Questions tagged [immunology]

The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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Is it possible to induce erysipelas to treat cancer, under the condition that the patient is to be given antibiotics to control the erysipelas? [closed]

Dr.William Coley was one of the first to attempt fever therapy on cancer patients. He did this experiment: artificial erysipelas to treat cancer. Coley injected Streptococcus pyogenes directly into ...
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What does differentiation of B-cell mean?

Does differentiation of B lymphocytes mean the formation of plasma cells and memory cells by matured B lymphocytes?
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How does sGP of Ebola virus help it to evade host humoral immunity?

During Ebola infection, the viruses secret a lot of sGP. What's its function? Since anti GP antibodies are effective at inhibiting Ebola infection, wouldn't sGP stimulate host immune system to produce ...
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What is the rationale behind tapering of immunosuppressant dose a while after transplant?

MMF, Cyclosporine, Prednisolone, Tacrolimus the dose of whatever immunosuppressant used is reduced in around 6 months - 1 year after the transplant. What is the rationale behind this? Wouldn't any ...
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Why do we have such a wide range of responses to pathogens and carcinogens?

I was reading an article recently debunking the idea of 'boosting' your immune system. It occurred to me that - presuming it's right - our immune systems are all pretty much the same (with the ...
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How are Thyroid Stimulating Ab destroying thyroid tissues?

I was reading about Graves' disease, which is an autoimmune disorder. I read a few books, including Endocrinology by Hadley and Levine, and websites where they mentioned that the antibody named TSAb (...
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Effect of paracetamol or any antipyretic tablets

We all consume a paracetamol or any antipyretic tablet when we have cold or flu. And these tablets just reduce the body temperature. So my question is, when we have an infection and due to that ...
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338 views

Which cells release inflammatory mediators?

Wikipedia says Inflammation is stimulated by chemical factors released by injured cells and serves to establish a physical barrier against the spread of infection, and to promote healing of any ...
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After getting fully vaccinated for HBV why does the antiHBs titer last for so long?

When a newborn child is fully vaccinated with HBV and let's assume he's responsive, his antiHBs titers will be high. But since the antigenic stimulus is withdrawn, shouldn't the titre fall to nill in ...
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What is the use of an antibody that is non-neutralizing?

When we generally speak of the immune response to viral infections, we talk of neutralising antibodies. These are antibodies that can neutralise the effect of the virus and reduce its load. My ...
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why thymectomy doesn't lead to humoral immunity deficiency?

thymus is a place where T cells educate. in all textbooks it says if you remove thymus you will have cellular immunity deficiency. so in that case you should also be humoral immunity deficient,then ...
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making antibodies rather than buying them

I need large amounts of anti-CD20 and anti-pan-cytokeratin antibodies. At DAKO, they go for >$1,500/mg, and I need >100mg, hence a purchase is out of question. Instead, I plan to make a homebrew ...
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What is meant by clones of B-cells?

I was reading Cellular and Molecular Immunology By Abul K. Abbas, Andrew H. H. Lichtman, Shiv Pillai and stumbled upon the following excerpt $-$ In every individual there are millions of different ...
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What is “non-immune immunoglobulin”?

From a short introduction to immunohistochemistry controls: Isotype Control This control can be utilized when working with monoclonal primary antibodies. The sample is incubated with antibody ...
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Natural killers cells in insects/ arthropods

I'm wondering if someone knowns anything about Natural Killer cells in insects or other Arthropods. Do they exist or are their any similar cells of the innate immune system that someone knows of? ...
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Selectivity of anti-bacterial affect of oxygen [closed]

As far as I know, oxidizing agents (AKA reactive oxygen species or ROS) are potent antimicrobial agents that act on a broad range of bacteria and viruses, as well as inactivating certain toxins. Is ...
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589 views

How does mad cow disease evade immune system? [closed]

The mad cow disease is caused by prions right? So how do prions avoid white blood cells and antibodies?
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How to find suitable qRTPCR reference gene for a inflammatory response experiment?

I have tried several housekeeping genes – Hprt, β-actin and GAPDH, to analyze the relative expression of a cytokine for measuring the inflammatory local response in mice ears. However, all ...
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Does class switching occur both in B cells and Plasma cells?

I understand that the cell class switches to change the type of immunoglobulin it is producing. The B-cell produces the membrane bound B-cell receptor (BCR) while the plasma cell produces the the ...
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Do Tumor-Infiltrating T Cells Experience Any Prolonged Effects Due To Hypoxia After They Return To Normoxia?

Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) therapy using tumor-inflitrating lymphocytes (TIL) is at the cutting edge of immuno-oncology treatments involving metastatic melanoma and other indications (1). The idea ...
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645 views

Does denaturing proteins lead to loss of epitopes?

I am doing an experiment where I have to do both Immunohistochemistry and SDS-PAGE. I am assuming that the native conformation of the protein is maintained in the IHC. But during the blot, we heat the ...
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676 views

What is the rationale behind IgM being the default antibody?

I know that the$\ C _\mu $ gene appears first in line for class switching and hence the IgM is the default antibody. But what is the rationale for it being so? There must be some advantage (...
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Does RNA-LPX expression of antigen by DC induce only T-cell with that antigen specificity?

There was a recent publication concerning use of IV administered RNA-lipoplexes with an adjusted electrical charge to encourage dendritic cells (DC) to pick up the RNA package encoding viral or mutant ...
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How is histamine useful against allergies?

