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Questions tagged [immunology]

The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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1answer
265 views

How is TB harmful in HIV patients?

The mycobacterium of TB doesn't secrete any toxins. The cause of disease in the immunocompetent is the collateral damage due to the immune response against disseminated infection. But then, when HIV ...
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2answers
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How's idiotype different from paratope?

What I understand of these two terms is that: Paratope is a portion of antibody that recognises and binds to specific antigen. Idiotype is an antigenic determinant of antibody formed of CDRs that ...
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What is the evolutionary advantage of having polymorphisms in MHC? [duplicate]

The MHC genes are widely polymorphic and hence cause an issue in tissue matching pre-transplantation. Why is there such a polymorphism? I know that different polymorphisms in MHC can lead to ...
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2answers
124 views

Immunology Book Suggestion

Which book will give a brief account about B-cell development so that it covers two questions about the following cells: Plasmablast Plasma cell Memory B cell Marginal zone (MZ) B cell B-1 cell B-2 ...
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1answer
67 views

How is the site of administration of a vaccine decided?

Vaccines can either be given intramuscular or subcutaneous or intradermal. I know the technique used is specific for each organism. What decides this? I understand the reason for oral vaccines in ...
3
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1answer
351 views

Are MHC Proteins the Most Polymorphic Human Proteins Known?

There is a paragraph titled "MHC Proteins Are the Most Polymorphic Human Proteins Known" in the "Molecular Biology of the Cell" by Alberts et al. 6th ed. 2014. But someone has recently told me that ...
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0answers
33 views

Is the whole MHC haplotype expressed and so their proteins are exhibited on each nucleated cell membrane?

Am I correct if I guess the following (?): If we inherit both maternal and paternal MHC haplotypes, the functional (non-pseudo)genes are expressed and all of their products (MHC molecules) are ...
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1answer
53 views

where does genetic material for antibody production come from?

All antibodies are proteins and like every other protein, mRNA codes for them. So acquired immunity, is acquired, which means that information was not previously present in our DNA before exposure to ...
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1answer
1k views

Which living organisms have antibodies?

I'm wondering if only humans, or only mammals have antibodies and immune system. Obviously humans and dogs have (we vaccinate both) and in my head makes sense since we're so genetically similar to all ...
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1answer
75 views

can a protein recognized by antibodies not be immunogenic?

I have a protein that is produced with the baculovirus system that is recognized by antibodies generated by immunization of rabbits with the same protein produced in E. coli. However the baculovirus ...
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1answer
288 views

How is monoclonality or polyclonality determined?

I was reading up Kaposi sarcoma and Robbins Pathology says, ..many features suggest that KS is not a malignant tumor despite the ominous name ...spindle cells in many KS lesions are polyclonal or ...
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1answer
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Why are there 2 copies of RNA in the HIV virion?

There are two copies of the RNA in the HIV virion. These are retroviruses. So, they can make cDNA from even just one copy using reverse transcriptase. What is the use of the other? Are both ...
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0answers
750 views

How's maturation different from differentiation/activation of B lymphocyte?

I was reading Wikipedia that said $-$ In mammals, B cells mature in the bone marrow, which is at the core of most bones. In birds, B cells mature in the Bursa of Fabricius, a lymphoid organ. So ...
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1answer
6k views

Is Plasmablast a precursor of Plasma cell?

I read it in Roitt's Essential Immunology. Plasmablasts are precursor cells of short- and long-lived plasma cells and are generally described as a proliferating fraction of antibody-secreting ...
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0answers
567 views

Why are Natural Killer cells considered cells of Innate immunity?

Kuby Immunology says They (NK cells) do not express antigen specific receptors and are considered part of the innate immune system. Though they also have receptors for antibodies that bind to NK ...
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1answer
829 views

How does our body produce new antibodies?

My professor said that in human body nearly 10$^9$-10$^1$$^2$ antibodies are produced by VDJ recombination and all the antigens that a person encounters in his lifetime are dealt by antibodies ...
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1answer
234 views

How is the antigen against which autoantibodies are formed, identified?

