Questions tagged [immunology]

The study of the immune system in organisms, primarily responsible for fighting infection.

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Human leukocytes (re)circulation/migration in homeostatic state

One can easily find information on the topic of leukocytes trafficking between vessels and peripheral tissues during inflammation. But what happens during normal states when there is no pathology? ...
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Why there are no RBCs in lymphatic vessels?

I know the following. Leukocytes (white blood cells) are made in the bone marrow, and naive leukocytes go to the blood vessels. So, leukocytes mainly exist in blood vessels. Endothelial cells ...
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Do non-pathogenic organism not have PAMPs? Are there any research paper which proves that a certain microbe is non-pathogenic?

According to this PAMPs are delivered along with additional information that can be used by the host to distinguish pathogenic from nonpathogenic microbes and thereby guide the ensuing innate ...
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Is it inevitable that antibiotics will become useless in the future due to bacteria immunities?

Antibiotics are developed in an ever smaller amount due to the difficulties of discovering new ones. Bacteria, on the other hand, keep "finding" more ways to render antibiotics ineffective, and they ...
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Can immune cells be recruited to an area of inflammation, and later go on to a second?

With regards to innate or adaptive immune cells... can naive/immature cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, macrophage/dendritic cells or adaptive T-cells be recruited to an area of inflammation, for ...
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How much time does it take for the naive T Cell to get activated?

Suppose a naive T cell comes in contact with an APC. How much time does it take for the T Cell to get activated and within how much time does the T cell move away from the APC due to incompatibility ...
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T cell sensitivity and persistence to specific bacterial proteins

Currently, the standard tests for Lyme Disease measure antibody production after exposure to a bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi. Often, the tests are performed too soon after infection, before ...
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Why are kidney discard rates so high?

A recent report from UNOS states: The kidney discard rate has returned to pre-KAS levels, dropping from 20.2 percent in the first six months to 18.4 percent in months 7-10. To me, this seems quite ...
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Why do some white blood cells have lobed nuclei?

Several types of white blood cells (eg Neutrophils) have lobed nuclei. Is this for a functional reason? I have seen people refer to structural differences in the lobes as indicative of problems, but ...
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What makes substances allergenic?

Is it possible to tell or rule out (potentially a priori) whether any given substance or compound is likely and how likely to cause allergies with high confidence, without the need to conduct ...
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Adenosine metabolism

Are adenosine or its catabolites increased in inflamed airways? How can I assess this? I am trying to use inhibitors for adenosine deaminase, xanthine oxidase, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, but ...
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How does the immune system distinguish between a TH1 and a TH2 response?

Hello and thanks for taking the time to read my post. I know that naive T-Cells (T0) can be induced to become mature T-Helper cells (TH1 or TH2) by induction with either IL2 or IL4. IL2+ TH0 -> TH1 ...
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What is the mechanism responsible for long-lasting detectable antibody titers?

As I understand, when naive B cell encounters antigen matching its receptors and is activated by a T helper cell, it can either differentiate into 4 plasma cells, produce a lot of antibodies and ...
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84 views

Why are antibodies Y-shaped?

I generally know how antibodies work by binding to antigens, but what is the specific purpose to being Y-shaped, as opposed to any other shape? Does this aid their function? Thank you.
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T-cell “exhaustion” in patients with Covid-19

Following up on my previously asked question, which asks how COVID infects T-cells in immune system. Here's a study that shows that recovered covid patients have "exausted t-cells". To quote: T ...
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What's the difference between veterinary and human snake antivenom?

Recently, out of curiosity, I looked online if snake antivenom for humans were actually sold for individuals. I found out they aren't. Not only that, but bills can get really high on countries that ...
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Why do some people have symptoms of salmonella and others not?

So I was reading from the Mayo Clinic website and they say that typically people with Salmonella have no symptoms, but why? Why do some people have symptoms and others not? Salmonella does after all ...
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Why is there such a large evening rise of temperature and night sweats in certain diseases like TB, lymphoma etc?

I've heard that it's got to do something with the levels of cortisol which usually dampens the effects of IL-1, but when it's night time the cortisol levels are usually low so IL-1 response is ...
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Are cloned spieces significantly more vulnereble to deseases than sexually reproducing species?

I would like to be able to compare the risk for species to go extinct implied by their reproduction mechanism in the very short term. Imagine we choose some species A that can reproduce both sexually ...
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Could the Immune Gene HLA-B27 be gentically altered, snipped, switched off, replaced, edited within the body

Could the Immune Gene HLA-B27 be genetically altered, snipped, switched off, replaced, edited within the body.? Thousands upon thousands suffer immune disease as do I from this highly implicated gene....
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Europeans succumbing to diseases they introduced to native Americans

I am reading a non-fiction account of Spanish first contact with native Americans. The Spaniards were shipwrecked, undernourished, malnourished, and dehydrated upon their arrival. Over 75% of them ...
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how can I get stronger staining for my lymph node sections

I am using the same protocol and same antibodies that the literature says but still I cannot get good staining for my lymph node sections, I tried to change the fixation method and I am using now ...
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Regarding Passive Aritficial Immunity: Why does the concentration of the foreign antibodies decrease over time?

So, like suggested in question, I am extremely confused about this one concept. That whether or not the injection of foreign antibodies ( passive artificial immunity ) triggers an immune response. ...
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eosinophil question

Which of the following statement(s) is/are incorrect? A. All cells of the immune system originate in the Bone Marrow B. Lymphoid progenitor cells originate from a pluripotent stem cell C. B cells ...
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How can autoimmunity be selective?