Histamine is a chemical produced and stored within the body. It is a part of our immune response and is released during an allergic reaction. Often histamine is responsible for hypersensitive ...
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Why do we take antibiotics if our immune system already produces them? [closed]

Why do we take antibiotics if our immune system already produces them? Is it because our body doesnt make enough or the specific complementary antibody to fit with the antigen?
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How is a T lymphocyte specific to an antigen but not specific to an epitope?

In my immunology notes, it states that B lymphocytes (and other APCs) capture and present antigens to T lymphocytes that is specific for an antigen, but that the T cells do not necessarily recognise ...
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How do we find antibiotics?

So the last class of antibiotics were made in 1984 (I think), which makes it appear as though they are hard to find(/design maybe). How is it then they were discovered? Was it by chance? I know some ...
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Have people in Africa already started evolving resistance to AIDS?

Are people living in areas where AIDS is rampant (for e.g. Africa), less likely to die from it than they once were because some of the people without genes/mutations that give them resistance already ...
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Is it possible to transfer acquired hemophilia with breast milk?

There is a transplacental form of acquired hemophilia: http://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476%2895%2970132-X/abstract This disease is caused by polyclonal immunoglobulins (IgG1 and IgG4) against the ...
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230 views

How do T-cells determine which cells they've already inspected?

From what I understand, T-cells are constantly traveling in the body, inspecting cells by looking for antigens. If they're self antigens, then the T-cell doesn't attack, whereas if they're non-self, ...
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Why don't bacterial cell walls prevent bursting when attacked by the complement?

The complement system creates pores in cell membrane which leads to influx of lots of water thereby causing lysis of bacterial cell. But what I fail to understand is that if bacteria have cell walls ...
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575 views

Effect of HIV on T-cells

When HIV infects macrophages, it doesn't kill or destroy them immediately, but once it infects T-cells, they're destroyed. Why is that? As in why does it destroy T-cells and not macrophages or other ...
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267 views

Serological assays measuring antibody response

Given that an appropriate immune response to a bacteria may be thwarted in an individual, including not producing all of the antibodies which are known to occur in people who have been infected, or ...
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T cell sensitivity and persistence to specific bacterial proteins

Currently, the standard tests for Lyme Disease measure antibody production after exposure to a bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi. Often, the tests are performed too soon after infection, before ...
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B-cell antibody production

I've just learned about B cells in immunology lectures and some things are not clear to me. Here's what I know: 1) Apparently, each B cell produces a specific antibody, determined randomly at the ...
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Why I cannot find dendritic cells in blood smear?

According to many sources including wikipedia, there are haematopoietic stem cell derived dendritic cells in the blood. figure 1 - haematopoietic cell lines - ref Despite of this, when I examine a ...
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Does our immune system react on all bacteria?

In our body we carry a lot of bacteria. Some of them are bad for our health, but others are beneficial. For example bacteria may protect us against other pathogenic bacteria. But is our immune ...
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How does AIDS affect the immune system vs. SCID? [closed]

AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome According to wikipedia, Caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Following initial infection, a person may not notice any symptoms ...
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Why is it advised that infants are fed mother's milk?

I have heard that mother's milk is preferred over other baby foods, because it contains immunoglobulins (secretory IgA), and other essential nutrients. But why is mother's milk so special? Any ...
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Can oral bacteria be targeted by white blood cells?

Today I was told from a dentist that a leukocyte is much larger than a bad bacterium. So a leukocyte cannot remove bad bacteria when they hide in very places like the space between the gums and teeth ...
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Does atrophy of the thymus not effect T-cell selection and tolerance?

The thymus atrophies as age progresses. Does the T cell selection (which happens in the thymus) continue to take place? This doubt came into my mind because in the cadaver we dissected, the thymus was ...
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how to make plasma cells adhere to the bottom of a microplate?

I am isolating single plasma cells by FACS sorting into 384-well plates, with the intent to assay the supernatant and clone H/L chains from positive wells. The efficiency of the PCR is however low, ...
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What is the name of the property of viruses can activate a second time, with different symptoms?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. It appears after the initial infection, it can go dormant in the nerve, and reactivate itself decades later. In ...
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781 views

What is the name of the category of viruses that affect only one side of the body?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. When the virus attacks as shingles, one of its distinguishing characteristics is that it only affects one side of the ...
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How do CD 8+ Tc cells reach the site of tumors?

In normal humoral immunity, dendritic cells present antigens to the Th cells by arriving at the Lymph node. This is fine. But consider a tumor cell. How does the Tc cell sitting in the lymph node know ...
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What is the name of the property of viruses that can go dormant in the host for 30 years?

The Varicella zoster virus causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. It appears after the initial infection, it can go dormant in the nerve, and reactivate itself decades later. My ...
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Why is an excess number of eosinophils consistent with a violent allergic reaction? [closed]

What roles do eosinophils play in allergic reaction?
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Does sickle cell anaemia protect a victim against malaria? [duplicate]

My biology textbook says that a person with sickle cell anaemia is less prone to malaria. Why is that so? I'm guessing that its because the malarial parasite needs human RBCs for completing its life ...
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Why doesn't one develop immunity to bacterial STIs?

Why doesn't one develop immunity to STIs such as Chlamydia/Gonorrhea and Syphilis even after the first exposure and treatment with antibiotics?
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Why does immunity from the flu vaccine appear only after two weeks?

It is said that immunity from a flu vaccine appears after about two weeks. However, from experience, the flu usually lasts only a few days. If sufficient antibodies appear only after two weeks ...