Say we suspect some new autoimmune disorder in a patient, and we collect blood for serology. How are self antibodies differentiated from normal ones in the collected sample? Once they are identified, ...
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1answer
79 views

Is it possible to induce erysipelas to treat cancer, under the condition that the patient is to be given antibiotics to control the erysipelas? [closed]

Dr.William Coley was one of the first to attempt fever therapy on cancer patients. He did this experiment: artificial erysipelas to treat cancer. Coley injected Streptococcus pyogenes directly into ...
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1answer
34 views

What does differentiation of B-cell mean?

Does differentiation of B lymphocytes mean the formation of plasma cells and memory cells by matured B lymphocytes?
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0answers
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How does sGP of Ebola virus help it to evade host humoral immunity?

During Ebola infection, the viruses secret a lot of sGP. What's its function? Since anti GP antibodies are effective at inhibiting Ebola infection, wouldn't sGP stimulate host immune system to produce ...
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1answer
801 views

What is the rationale behind tapering of immunosuppressant dose a while after transplant?

MMF, Cyclosporine, Prednisolone, Tacrolimus the dose of whatever immunosuppressant used is reduced in around 6 months - 1 year after the transplant. What is the rationale behind this? Wouldn't any ...
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2answers
140 views

Why do we have such a wide range of responses to pathogens and carcinogens?

I was reading an article recently debunking the idea of 'boosting' your immune system. It occurred to me that - presuming it's right - our immune systems are all pretty much the same (with the ...
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2answers
165 views

How are Thyroid Stimulating Ab destroying thyroid tissues?

I was reading about Graves' disease, which is an autoimmune disorder. I read a few books, including Endocrinology by Hadley and Levine, and websites where they mentioned that the antibody named TSAb (...
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3answers
581 views

Effect of paracetamol or any antipyretic tablets

We all consume a paracetamol or any antipyretic tablet when we have cold or flu. And these tablets just reduce the body temperature. So my question is, when we have an infection and due to that ...
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1answer
394 views

Which cells release inflammatory mediators?

Wikipedia says Inflammation is stimulated by chemical factors released by injured cells and serves to establish a physical barrier against the spread of infection, and to promote healing of any ...
3
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1answer
39 views

After getting fully vaccinated for HBV why does the antiHBs titer last for so long?

When a newborn child is fully vaccinated with HBV and let's assume he's responsive, his antiHBs titers will be high. But since the antigenic stimulus is withdrawn, shouldn't the titre fall to nill in ...
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2answers
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What is the use of an antibody that is non-neutralizing?

When we generally speak of the immune response to viral infections, we talk of neutralising antibodies. These are antibodies that can neutralise the effect of the virus and reduce its load. My ...
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0answers
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why thymectomy doesn't lead to humoral immunity deficiency?

thymus is a place where T cells educate. in all textbooks it says if you remove thymus you will have cellular immunity deficiency. so in that case you should also be humoral immunity deficient,then ...
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56 views

making antibodies rather than buying them

I need large amounts of anti-CD20 and anti-pan-cytokeratin antibodies. At DAKO, they go for >$1,500/mg, and I need >100mg, hence a purchase is out of question. Instead, I plan to make a homebrew ...
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2answers
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What is meant by clones of B-cells?

I was reading Cellular and Molecular Immunology By Abul K. Abbas, Andrew H. H. Lichtman, Shiv Pillai and stumbled upon the following excerpt $-$ In every individual there are millions of different ...
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2answers
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What is “non-immune immunoglobulin”?

From a short introduction to immunohistochemistry controls: Isotype Control This control can be utilized when working with monoclonal primary antibodies. The sample is incubated with antibody ...
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0answers
176 views

Natural killers cells in insects/ arthropods

I'm wondering if someone knowns anything about Natural Killer cells in insects or other Arthropods. Do they exist or are their any similar cells of the innate immune system that someone knows of? ...
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1answer
87 views

Selectivity of anti-bacterial affect of oxygen [closed]

As far as I know, oxidizing agents (AKA reactive oxygen species or ROS) are potent antimicrobial agents that act on a broad range of bacteria and viruses, as well as inactivating certain toxins. Is ...
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1answer
615 views

How does mad cow disease evade immune system? [closed]

The mad cow disease is caused by prions right? So how do prions avoid white blood cells and antibodies?
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4answers
280 views

How to find suitable qRTPCR reference gene for a inflammatory response experiment?

