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Questions tagged [immunology]

The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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How does translational immunotherapy work?

I skimmed an article on a recent experiment which suggested that it was effective to inject induced colon cancer tumors with an attenuated salmonella variant. According to the article, this stimulated ...
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What is the advantage of having multiple pathways to activate complement?

We all know there are three pathways to activate complement: classical pathway, lectin pathway and alternative pathway. What is the advantage of having multiple pathways?
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Terminology for quantitative response of T cells to antigen complexes

In the article, there is a statement which is: Although DCs are remarkably efficient in evoking T cell responses with few antigen– MHC complexes (1–100 per DC) (1–3), they must first ...
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Meaning of proliferation rate of 3 day−1

The abstract of an article in Journal of Virology contains the following line: We find that CD8+ cell proliferation begins 1 to 2 days after infection and occurs at an average rate of 3 day−1, ...
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How much time does it take for the naive T Cell to get activated?

Suppose a naive T cell comes in contact with an APC. How much time does it take for the T Cell to get activated and within how much time does the T cell move away from the APC due to incompatibility ...
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Where do B cells produce antibodies?

I was recently at a Leukemia and Lymphoma Society conference where a particular oncologist lecturer claimed that all antibodies are created in the bone marrow (I won't mention his name, as he was a ...
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Flow cytometry analysis

I've performed an experiment wherein I have stimulated cells (cell line) with a drug across different time-points - in its unmodified (Drug) or modified form (H-Drug or M-Drug). All cells are seeded ...
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Are there any exceptional cases in which a person with O negative blood group cannot donate?

Are there any exceptional cases in which a person with O negative blood group cannot donate or any case in which compatibility might not be established between O negative an any other blood group?
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Is vermiform appendix no more a vestigial organ?

The appendix has a role in the immune response. So is it therefore recently removed from the list of vestigial organs?
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How do T cells deal with the obstructions in their path of migration?

When T cells move in the blood, are their any obstructions(other cells) while they migrate? If there are then how do the T cells overcome such obstructions in their path? Do they move past them or ...
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Potential immunization against airborn viruses [closed]

I have had an idea based on the principals of a virus and their properties and how they enter the cell by tricking it into believing it is a protein etc. If we coated a copper particle (or another ...
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51 views

Does an organism have only certain antibodies for life?

Before birth, in the bone marrow millions of different B-cells are formed. These cells are differentiated and express different antibodies. Are these the only B-cell types you will ever have? Or can ...
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what if there is a door for which our immune system has no key?

And as a B cell matures, it develops the ability to determine friend from foe, developing both immunocompetence -- or how to recognize and bind to a particular antigen -- as well as self-tolerance,...
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About sandwich ELISA

In sandwich ELISA the Fc region of primary antibody bind to the polystyrene coated well. But what are the specific interactions (like 'hydrophobic interaction' or 'van der waals force') happen between ...
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Evidence for annual rabies vaccine?

US companies that sell rabies vaccines routinely recommend that they be given annually. Obviously, these companies have a financial incentive to recommend that their vaccines be given as frequently as ...
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Why don't we build up an immunity to sore throat?

We often get sore throats once or twice a year, and it clears in a few days sometimes without any antibiotics. I was wondering why doesn't our body become immune after clearing a sore throat?
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What is the role of various immune cells in demylinating neuropathy?

Is there a simple description or article of the life cycle of tcells and other immune cells and how they become programmed to attack the myelin of the nerves? When I try to read through an article ...
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Is it possible a cancer cell don't express any foreign antigens? [closed]

For example, there're tumor suppressor genes. Can we just delete them, without introducing neo-antigens? Would the resultant cells proliferate? If so, how do our immune system identify such cells?
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Which contributes more to cancer clearance, T cells or NK cells?

Both T cells and NK cells have cytotoxicity. However, most immunotherapy targets T cells rather than NK cells, such as CAR T and PD-1 inhibitor. Is it because T cells kills more cancer cells than NK ...
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Vaccination and Immunisation

Why are oral polio vaccines advantageous over the killed ones? I was told that the orally given polio vaccine prevents infection by causing intestinal immunity. How does it do that? Also, how does ...
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Does a software exist to automatically design antibodies that target a given protein or antigen?

I'm looking for software to automatically design antibodies that target a given protein or antigen.
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Oral Administration of Immunizations

Small children and people in developing countries may take oral dosage forms of vaccines. Antigens passing through the GI tract will come into contact with Peyer's patches and be absorbed by microfold ...
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Why does a centrocyte have a cleaved nuclei?

Why does a centrocyte have a cleaved nuclei? Is there a biological reasoning behind this phenomenon or is it the nature of the centrocytes? Does the selected centrocytes proliferate too?
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Chemokines vs Chemoattractants

What differentiates chemokines from chemoattractants? They both are grouped by their chemotaxic function, but what features separate them. What are examples of other chemoattractants that are not ...
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How are fluorochromes conjugated to proteins such as antibody?

How are fluorochromes like FITC conjugated to antibodies? Are they covalently bonded? If they are covalently bonded, will low temperature (-20 Celsius or lower) break the covalent bonds and detach the ...
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Where are epitopes located on HLA molecules?

Normally HLA molecules present cellular and extra cellular proteins to the immune system; presumably the proteins in this case are where antibody /t-cells etc bind. But when an organ is transplanted ...
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How to calculate the geometric mean titer (GMT) of titers from a haemagglutination assay (influenza)?

