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Questions tagged [immunology]

The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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2answers
718 views

How does the body fight new infections? [closed]

I have read that the body contains T-cells and B-cells specific to all antigens in small amounts and that these are activated when the antigen presents in the body. If this is true then why are we not ...
2
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0answers
66 views

Why do we drink clean water [duplicate]

Most of the street/feral animals (cats, dogs, cows, some wild animals too) drink tap water or dirty water, but it doesnt seem to affect them. So, why do humans drink pure water?
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1answer
26 views

Will a sandwich assay work with a GST 26 antibody/protein?

I have a GST 26 kda antibody, and want to use it in a sandwich lateral flow assay. Are there enough epitope regions for both antibodies to bind to the protein?
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0answers
102 views

Is it inevitable that antibiotics will become useless in the future due to bacteria immunities?

Antibiotics are developed in an ever smaller amount due to the difficulties of discovering new ones. Bacteria, on the other hand, keep "finding" more ways to render antibiotics ineffective, and they ...
2
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1answer
88 views

How some virus are able to reach the CNS?

I know that the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) could provoke meningitis and encephalitis when this virus reaches the brain. However, there are other viruses like Varicella (VSV), ...
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1answer
44 views

Do there exist T helper memory cells?

I'm translating a Russian text touching upon the IL-17 interleukin family, and it has a kind of typo in it. I'm not sure: As mentioned above, IL-17 was found to be expressed at the highest levels ...
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0answers
69 views

How our body produce different T-cells?

I've heard in many documents said that : There are 25 million to a billion different T-cells in your body. Each cell has a unique T-cell receptor that can fit with only one kind of antigen - ...
3
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1answer
134 views

How does adjuvant enhance the immunogenicity of antigen? [closed]

My question is, How does adjuvant enhance immunogenicity of antigen? I just want to know deeply about it , Any suggestions will be helpful!
4
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1answer
324 views

Body's response to second dengue attack

I have read in wikipedia that the first dengue virus infection is cleared by the body very easily. The second infection, however, is dangerous. How does body fight second infection, or does it has any ...
3
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1answer
72 views

Does catching a cold give you an “effective” advantage against future colds?

By effective advantage I mean that if I catch a cold now and then recover fully, does this actually reduce my probability of catching a future cold. I understand that the body can build up anti-bodies ...
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1answer
37 views

Combination of different antibodies

How can I know if I can combine anti Cenp-C and anti Rod1 antibodies? I want to use them to label those protein and analysing cells by fluorescence microscopy. *Cenp-C is kinetochore protein and Rod1 ...
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1answer
30 views

Is there a database for immunoglobulin domain structure?

is there a database where I can find the sequences of the hypervariable domain of immunoglobulins and the sequences of the related antigens? Thank you
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0answers
57 views

What determines the courses of multi-dose vaccines?

I understand that some proportion of individuals will fail to develop immunity from a single dose of a vaccine. Rather than test every member of the target population following each vaccination, it ...
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1answer
39 views

What, other than genetic factors, influence which individual survives a parasite and which perishes?

What factors other than "good genes" are at play in determining whether one individual survives a parasite and another individual in the same species perishes as a result of the same parasite? For ...
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2answers
331 views

How do scientists discover a new antigen and its epitope?

I've found some database on the internet that list all discovered antigens and their epitopes. So how do scientists discover a new antigen? Do they try to inject them into the body to see if it ...
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1answer
85 views

What determines whether a regulatory T cell suppresses a naive T cell binding the same antigen-presenting cell?

Here's what I learned about how regulatory T cells work: There is a self-recognising naive T cell around. A regulatory T cell that recognises the same self-antigen binds the same antigen-presenting ...
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0answers
179 views

What is the difference between an active and inactive T helper cell?

1- Are all inactive T helper cells "T memory cells" ? 2- Is there anything such as active T memory cells ? 3- I have noticed that there is also a third type of T helper cells but i dont know what it ...
2
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1answer
151 views

How does the adaptive immune system store information?