I have tried several housekeeping genes – Hprt, β-actin and GAPDH, to analyze the relative expression of a cytokine for measuring the inflammatory local response in mice ears. However, all ...
3
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1answer
6k views

Does class switching occur both in B cells and Plasma cells?

I understand that the cell class switches to change the type of immunoglobulin it is producing. The B-cell produces the membrane bound B-cell receptor (BCR) while the plasma cell produces the the ...
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0answers
71 views

Do Tumor-Infiltrating T Cells Experience Any Prolonged Effects Due To Hypoxia After They Return To Normoxia?

Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) therapy using tumor-inflitrating lymphocytes (TIL) is at the cutting edge of immuno-oncology treatments involving metastatic melanoma and other indications (1). The idea ...
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2answers
687 views

Does denaturing proteins lead to loss of epitopes?

I am doing an experiment where I have to do both Immunohistochemistry and SDS-PAGE. I am assuming that the native conformation of the protein is maintained in the IHC. But during the blot, we heat the ...
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1answer
702 views

What is the rationale behind IgM being the default antibody?

I know that the$\ C _\mu $ gene appears first in line for class switching and hence the IgM is the default antibody. But what is the rationale for it being so? There must be some advantage (...
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1answer
268 views

Does RNA-LPX expression of antigen by DC induce only T-cell with that antigen specificity?

There was a recent publication concerning use of IV administered RNA-lipoplexes with an adjusted electrical charge to encourage dendritic cells (DC) to pick up the RNA package encoding viral or mutant ...
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1answer
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How is histamine useful against allergies?

Histamine is a chemical produced and stored within the body. It is a part of our immune response and is released during an allergic reaction. Often histamine is responsible for hypersensitive ...
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3answers
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Why do we take antibiotics if our immune system already produces them? [closed]

Why do we take antibiotics if our immune system already produces them? Is it because our body doesnt make enough or the specific complementary antibody to fit with the antigen?
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2answers
727 views

How is a T lymphocyte specific to an antigen but not specific to an epitope?

In my immunology notes, it states that B lymphocytes (and other APCs) capture and present antigens to T lymphocytes that is specific for an antigen, but that the T cells do not necessarily recognise ...
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2answers
256 views

How do we find antibiotics?

So the last class of antibiotics were made in 1984 (I think), which makes it appear as though they are hard to find(/design maybe). How is it then they were discovered? Was it by chance? I know some ...
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0answers
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Have people in Africa already started evolving resistance to AIDS?

Are people living in areas where AIDS is rampant (for e.g. Africa), less likely to die from it than they once were because some of the people without genes/mutations that give them resistance already ...
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1answer
118 views

Is it possible to transfer acquired hemophilia with breast milk?

There is a transplacental form of acquired hemophilia: http://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476%2895%2970132-X/abstract This disease is caused by polyclonal immunoglobulins (IgG1 and IgG4) against the ...
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2answers
234 views

How do T-cells determine which cells they've already inspected?

From what I understand, T-cells are constantly traveling in the body, inspecting cells by looking for antigens. If they're self antigens, then the T-cell doesn't attack, whereas if they're non-self, ...
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1answer
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Why don't bacterial cell walls prevent bursting when attacked by the complement?

The complement system creates pores in cell membrane which leads to influx of lots of water thereby causing lysis of bacterial cell. But what I fail to understand is that if bacteria have cell walls ...
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1answer
594 views

Effect of HIV on T-cells

When HIV infects macrophages, it doesn't kill or destroy them immediately, but once it infects T-cells, they're destroyed. Why is that? As in why does it destroy T-cells and not macrophages or other ...
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3answers
323 views

Serological assays measuring antibody response

Given that an appropriate immune response to a bacteria may be thwarted in an individual, including not producing all of the antibodies which are known to occur in people who have been infected, or ...