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Questions tagged [immunology]

The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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Why exactly does the immune system weaken with age?

Why does the immune system become weaker with age in humans and in some other mammals? Let's try to be more specific than just "everything degrades with age."
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Could the Immune Gene HLA-B27 be gentically altered, snipped, switched off, replaced, edited within the body

Could the Immune Gene HLA-B27 be genetically altered, snipped, switched off, replaced, edited within the body.? Thousands upon thousands suffer immune disease as do I from this highly implicated gene....
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B cell clones and affinity maturation

As B-cells undergo affinity maturation, their BCR sequences change. Are they still considered to be part of the same clone? I couldn't find a clear answer in response to this very similar question: ...
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Animals as organ donors and organ's life expectancy

Recent attempts to find reliable organ donors was using genetically-engineered (GE) pigs as heart donors. The pig's DNA is altered so that its tissues will appear identical to the patient's tissue and ...
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Exactly what biochemical factors control the intensity of an allergic reaction?

I think have a functional understanding of how an allergic reaction (Type I Hyper Sensitivity) occurs: basically the allergen causes production of antibodies that attach to mast cells and basophils. ...
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Europeans succumbing to diseases they introduced to native Americans

I am reading a non-fiction account of Spanish first contact with native Americans. The Spaniards were shipwrecked, undernourished, malnourished, and dehydrated upon their arrival. Over 75% of them ...
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Why aren't all infections immune-system resistant?

It's been less than a century since the widespread use of antibotics started, and already we're seeing bacteria that have evolved immunities to the antibotics we use. On the other hand, we've been ...
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Why there are no RBCs in lymphatic vessels?

I know the following. Leukocytes (white blood cells) are made in the bone marrow, and naive leukocytes go to the blood vessels. So, leukocytes mainly exist in blood vessels. Endothelial cells ...
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Why do alpha-gal allergies only occur after a tick bite if alpha-gal is already present in red meat?

I just read an NPR article about allergies to red meat being caused by tick bites. That stood out to me because I thought allergies are triggered by an initial exposure to some allergen. In this case, ...
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Can immunity to diseases vary by populations?

A common explanation for the massive population decreases of isolated societies upon contact with Europeans during the Age of Discovery is that the natives lacked immunity to newly introduced diseases....
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B -Cell activation by helper T cell

When Dendritic cell travels to nearby lymph node with antigen presented on MHC II molecule, the helper T-cell residing there gets activated. But what happens to B- cell residing there? Does it get ...
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Maternal immunity without prenatal vaccination?

It is recognized that antibodies from the mother provide a level of protection to infants. This is why mothers are often advised to get vaccinated when they're pregnant. However, does the vaccine have ...
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Immune System - B-cell receptors

How do the B-cells, which are a part of our body, develop antibodies against antigens of the outside world (outside of our body), which they don't even know about? Is it just a random match?
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Isolation of Intact Granules from Mast Cells

How to isolate intact granules from mast cells without using sucrose and percoll?
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how can I get stronger staining for my lymph node sections

I am using the same protocol and same antibodies that the literature says but still I cannot get good staining for my lymph node sections, I tried to change the fixation method and I am using now ...
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If an antiserum was raised in a buffalo by injecting it with monkey red blood cells, what would be the full name for this antiserum?

Im confused, i've attempted this & what i got is buffalo anti-monkey red blood cell antiserum. I'm not sure if this answer is right
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Regarding Passive Aritficial Immunity: Why does the concentration of the foreign antibodies decrease over time?

So, like suggested in question, I am extremely confused about this one concept. That whether or not the injection of foreign antibodies ( passive artificial immunity ) triggers an immune response. ...
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Overall, for the most part, which is more important--capturing prey or surviving predators or parasites?

For animals in nature, does selection intensity tend to be stronger upon abilities used against parasites or predators or abilities used against prey? Any empirical reports would be appreciated. I ...
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V(D)J recombination on homologous chromosome

V(D)J recombination is known to recombine IG locus of a B cell. Is anything known about how the recombinations on two homologous chromosomes are connected? For example, are the selected V(D)J couples(...
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How do memory cells(B-cells) encounter pathogens?

From what I understand, once the infection is handled, some of the B cells capable of producing the correct antigens are stored for the long-term in the lymph nodes. They will start multiplying again ...
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Do B/T cells form from lymphoid tissue or bone marrow?

This website says lymphocytes are produced in bone marrow https://courses.washington.edu/conj/immune/lymphoid.htm But if that's true, then what cells do lymphoid tissues produce? It could make sense ...
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Where are eosinophils and basophils phagocytic?

It seems known that neutrophils circulate and are phagocytic within the blood stream, but I'm having trouble finding similar conconclusions about where eosinophils and basophils are phagocytic which ...
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eosinophil question

Which of the following statement(s) is/are incorrect? A. All cells of the immune system originate in the Bone Marrow B. Lymphoid progenitor cells originate from a pluripotent stem cell C. B cells ...
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What does the immune system do to stop pathogens that aren't killed by macrophages?

For instance, say a host is infected with salmonella where the pathogen can enter into a macrophage without the macrophage destroying it. How does the body then fight off an infection that is capable ...
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Why is cholera toxin added to certain culture media?

I was reading an article [1] where they cultured SEB-1 human sebocytes in DMEM F12 + FBS + EGF + adenine + hydrocortisone + insuline as well as cholera toxin. Why is cholera toxin added to the media? ...
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Is it possible to make a cancer cell that doesn’t encode any neoantigens?