I am quite curious about this: Where and how is knowledge that the adaptive immune system accumulates stored? What is the "memory size limit" of this storage method if there is any? Why cant this ...
2
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1answer
137 views

Phagocytosis and bacteria

Invading Bacteria are phagocytosed by phagocytes. Phagocytes are specialised white cells. But, if a non-phagocyte cells are infected with bacteria how those cells handle this situation? Do they ...
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1answer
49 views

Why hasn't there been a serious effort to develop an anti-inflammatory that blocks the responsible genes? [closed]

After numerous years of reading about how to disable inflammation and related treatments, it appears that the common existing approaches are fundamentally wrong. The most popular over-the-counter ...
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1answer
458 views

Human anti animal antibodies issues in blood testing

Do people have to be exposed to animals to get HAMA antibodies? Can these antibodies impact blood tests with false negatives as well as false positives?
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2answers
483 views

Are bacteria incapable of producing cytokines such as interleukins?

As far as I understand, bacteria cannot produce cytokines such as interleukins. However, I have not read an explanation as to why they cannot. Perhaps it has to do with an evolutionary limitation. Yet,...
2
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1answer
258 views

What goes wrong in the immune system that leads to autoimmune diseases

As far as I understood so far, B and T cells are produced in the bone marrow, and during their maturing process in the bone marrow or Thymus, the are "programmed" to react to certain proteins. It is ...
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1answer
360 views

How do prions cross the blood brain barrier?

How does the PrP scrapie protein maintain its confirmation while going through the GI tract? How does the PrP scrapie protein cross the blood brain barrier? Wouldn't the host immune system recognize ...
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1answer
118 views

Do mosquitoes allow for DNA transfer between unrelated species?

A mosquito can bite individuals of different species and eventually allow for some blood of one species to enter into the bloodstream of another species which I suppose may eventually cause DNA ...
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1answer
89 views

Immune system initial response

One thing i can not still comprehend about the immune system is the following: A bacteria is first recognized by neutrophiles. But then neutrophiles have to have the ability to release chemotaxines ...
2
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1answer
125 views

Why would eating the meat of cows fed with antibiotics trigger an immune response to the antibiotics? [closed]

The document "Antibiotics and Antibiotic resistance" contains the following paragraph: The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in feed stuffs means that humans may receive unwanted doses of ...
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1answer
89 views

Can neutrophils kill bacteria inside other cells?

Are neutrophils able to get inside epithelial cells in order to kill bacteria. Therefore, even if a bacteria gets inside the epithelial cells can the neutrophils get inside the epithelium to kill the ...
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0answers
56 views

Can immune cells be recruited to an area of inflammation, and later go on to a second?

With regards to innate or adaptive immune cells... can naive/immature cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophage/dendritic cells or adaptive T-cells be recruited to an area of inflammation, for ...
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3answers
1k views

What is the mechanism by which passive immunity works?

My idea is that passive immunity can be used to cure an individual who is infected with a certain disease. For example, for someone infected by clostridium tetani, you would inject them with an ...
2
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1answer
150 views

Why can Toll-like receptors be found either inside and outside the cell?

Innate immune cells may present Toll-like receptors either inside (TLR3 and TLR9, for instance) or outside (TLR4 and TLR5, for instance) the cell, but is there any beneficial reason for this? If so, ...
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0answers
45 views

Material(s) That Tissue Can Grow Into And/Or Not Be Rejected?

I once watched a special on Dr. Roger Leir, a doctor made famous for removing supposed ET implants. Whether they were as such or not isn't important for this question. What is important is that he ...
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2answers
66 views

Predict if a given protein is recognized by antibodies

Assume that i have a 3d-protein structure in a PDB file on a computer. Is there any bioinformatic method to predict if that protein is recognized by all known antibodies of human and cause an immune ...
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1answer
294 views

Septic Shock: I'll kill myself before you kill me

Most of the deaths caused by extracellular bacteria don't actually result directly form their action. Rather, it results from an overreaction of the immune system to antigens such as LPS and LTA (...
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1answer
39 views

Fraction of naive T-cells in CD4+ T-cells isolated from whole blood?

