Questions tagged [immunology]

The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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What kind of people are more likely to catch COVID-19?

It is well known that people of old age or with respiratory problems are more vulnerable by the effects of COVID-19. However, I wasn't able to find information on any similar trends on catching the ...
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Why is it difficult for germs to jump species?

If you haven't watched CGP Grey's video Americapox: The Missing Plague, I suggest you watch it. It's an excellent video. One assertion he makes is that "germs jumping species is extraordinarily ...
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What is the mechanism responsible for long-lasting detectable antibody titers?

As I understand, when naive B cell encounters antigen matching its receptors and is activated by a T helper cell, it can either differentiate into 4 plasma cells, produce a lot of antibodies and ...
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When can we know if one develops immunity (to SARS-CoV-2)?

I've been thinking for this for a while. It seems there's no ethical experiment to perform to check if immunity is actually developed (the obvious experiment would be to expose someone that have ...
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Easy and cheap antigen/antibody couple

For an application I need to find a cheap antigen and cheap correspondent antibody. The antigen can be literally any molecule that is cheap and potentially easy to produce and with a correspondent ...
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Why will tissue from identical twin be rejected in some cases?

Also, transplants from one identical twin to another are almost never rejected. [ Source: Medline Plus ] Why can a tissue from an identical twin be rejected ?
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How can I detect which antibody is produced by the B cell?

I mean ,In primary response IgM is produced (IgD as well) ,In secondary response various types of antibodies are produced . So how do I detect which antibody is B cell is producing at a time.
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How do animals contain and dispose of bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides)?

Gram negative bacteria naturally release endotoxins which are lipopolysaccharide molecules. These molecules are toxic to many eukaryote cells, including macrophages. My question is how animal ...
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Could there be a pathogen which does not activate an immune response?

In order for the immune system to be stimulated to produce antibodies, there must be a surface protein of the invading pathogen which binds to a receptor on B cell surface somewhat loosely. We need ...
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vaccine development claims

Suppose,you have found out Neutralizing antibody of a virus, The corresponding structure of that virus, you developed a vaccine prototype, it was able to increase antibody titre in animal, and ...
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Cell-autonomous viral defense involving oxidative burst?

I'm looking for a mechanism by which a cell detects a virus (probably a retrovirus) within itself, then triggers an oxidative burst in response. This should all happen within the cell itself, ...
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Why is there no herd immunity against common cold coronaviruses?

In discussions of herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2 the underlying assumption usually appears to be that the virus basically stops spreading once a sufficient percentage of the population has overcome ...
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Where are eosinophils and basophils phagocytic?

It seems known that neutrophils circulate and are phagocytic within the blood stream, but I'm having trouble finding similar conconclusions about where eosinophils and basophils are phagocytic which ...
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Immunity to one's own microbiome

It seems that a human bite can be very dangerous, because of the myriads of bacterial species found in saliva. This leads to several questions that, perhaps, may have the same single answer. But, I'...
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What does it mean to be a fully human monoclonal antibody?

I somewhat understand that some monoclonal antibodies are developed from the cells of mice, or a fusion of human and mice genes. When something is a fully human monoclonal antibody does that mean it ...
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Why do viruses cause different symptoms?

If the sole purpose of a virus is to hijack the nucleus of a cell to replicate, why do we have different symptoms for different viruses? I can think of the following comming into play: immune ...
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Immune response to IgA positive bacteria

If certain bacteria can be coated with IgA in vitro, does that mean they are likely to elicit an IgA immune response? Edit I'm working on a project that involves IgA-Seq analysis. Bacteria are coated ...
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Meaning of units in ELISA based tests?

For some ELISA based antibody tests (e.g. h-tTg antibody test), labs report units as RU/mL or U/mL. Also different labs have different cut off (normal range) values. I understand that different kit ...
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Does a breastfed infant gain immunoprotection due to intramuscular vaccination of the breastfeeder?

There is a claim that infants gain immunoprotection from breastfeeding. I am especially interested in specific protection against pathogens the breastfeeder (not necessarily the mother) has been ...
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Do person with strong immune system have less chance of surviving SARS-COV-2 attack?

In most of the cases dealing with SARS-COV-2 disease, the major mortality cause is due to cytokine storm in response to Corona-virus that also attack healthy organs causing multiple organ failure. ...
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Examining antibody - target interactions in PyMOL

I'm a student currently looking at antibody responses against a viral target protein of interest. I have my own, annotated PyMOL session of my protein and I also have .pdbs of crystallised antibody ...
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Can intracellular protein initiate strong immune response?

Some autoantibodies escape immune tolerance and can cause autoimmune disease. In order to cause harm to the tissues by these autoantibodies, do the antigen need to be extracellular or membrane bound, ...
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Can the innate immune system defeat a pathogen by itself? Fast enough that we don't develop antibodies, etc.?

Would we have any way of knowing if our innate immune system destroyed a pathogen without involving the adaptive? Could a symptomless person who tests positive for COVID-19 with the RNA test, e.g., ...
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Reasons why this protein is not suitable as an immunogen?

In a paper entitled "Progress and Prospects on Vaccine Development against SARS-CoV-2", the authors write the following in section 2.5: "Compared with S, N, and M protein, E protein is not suitable ...
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What determines if a small protein / large peptide is immunogenic?

