word inflammation have both a general and a specific meaning?
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Why doesn't our immune system react to infused antibodies produced in a horse?

Calmette tried injecting horses with snake venom and then taking out the serum which has produced antibodies against the venom and injecting in the snake-bitten human. Shouldn't our immune system ...
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Why does the HLA show a high degree of polymorphism?

I know how the HLA undergoes high degree of polymorphism (random genetic rearrangements), but I have not understood why it undergoes rearrangements. What is the advantage offered when HLA shows a high ...
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What is the benefit of reducing inflammation when producing antibodies?

We just learned in lecture that IL-10 promotes the formation of plasma cells over memory cells. Which seemed strange to me as IL-10 also reduces inflammation, and I figure you would want inflammation ...
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Can people with AIDS/HIV be vaccinated?

If there is no immune system,it seems like vaccines wouldn't do much since there is no adaptive immune system to develop antibodies and memory cells. But can people with AIDS/HIV still be vaccinated? ...
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How do opportunistic infections affect an immunocompromised or AIDS patient?

I mean, everyone knows that AIDS patients don't die of the HIV infection, rather the opportunistic infections. But if HIV only affects T lymphocytes, and destroys them, then that means only cell ...
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What's the difference between a lymphocyte and a plasma cell?

According to my understanding, lymphocytes is the broad terminology for both T lymphocytes as well as B lymphocytes, while plasma cells refers to mature B cells which produce antibodies. But then why ...
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Common english name for tissues which are separated from the blood by blood-tissue barriers

Which general term is used to denote such organs/tissues as: brain, testis, thymus etc., which are separated from the blood by blood-tissue barriers?
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What do phagocytes secrete? [closed]

What do phagocytes release after interacting with a pathogen? I know that this is a broad topic but I only need a general and concise answer.😊
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White blood cells after dealing with an infection

I just have a quick question. If there was an infection of a tissue within the body, white blood cells would leave the capillaries around the tissue and enter the tissues to help cure the infection. ...
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Cross-species infections

I’ve heard that HIV developed from SIV, etc. I’ve also heard that most species (including most monkeys) can’t get a common cold like humans. So then what causes infections to be able to travel ...
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T-Cell Motility: does motility require direction specific actin polymerization?

T-cells have been shown to migrate inside concentration gradients - both in the direction of the source or away. Even under shallow gradients, t-cells move. I argue that, to be able to move in a ...
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Why do the host cells containing iC3b fragment not undergo phagocytosis?

As far as I understand, in complement system C3b gets deposited on pathogen surface but it can also be deposited on host cells. Host cells have some negative regulatory system such as membrane ...
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Allergy desensitization: what is the mechanism? Could it happen with other immune responses? [closed]

Allergy is a type of immune response against an otherwise harmless substance. If I understand it well, the aim of allergy immunotherapy is not to stimulate an immune response like the immunotherapy ...
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Infant immunization

I know that polio vaccine consists of small dose of polio virus itself, which activates body's immunity against the disease. An infant is given a no of vaccines including chickenpox, tetanus, ...
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Is it logical for someone to be allergic to the water molecule, but be perfectly fine with drinking milk since it's only 87% water molecules? [closed]

Recently this article got into the tabloids. The comments were disabled very quickly. Strange. The authos says she has Aquagenic Urticaria but it is a skin condition not an allergy, and hence wouldn'...
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Why do neutrophils need to die after pathogen phagocytosis?

From referenced article below, neutrophils need to be removed because its granule contents and oxygen metabolites (used for killing phagocytosed pathogen) are harmful to the surrounding tissue. Thus, ...
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Are cloned spieces significantly more vulnereble to deseases than sexually reproducing species?

I would like to be able to compare the risk for species to go extinct implied by their reproduction mechanism in the very short term. Imagine we choose some species A that can reproduce both sexually ...
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Why reaginic antibodies are absent in these types of syphilis?

According to Textbook of Microbiology and Immunology 2e, Subhash Chandra Parija, pg.no; 375 These(reaginic) antibodies do not appear in early primary syphilis, latent acquired syphilis of long ...
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Purpose of Fc Region

Could someone explain to me the role played by the Fc region of an antibody as well as the purpose of isotype switching? According to Wikipedia, it's to allow the antibody to be usable by different Fc ...
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Why exactly does the immune system weaken with age?

Why does the immune system become weaker with age in humans and in some other mammals? Let's try to be more specific than just "everything degrades with age."
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Could the Immune Gene HLA-B27 be gentically altered, snipped, switched off, replaced, edited within the body

Could the Immune Gene HLA-B27 be genetically altered, snipped, switched off, replaced, edited within the body.? Thousands upon thousands suffer immune disease as do I from this highly implicated gene....
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B cell clones and affinity maturation

As B-cells undergo affinity maturation, their BCR sequences change. Are they still considered to be part of the same clone? I couldn't find a clear answer in response to this very similar question: ...
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Animals as organ donors and organ's life expectancy

Recent attempts to find reliable organ donors was using genetically-engineered (GE) pigs as heart donors. The pig's DNA is altered so that its tissues will appear identical to the patient's tissue and ...