The cell still has mutations, but those mutations only occur in the noncoding sequences, such as promoters, which drives over expression of proto-oncogenes and downregulation of tumor suppressor genes....
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Why are vaccines a successful treatment of allergy?

As I understand the answer to Allergic rhinitis vaccine, the vaccine facilitates immune response against the antigen. Given that allergy is an overreaction of the immune system against harmless ...
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Number of different clones of B lymphocytes

My professor told us that there are about a million different B cells based on their surface receptor. I have read that we have about 30000 genes in all. Since receptors are proteins how do these ...
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What is the relation between weak adhesion & rolling in immune cell migration vs. strong adhesion and emigration in immune cell migration?

Assume we're talking about lymphocyte migration. I think rolling is referring to part of the process of infection by chemotaxis but beyond that...
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How can autoimmunity be selective?

Vitiligo is a skin disorder where the pigment disappears. More on Wikipedia. This is believed to be caused by autoimmunity and has made me interested in autoimmunity in general. I am still very much ...
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Passing virus/diseases immunity to newborn

From my understanding, our white blood cells 'learn' to fight off viruses and other pathogens that make us sick (or that they encounter because of vaccination) so that the subsequent encounters with ...
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Why Can't The Immune Systems of Uncontacted Tribes Handle Our Common Colds?

I'm sorry if this is a stupid question, I'm just starting my first year of a biomedicine degree and I'm curious - googling didn't find me any answers. I know that the Aboriginal Australians and many ...
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Is biotin a hapten? If so, how does it work as a hapten in the human body?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hapten Hapten's aren't synonymous with allergens. It is defined as a foreign molecule that can bind to an antibody but does not evoke an immune response unless combined ...
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Is one single antibody binding its antigen enough to elicit an immune response?

IVIG (intravenous immunoglobulin) is derived from plasma of more than 1000 donors. I wonder if in this preparation is one antibody present that recognize its antigen after infusion - if this is enough ...
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If the flu vaccine is the exact same as last year, would it still offer protection this year?

I understand why the flu shot changes and that's why we get an annual vaccine; however, if the vaccine is the same as last year, wouldn't people theoretically still have the same antibodies this year? ...
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Why it is important to vaccinate a human newborn within 24 hours since birth?

In Poland a newborn has to be vaccinated within 24 hours against hepatitis B and tuberculosis. As I understand it is good to be vaccinated against both, I do not see the need to hurry so much. ...
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IgA-s in an immune system vaccined intramuscularly against Hepatisis A

As IgA are immunoglobulins associated with secretion and mucosis membranes, I am interested whether after intramuscular vaccination with Hepatitis A vaccine IgA antibodies will be produced by the ...
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Virus immunity from animal to humans

There are number of virus which have animal as reservior and jump to human to cause disease. Why dont we use antibodies of animal to cure humans? Like rabies in bats.
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How does the specificity to bind to antibody differs between 'hot' and 'cold' antigen in radioimmunoassay?

This question is in relation to radioimmunoassay. In this assay, the 'cold' antigen replaces the 'hot' antigen. Why is it so, if both the antigens are same and hence their specificity? Does the ...
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Lifespan of helper T cell

CD4+ cells or helper T cells are produced in Thymus. How long these cells live? For example, RBC live for 3-4 months.
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How many strains of influenza can occupy a person at one time? [closed]

Could a person's immune system be built eventually to be able to inject all the known strains with in to stay immune?
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Do non-pathogenic organism not have PAMPs? Are there any research paper which proves that a certain microbe is non-pathogenic?

According to this PAMPs are delivered along with additional information that can be used by the host to distinguish pathogenic from nonpathogenic microbes and thereby guide the ensuing innate ...
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What portion of America needs the Flu vaccine for herd immunity effects to become substantial?

I've been looking at the effectiveness of Flu vaccines, which are in my subjective opinion abysmal, and the concept of herd immunity. I see many articles which argue that we all need flu shots to ...
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Theoretical question: Would immune cells that produce blue light be an effective and better alternative to inflammation? [closed]

It's well known that blue light is effective against a wide range of bacteria (type "antibacterial blue light" into Google for starters). This article (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23009190) ...
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Why do universal recipients (AB blood group) not react to antibodies in the blood of O-group donors? [duplicate]

While studying compatible blood groups, I found that we only consider the antigens on red blood cells (RBCs) and not the antibodies present in blood plasma. For example “an AB blood group person ...
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CD4 Proteins & Antigen presenting cells

If Helper T-Cells express CD4+ proteins on their surface to bind to MHC Class ll proteins on antigen presenting cells, why do antigen presenting cells also have CD4+ Proteins?
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Where happens MHCII coordination to a self-peptide, and what happens if the bond would be irreversible?

MHC-II proteins are presenting antigens on the surface of cells with lysosomal activities where they eventually might get transported off by some T-cell receptor-anti-gens, as far as I understand (pls ...
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Why does HIV chooses the Macrophage cells to infect first?

Upon entering our body HIV directs the macrophage cells to manufacture more virus particles. It injects the Viral RNA into the Macrophages. With the help of the enzyme reverse transcriptase the Viral ...
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Do IgM and IgG differ for different infections?

I am not that much educated in the medicine and immunology fields. So I noticed that there are tests for IgM and IgG immunoglobulins for various infections. I was not able to google quickly if IgM for ...
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What's the best source characterizing proteolysis cleavage sites in the phagolysosome?

I have found MEROPS and TopFIND via the survey paper Quantitative proteomics and terminomics to elucidate the role of ubiquitination and proteolysis in adaptive immunity. These look like a good start, ...