I'm wondering if there is some threshold in size or a specific structural property that determines if a small protein or large peptide would cause an immune reaction. Context: there are a number of ...
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Why do doctors still advise HIV+ couples to wear a condom during sex?

HIV infected people already have HIV, but why do doctors still advise condom use for HIV+ couples?
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Why are antibodies Y-shaped?

I generally know how antibodies work by binding to antigens, but what is the specific purpose to being Y-shaped, as opposed to any other shape? Does this aid their function? Thank you.
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How is minimum infectious dose defined?

I'm a bit confused by the concept of a minimum infectious dose (MID). It seems from what my research so far has turned up, that while any dose greater than 0 could potentially cause an infection, for ...
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Where do B cells produce antibodies?

I was recently at a Leukemia and Lymphoma Society conference where a particular oncologist lecturer claimed that all antibodies are created in the bone marrow (I won't mention his name, as he was a ...
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Localization of B and T cell

What does localization of B-Cell mean?? "Localization of B and T cell in allergens may not coincide". What does this statement mean? (I have not studied biology since last 8 years and now I am going ...
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How are Thyroid Stimulating Ab destroying thyroid tissues?

I was reading about Graves' disease, which is an autoimmune disorder. I read a few books, including Endocrinology by Hadley and Levine, and websites where they mentioned that the antibody named TSAb (...
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How do PARPs counteract coronaviruses?

I read that [SARS-CoV-2 has] a nonstructural protein called NSP3, a component of which blocks the host’s efforts to fight off the virus. In particular, this protein shuts down host enzymes called ...
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Are B-cell-Ab selected according to their true efficiency towards viruses & infected cells?

Assume that (during the first week of Covid) the lymphoid organ produced two dozens of high affinity B-cell-antibodies for the same number of epitopes on the viral proteins (after numerous rounds of ...
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T-cell “exhaustion” in patients with Covid-19

Following up on my previously asked question, which asks how COVID infects T-cells in immune system. Here's a study that shows that recovered covid patients have "exausted t-cells". To quote: T ...
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What is the protein composition of complete Freund's adjuvant?

The complete form of this adjuvant uses heat inactivated and dried mycobacteria. However, to rule out cross-reactivity with an antibody, I would like to know which proteins are left in the adjuvant. ...
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Is it still true that C. elegans has no known natural viruses?

I read in a 2009 review that While mammals and C. elegans each have a single Dicer that makes both miRNAs and siRNAs, Drosophila has two Dicers: Dcr-1 makes miRNAs, whereas Dcr-2 is specialized for ...
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Which hormones, metabolites, or other molecules build up as the day progresses, other than melatonin and adenosine?

Melatonin and adenosine reach peak levels around midnight/bedtime. I was wondering what other molecules also buildup as the day progresses. Particularly molecules that affect the CNS and/or immune ...
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How antibodies are produced in our body against intracellular proteins of infectious bacteria?

When an infectious agent invades our body, then surface antigens of the infectious agent are detected by our immune system and B-cells get activated. However, we do have antibodies in our blood ...
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How come certain antibody lateral flow assays show positive results at different dilutions?

I acquired two antibody lateral flow assays that purported to have the same sensitivity. I acquired NP antibodies and tested against them to validate they were not fake. My testing protocol involved ...
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Why do antibody tests target different antibodies?

I've noticed in various COVID-19 lateral flow assays, they seem to target different antibodies (S1, S2, NP). What are the benefits or downsides of choosing different antibodies? I know that some have ...
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Markers of lung microvascular endothelial sub-populations and lung smooth muscles?

Can someone please help me with information where I can find a publication on the distribution of various markers on lung endothelial cell sub-populations and lung smooth muscle cells? Particularly ...
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Why is untreated trypanosomiasis invariably fatal in humans?

If left untreated, African trypanosomiasis will invariably kill the patient. The human immune system is unable to clear the infection. I am aware of a few other infectious diseases with this property ...
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Serological assays measuring antibody response

Given that an appropriate immune response to a bacteria may be thwarted in an individual, including not producing all of the antibodies which are known to occur in people who have been infected, or ...
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Fever vs Inflammation

What's the difference between inflammation and fever? And why is fever called an inflammatory response? Does the word inflammation have both a general and a specific meaning?
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Is it possible for virus infected cells to continue to present a self-antigen on the MHC1?

Forgive my ignorance, as I'm new to immunology, however it seems like there would be some amount of positive selective pressure for viruses to develop the ability to continue to present the host's ...
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How does the immune system distinguish between a TH1 and a TH2 response?

Hello and thanks for taking the time to read my post. I know that naive T-Cells (T0) can be induced to become mature T-Helper cells (TH1 or TH2) by induction with either IL2 or IL4. IL2+ TH0 -> TH1 ...
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Why doesn't infection with Clostridium Tetani immunize you?

What Immunity to COVID-19 Really Means - Scientific American It is less clear what those antibody tests mean for real life, however, because immunity functions on a continuum. With some pathogens, ...
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Making new antibodies

Is there a model of how the B-cell-antibody pool in the lymphoid organ evolves during the first two weeks of infection by a new virus ? With a model I mean something like this At first we have $10^...
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How to prepare bacterin using formalin(formaldehyde)

I am finding how much formalin I have to use to make bacterins for vaccine experiments. I searched for it in google but I can't find about specific procedures like the concentration of formalin and ...

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