Vitiligo is a skin disorder where the pigment disappears. More on Wikipedia. This is believed to be caused by autoimmunity and has made me interested in autoimmunity in general. I am still very much ...
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Is biotin a hapten? If so, how does it work as a hapten in the human body?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hapten Hapten's aren't synonymous with allergens. It is defined as a foreign molecule that can bind to an antibody but does not evoke an immune response unless combined ...
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CD4 Proteins & Antigen presenting cells

If Helper T-Cells express CD4+ proteins on their surface to bind to MHC Class ll proteins on antigen presenting cells, why do antigen presenting cells also have CD4+ Proteins?
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What's the best source characterizing proteolysis cleavage sites in the phagolysosome?

I have found MEROPS and TopFIND via the survey paper Quantitative proteomics and terminomics to elucidate the role of ubiquitination and proteolysis in adaptive immunity. These look like a good start, ...
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275 views

Why do erythrocytes have no MHC1 but platelets do?

Red blood cells do not have a considerable number of MHC1 through their membranes, and that's explained by them not having a nucleus. But why do platelets have MHC1s if they have no nucleus either? I ...
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Can HBV pseudotyped oncolytic viruses be used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma?

Chronic hepatitis B is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) is an emerging tool to treat cancer. However, one challenge of OV is that our immune system may ...
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Does the saliva of a person just recovered from an infectious disease help to cure another persons having the same disease?

I have always had this 'weird' thought (But could never quite test it...). Would the saliva of a just recovered person contains antibodies, or other immuno-boosting substances that can help fight off ...
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Mosquito vs Human: Swapping the roles

Is there a known mosquito-specific lethal (for some relevant species of mosquitos) virus that you could safely (for the humans) put into the blood of living humans? Is it technically possible to ...
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Flow cytometry analysis

I've performed an experiment wherein I have stimulated cells (cell line) with a drug across different time-points - in its unmodified (Drug) or modified form (H-Drug or M-Drug). All cells are seeded ...
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How large is the immune repetoire and at what age does it finalize?

There seems to be a large disconnect between the Wikipedia's article on the immune effector repetoire and Janeway's Immunobiology 9th Edition, a standard textbook widely used to teach immunology to ...
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Have people in Africa already started evolving resistance to AIDS?

Are people living in areas where AIDS is rampant (for e.g. Africa), less likely to die from it than they once were because some of the people without genes/mutations that give them resistance already ...
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how to make plasma cells adhere to the bottom of a microplate?

I am isolating single plasma cells by FACS sorting into 384-well plates, with the intent to assay the supernatant and clone H/L chains from positive wells. The efficiency of the PCR is however low, ...
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Do bacteria develop a resistance to antimicrobial peptides at the same rate as against “regular” antibiotics?

From what I understand, antimicrobial peptides are roughly grouped into three structural sets, with large variations present between different groups as well as within the groups. Their anti-microbial ...
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Are there any auto-immune diseases caused by T cells not detaching from antigen presenting cells (APCs)?

By not detaching I'm referring to after they have formed an immunological synapse, if they don't ever detach.
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What is NK-cell compartments?

with respect to the paper: Adaptive reconfiguration of the human NK-cell compartment in response to cytomegalovirus: A different perspective of the host-pathogen interaction What is meant by NK-...
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Subtypes of Acute myeloid leukemia

I am a computer scientist with no biological background and working on analyzing lab results of patients with Acute myeloid leukemia. They have been tagged with following subtypes of AML: AML with ...
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A number of questions regarding chemotaxis assay using PBMCs

In our lab we would like to study the chemotaxis of PBMCs towards conditioned medium obtained following treatment of cancer cells with different compounds. My questions are regarding the method of ...
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How some virus are able to reach the CNS?

I know that the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) could provoke meningitis and encephalitis when this virus reaches the brain. However, there are other viruses like Varicella (VSV), ...
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Auto-immune problems if immature B-cells released if bone marrow bone is fractured?

A fracture of a bone containing bone marrow with B-cells not yet taught to not recognize self-antigen, if the bone is fractured, can those cells get released and cause problems?
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When can we know if one develops immunity (to SARS-CoV-2)?

I've been thinking for this for a while. It seems there's no ethical experiment to perform to check if immunity is actually developed (the obvious experiment would be to expose someone that have ...
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Do person with strong immune system have less chance of surviving SARS-COV-2 attack?

In most of the cases dealing with SARS-COV-2 disease, the major mortality cause is due to cytokine storm in response to Corona-virus that also attack healthy organs causing multiple organ failure. ...
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Can intracellular protein initiate strong immune response?

Some autoantibodies escape immune tolerance and can cause autoimmune disease. In order to cause harm to the tissues by these autoantibodies, do the antigen need to be extracellular or membrane bound, ...
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What determines if a small protein / large peptide is immunogenic?

I'm wondering if there is some threshold in size or a specific structural property that determines if a small protein or large peptide would cause an immune reaction. Context: there are a number of ...
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Is it possible for an immune host to be reinfected and show symptom before swift recovery?

For example, let's say the pathogen is a virus, and the host was infected once but recovered purely on its own and thus retained a highly effective adapted immunity. However, if we IV inject the the ...
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How to choose an assay for detecting virulence factors?

When looking for a protein of interest, an ELISA is being administered. I read this article about the different types of ELISAs and the advantages/disadvantages. However, I am conflicted about ...
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Is slow growth a virulence factor?

Many slow-growth pathogens (e.g. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, lentivirus, Rhabdovirus, Leptospira spp) are difficult to treat. In addition, a review of 61 pathogens found that slower growing ...