Many papers isolate CD4+ T-cells from whole blood. I am wondering approximately what proportion of naive T-cells there will be from such a sample? Are these predominately naive T-cells or are there ...
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1answer
2k views

How long does immunity to influenza last when contracting the disease vs vaccination

The long term efficacy of flu vaccines are well documented, however I cannot seem to find a good source showing how long immunity lasts when contracting the disease. I suspect it can't be much longer ...
3
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1answer
732 views

What are the effects of the common cold in an immunodeficient person?

How would the virus causing the common cold (rhinovirus) affect the human body in the absence of a normal immune response? On the linked wiki page it is said that the runny nose and fever symptoms are ...
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1answer
2k views

Can fever cure Ebola disease?

Why is ebola disease does not cured on elevating body temperature by body defense system? Can we cure it either by elevating or reducing body temperature (in ice bath) and creating hostile environment ...
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1answer
79 views

How can antibodies in rapid antibody tests be kept at room temperature without denaturing?

The normal temperature for long term antibody storage is around -20 degrees Celsius. However, when developed into rapid antibody tests, they can be kept at room temperature for prolonged periods. How ...
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3answers
2k views

Where do the antibodies that trigger the specific immune response come from?

In A level Biology, we are taught that in order to trigger the specific immune response of the body, antibodies must first attach to the pathogen. The macrophages contain antibody receptors, and this ...
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1answer
94 views

Meaning of “primers IL-2” in a scientific article

From an article ("Amelioration of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Lewis Rats by FTY720 Treatment", 2003): We performed PCR amplification in a 100-μl reaction mixture containing 200 μM ...
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0answers
354 views

How does the immune system distinguish between commensal and pathogenic bacteria?

There are billions of bacteria living harmlessly in our gut, and in fact most are helpful to us, aiding digestion, producing vitamins and maintaining gut health. The immune system is able to suppress ...
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0answers
61 views

What industry job am I qualified for with a PhD in virology? [closed]

I'm considering applying for a PhD studying innate resistance to HCV. I enjoy research but I would prefer to have a stable job, instead of moving from contract to contract and writing grants to ensure ...
3
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1answer
227 views

What does the term “recruitment of T-cell” mean?

With respect to the article, what does the term "recruitment of T-cell" mean? Who recruits T- cell? Does recruiting T-cell mean the T-cells get a sense of directionality to get activated by the APC's?
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0answers
97 views

Can HBV pseudotyped oncolytic viruses be used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma?

Chronic hepatitis B is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) is an emerging tool to treat cancer. However, one challenge of OV is that our immune system may ...
2
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1answer
420 views

Lab experiment: Enumeration of Leukocytes

The images below were obtained in an experiment to enumerate leukocytes in a blood sample using Neubauer counting chamber. The following solution was prepared and added to the Neubauer chamber and ...
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1answer
95 views

Why don't phagocytes eliminate mutualistic foregin organisms residing in our body?

Many organisms residing in our body and have a symbiotic mutualistic relationship with our body e.g. organisms in our small intestines. How come our body does not activate an immune response against ...
2
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0answers
45 views

Does the saliva of a person just recovered from an infectious disease help to cure another persons having the same disease?

I have always had this 'weird' thought (But could never quite test it...). Would the saliva of a just recovered person contains antibodies, or other immuno-boosting substances that can help fight off ...
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0answers
61 views

Mosquito vs Human: Swapping the roles

Is there a known mosquito-specific lethal (for some relevant species of mosquitos) virus that you could safely (for the humans) put into the blood of living humans? Is it technically possible to ...
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1answer
90 views

How does translational immunotherapy work?

I skimmed an article on a recent experiment which suggested that it was effective to inject induced colon cancer tumors with an attenuated salmonella variant. According to the article, this stimulated ...