I got a list of Influenza-specific antibody titers from a hemagglutination inhibition assay. They look like this: 40 640 <...
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How large is the immune repetoire and at what age does it finalize?

There seems to be a large disconnect between the Wikipedia's article on the immune effector repetoire and Janeway's Immunobiology 9th Edition, a standard textbook widely used to teach immunology to ...
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From what stage can you speak of an inflammation?

Imagine you hit your foot at a table leg and it hurts a while or you got a tiny graze. Those injuries aren't an infection but could these things still be called an inflammation? Is it necessary that ...
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How do Sertoli cells protect sperms?

I was reading Developmental biology by Gilbert and stumbled upon a fact that Sertoli cells provide protection to the developing sperms with no futher explanation. I googled it and found a few books ...
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61 views

Interleukin 6 class cytokines

Wikipedia says: Leukemia inhibitory factor, or LIF, is an interleukin 6 class cytokine that affects cell growth by inhibiting differentiation. So does this means that il6=LIF ? or does it implies ...
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51 views

immunity to Malaria

What is "immunity to the disease" in the following sentence? In some regions, the parasites are resistant to certain antimalarial drugs, particularly chloroquine. People continually infected ...
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251 views

How is TB harmful in HIV patients?

The mycobacterium of TB doesn't secrete any toxins. The cause of disease in the immunocompetent is the collateral damage due to the immune response against disseminated infection. But then, when HIV ...
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996 views

How's idiotype different from paratope?

What I understand of these two terms is that: Paratope is a portion of antibody that recognises and binds to specific antigen. Idiotype is an antigenic determinant of antibody formed of CDRs that ...
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What is the evolutionary advantage of having polymorphisms in MHC? [duplicate]

The MHC genes are widely polymorphic and hence cause an issue in tissue matching pre-transplantation. Why is there such a polymorphism? I know that different polymorphisms in MHC can lead to ...
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Immunology Book Suggestion

Which book will give a brief account about B-cell development so that it covers two questions about the following cells: Plasmablast Plasma cell Memory B cell Marginal zone (MZ) B cell B-1 cell B-2 ...
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How is the site of administration of a vaccine decided?

Vaccines can either be given intramuscular or subcutaneous or intradermal. I know the technique used is specific for each organism. What decides this? I understand the reason for oral vaccines in ...
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336 views

Are MHC Proteins the Most Polymorphic Human Proteins Known?

There is a paragraph titled "MHC Proteins Are the Most Polymorphic Human Proteins Known" in the "Molecular Biology of the Cell" by Alberts et al. 6th ed. 2014. But someone has recently told me that ...
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Is the whole MHC haplotype expressed and so their proteins are exhibited on each nucleated cell membrane?

Am I correct if I guess the following (?): If we inherit both maternal and paternal MHC haplotypes, the functional (non-pseudo)genes are expressed and all of their products (MHC molecules) are ...
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where does genetic material for antibody production come from?

All antibodies are proteins and like every other protein, mRNA codes for them. So acquired immunity, is acquired, which means that information was not previously present in our DNA before exposure to ...
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Which living organisms have antibodies?

I'm wondering if only humans, or only mammals have antibodies and immune system. Obviously humans and dogs have (we vaccinate both) and in my head makes sense since we're so genetically similar to all ...
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can a protein recognized by antibodies not be immunogenic?

I have a protein that is produced with the baculovirus system that is recognized by antibodies generated by immunization of rabbits with the same protein produced in E. coli. However the baculovirus ...
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259 views

How is monoclonality or polyclonality determined?

I was reading up Kaposi sarcoma and Robbins Pathology says, ..many features suggest that KS is not a malignant tumor despite the ominous name ...spindle cells in many KS lesions are polyclonal or ...
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Why are there 2 copies of RNA in the HIV virion?

There are two copies of the RNA in the HIV virion. These are retroviruses. So, they can make cDNA from even just one copy using reverse transcriptase. What is the use of the other? Are both ...
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660 views

How's maturation different from differentiation/activation of B lymphocyte?

I was reading Wikipedia that said $-$ In mammals, B cells mature in the bone marrow, which is at the core of most bones. In birds, B cells mature in the Bursa of Fabricius, a lymphoid organ. So ...
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Is Plasmablast a precursor of Plasma cell?

I read it in Roitt's Essential Immunology. Plasmablasts are precursor cells of short- and long-lived plasma cells and are generally described as a proliferating fraction of antibody-secreting ...
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Why are Natural Killer cells considered cells of Innate immunity?

Kuby Immunology says They (NK cells) do not express antigen specific receptors and are considered part of the innate immune system. Though they also have receptors for antibodies that bind to NK ...
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814 views

How does our body produce new antibodies?

My professor said that in human body nearly 10$^9$-10$^1$$^2$ antibodies are produced by VDJ recombination and all the antigens that a person encounters in his lifetime are dealt by antibodies ...
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205 views

How is the antigen against which autoantibodies are formed, identified?

Say we suspect some new autoimmune disorder in a patient, and we collect blood for serology. How are self antibodies differentiated from normal ones in the collected sample? Once they are identified, ...
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Is it possible to induce erysipelas to treat cancer, under the condition that the patient is to be given antibiotics to control the erysipelas? [closed]

Dr.William Coley was one of the first to attempt fever therapy on cancer patients. He did this experiment: artificial erysipelas to treat cancer. Coley injected Streptococcus pyogenes directly into ...